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(A.D. 1450-1889) 














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I/, 2- 

This Dictionary was originally published between the dates 1877 and 18S9, and the Patis 
have since been reprinted from plates, with corrections as required. 



Sir Julius Benedict .. .. .. .. .. ,. : B. 

Joseph Bennett, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. B. 

James R. Sterndale-Bennett, Esq. .. .. .. .. J. R. S.-B. 

David Baptie, Esq., Glasgow . . . . . . . . . . D. B. 

Mrs. Walter Carr . . . . . . . . . . . . M. C. C. 

William Chappell, Esq., F.S.A W. C. 

Alexis Chitty, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . A. C. 

M. Gustave Chouquet, Keeper of the Museum of the Con- 
servatoire de Musique, Paris . . . . . . . . G. C. 

Arthur Duke Coleridge, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . . . A. D. C. 

Frederick Corder, Esq., Mendelssohn Scholar, 1875-79 .. F. C. 

George Arthur Crawford, Major .. .. .. .. G. A. C. 

William H. Cummings, Esq . . . . . . W. H. C. 

W. G. Cusins, Esq., Conductor of the Philharmonic Society; 

Master of the Music to the Queen . . . . . . W. G. C. 

Edward Dannreuther, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . E. D. 

Herr Paul David . . . . . . . . . . . . P. D. 

James W. Davison, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . J. W. D. 

Edward H. Donkin, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . E. H. D. 

H. Sutherland Edwards, Esq. . . . . . . . . H. S. E. 

Henry Frederick Frost, Esq., Organist of the Chapel Royal, Savoy H. F. F. 

J. A. Fuller-Maitland, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . J. A. F.-M. 

Charles Alan Fyffe, Esq., Barrister-at-Law . . . . C. A. F. 

Dr. Franz Gehring, Vienna . . . . . . . . . . F. G. 

J. C. Griffith, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . . . J. C. G. 

Rev. Thomas Helmore, Master of the Children of the ChapelB Royal T. H. 

George Herbert, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . G. H. 

Dr. Ferdinand Hiller, Cologne . . . . . . . . H. 

A. J. Hipkins, Esq. . . . . . . . . . . A. J. H. 

Edward John Hopkins, Esq., Organist to the Temple . . E. J. H. 



Rev. T. Percy Hudson 

Francis Hueffer, Esq. 

John Hullah, Esq., LL.D. 

William H. Husk, Esq., Librarian to the Sacred Harmonic Society 

F. H. Jenks, Esq., Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 

James Lecky, Esq. 

Henry J. Lincoln, Esq. 

Stanley Lucas, Esq., late Secretary to the Philharmonic Society 

George Alexander Macfarren, Esq., Mus. Doc, Professor 

of Music in the University of Cambridge, &c, &c. 
Charles Mackeson, Esq., F.S.S. 
Herr A. Maczewski, Concert-director, Kaiserslautern 
Julian Marshall, Esq. 
Mrs. Julian Marshall 
Russel Martineau, Esq. 

Edwin G. Monk, Esq., Mus. Doc, Organist of York Cathedral 
Sir Herbert S. Oakeley, Mus. Doc, Professor of Music in 

the University of Edinburgh 
Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Mus. Doc, 

Professor of Music in the University of Oxford 
C. Hubert H. Parry, Esq., Mus. Doc. 
Herr Ernst Pauer 

Edward John Payne, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 
Rev. Hugh Pearson, Canon of Windsor 
Edward H. Pember, Esq., Q.O. 
Miss Phillimore 
Herr C. Ferdinand Pohl, Librarian 

Musikfreunde, Vienna 
William Pole, Esq., F.R.S., Mus. Doc 
Victor de Pontigny, Esq. 
Ebenezer Prout, Esq. 
Rev. William Pulling 
Charles H. Purday, Esq. 
Edward F. Rimbault, Esq., LL.D. 
Luigi Ricci, Esq. 
W. S. Rockstro, Esq. .. 

to the 

Gesellschaft der 

T. P. H. 

F. H. 

J. H. 

W. H. H. 

F. H. J. 

J. L.- 

H.J. L. 





J. M. 

F. A.M. 


E. G. M. 

H. S. 0. 


C. H. H. P. 


E. J. P. 


E. H. P. 

C. M. P. 

C. F. P. 

W. P. 

V. DE P. 

E. P. 

W. Pg. 

C. H. P. 

E. F. R. 


W. S. R. 


W. Barclay Squire, Esq. 
H. H. Statham, Esq. .. 
Sir Robert P. Stewart, Mus. Doc, Pro lessor of Music in 

Dublin University 
William H. Stone, Esq., M.D. 
Arthur Seymour. Sullivan, Esq., Mus. Doc, Principal of 

the National Training School of Music 
Franklin Taylor, Esq. 
Alexander W. Thayer, Esq., United States Consul, Trieste, 

Author of the Life of Beethoven 
Miss Bertha Thomas 

C. A. W. Troyte, Esq. 

Colonel H. Ware, Public Library, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 
Mrs. Edmond Wodehouse 
The Editor 

Bedford Street, Covent Garden. 
Oct. i, 1880. 

W. B. S. 

H. H. S. 

R. P. S. 

W. H. S. 


F. T. 

A. W. T. 


C. A. W. T. 

H. W. 

A. H. W. 





IMPROPERLY, i.e. 'The Reproaches.' A 
series of Antiphons and Responses, forming part 
of the solemn Service, which, on the morning of 
Good Friday, is substituted for the usual daily 
Mass of the Roman Ritual. 

The text of the Improperia, written partly in 
Latin, and partly in Greek, is designed to illus- 
trate the sorrowful remonstrance of our Lord with 
His people, concerning their ungrateful return for 
the benefits He has bestowed upon them. The 
touching words in which these remonstrances 
are expressed were originally sung to well-known 
Plain Chaunt melodies, preserved in the Graduate 
Jtomanum, and still retained in very general use, 
both in England, and on the Continent : but, 
since the Pontificate of Pope Pius TV, they 
have been invariably chaunted, in the Sistine 
Chapel, to some simple, but exquisitely beautiful 
Faux bourdons, to which they were adapted, by 
Palestrina, in the year 1 560. In depth of feeling, 
true pathos, and perfect adaptation of the music 
to the sense of the words, these wonderful Im- 
properia have never been exceeded, even by 
Palestrina himself. We may well believe, indeed, 
that he alone could have succeeded in drawing, 
from the few simple chords which enter into 
their construction, the profoundly impressive 
effect they never fail to produce ; an effect so 
strictly in accordance with that of the solemn 
Ceremony with which they are associated that 
we can only hope to render the one intelligible 
by describing it in connexion with the other. 

A small Crucifix having been laid upon the 
Altar Step, the Clergy, first, and afterwards the 
people, kneel down to kiss its Feet. While they 
are slowly approaching the Sanctuary, by two 
and two, for this purpose, the Improperia are 
sung, very softly, and without any accompani- 
ment whatever, by two Antiphonal Choirs, which 
answer each other, by turns, in Greek, and Latin, 
sometimes in full Chorus, and sometimes em- 
ploying the Voices of a few leading Choristers 


only, on either side. After the last ' Reproach,' 
and the Response which follows it, the two Choirs 
unite in singing the first Verse of the Psalm, ' Deus 
misereatur nostri,' preceded, and followed, by the 
Antiphon, ' Crucem tuam adoramus.' The Hymn 
' Pange lingua ' is then sung, entire, with the Verse, 
' Crux fidelis,' divided into two portions, which are 
sung, alternately, between the other Strophes. 
It is the duty of the Mattre de Chapelle to take 
care that this music occupies exactly the same 
time as the ceremony of ' Creeping to the Cross ' 
(as it was formerly called, in England). Should 
there be but few people present, he is at liberty 
to omit any portion of it : should there be many, 
he may cause as much as he considers necessary 
to be sung over again. 1 In either case, when all 
present have kissed the Crucifix, the Candles on 
the Altar are lighted : a new Procession is formed : 
the Blessed Sacrament is carried, with great 
solemnity, from the Chapel in which it has been 
reserved since the Mass of Holy Thursday, to 
the High Altar, the Choir singing the Hymn, 
' Vexilla regis,' as they precede it on its way : and 
the Service called ' The Mass of the Presanctified' 
then proceeds in accordance with directions con- 
tained in the Missal. 

No printed copy of the Improperia was issued, 
either by Palestrina himself, or the assignees of 
his son, Igino. They were first published in 
London, by Dr. Burney ; who, on the authority 
of a MS. presented to him by the Cavaliere 
Santarelli, inserted them, in the year 1771, in » 
work entitled ' La Musica della Settimana Santa,' 
which has now become very scarce. Alfieri also 
printed them among his Excerpta, published, 
at Rome, in 1840; and, in 1863, Dr. Proske 
included them in the fourth volume of his Musica 

> Mendelssohn, who. In the year 1831, wu much Impressed, both by 
the musks, and the Ceremony. laments. In hU well-known letter to 
Zelter, that, the crowd not being Tery (real, he had not an oppor- 
tunity of bearing the Responses repeated to often as he could bare 




Divina. These three editions differ from each 
other very considerably. That of Proske, 



ter - ra M - gyp - ti: etc 

«: * «: ^ ^a. 


copied from the Altamps-Otthoboni MS. pre- 
served in the Vatican Library, may fairly be 
assumed to represent the work exactly in the 
condition in which Palestrina left it: but the 
varied readings of Burney (1771), 


■ a f g l 


r i 


ter - ra .E 




and of Alfieri (1840), 


ter - ra .35 - gyp 

.£2. -C2. £2. 








are both valuable and interesting, as records of 
the abellimenti used in the Pontifical Chapel at 
the time of their transcription. Burney's version 
was reproduced, by Choron, among his examples 
of the Great Masters, in 1836; and again, in 
1 840, by Vincent Novello, in 'The Music of Holy 
Week,' which is still in print. [W.S.R.] 

IMPROVISATION, an equivalent term for Ex- 
tempore Playing or Extemporising. Moscheles 
has left a curious account of the way in which 
Mendelssohn and he used to amuse themselves 
by improvising A quatre mains, a feat already 
mentioned in respect to Beethoven and Wolffl 
under Extempore. 'We often,' says he (Life, 
i. 274), 'improvise together on his magnificent 
Erard, each of us trying to dart as quick as 
lightning on the suggestions contained in the 
other's harmonies and to make fresh ones upon 
them. Then, if I bring in a theme out of his 
music, he immediately cuts in with one out of 
mine ; then I retort, and then he, and so on ad 
infinitum, like two people at blind man's buff 
running against each other.' 

Nottebohm remarks in his ' Beethoveniana ' 
(p. 54) that of all Beethoven's string quartets 
that in Cfl minor (op. 131) has most the character 
of an Improvisation, but at the same time he 
quotes alterations from the sketchbooks (15 of 
one passage only) which show that the work was 
the very reverse of an impromptu, and the result 
of more than ordinary labour and vacillation, 
thus corroborating the remark made in the article 
on Beethoven in this Dictionary (p. 1 74 a) that 
the longer he worked at his phrases, the more 
apparently spontaneous did they become. [G.] 

INCLEDON, Charles Benjamin, — the se- 
cond of which names he despised and seldom 
used, — was the son of a medical practitioner at 
St. Kevern, Cornwall, where he was born in 
1763. At 8 years of age he was placed in the 
choir of Exeter Cathedral, where he received his 
early musical education, first from Richard Lang- 
don and afterwards from William Jackson. In 
1779 ne entered on board the Formidable, man- 
of-war, 98 guns, under Capt. (afterwards Rear- 
Admiral) Cleland. On the West India station 
he changed his ship for the Raisonable, 64 guns, 
Captain Lord Hervey. His voice had now be- 
come a fine tenor, and his singing attracted the 
attention of Admiral Pigot, commander of the 
fleet, who frequently sent for him to join himself 
and Admiral Hughes in the performance of glees 
and catches. Incledon returned to England in 
1783, when Admiral Pigot, Lord Mulgrave, and 
Lord Hervey gave him letters of introduction to 
Sheridan and Colman. Failing to obtain an en- 
gagement from either manager he joined Collins's 
company and made his first appearance at the 
Southampton Theatre in 1784 as Alphonso in 
Dr. Arnold's 'Castle of Andalusia.' In the 
next year he was engaged at the Bath Theatre, 
where he made his first appearance as Belville in 
Shield's 'Rosina.' At Bath he attracted the 
attention of Rauzzini, who gave him instruction 
and introduced him at his concerts. In 1786 he 
made his first appearance in London at Vauxhall 
Gardens with great success, and during the next 
three years he was engaged there in the summer 
and at Bath in the winter. On Sept. 1 7, 1 790, 
he made his first appearance at Covent Garden 
Theatre as Dermot in Shield's 'Poor Soldier,' 
and from that time for upwards of 30 years held 
a high position in public favour, singing not only 
at the theatre and Vauxhall, but also at con- 
certs, the Lenten oratorios, and the provincial 
music meetings. In 181 7 he visited America, 
and made a tour through a considerable part of 
the United States, where he was received with 
great applause During the latter years of his 
life he travelled through the provinces under the 
style of ' The Wandering Melodist,' and gave an 
entertainment which was received with much 
favour. Early in 1826 he went to Worcester for 
the purpose of giving his entertainment, where 
he was attacked by paralysis, which terminated 
his existence on Feb. 11. He was buried at 
Hampstead, Middlesex. Incledon's voice and 
manner of singing were thus described by a con- 
temporary : — ' He had a voice of uncommon 
power both in the natural and falsette. The 
former was from A to G, a compass of about 
fourteen notes ; the latter he could use from D 
to E or F, or about ten notes. His natural voice 
was full and open, neither partaking of the reed 
nor the string, and sent forth without the smallest 
artifice ; and such was its ductility that when he 
sung pianissimo it retained its original quality. 
His falsette was rich, sweet and brilliant, but 
totally unlike the other. He took it without 
preparation, according to circumstances either 
about D, E, or F, or ascending an octave, which 


was his most frequent custom ; he could use it 
with facility, and execute ornaments of a certain 
class with volubility and sweetness. His shake 
was good, and his intonation much more correct 
than is common to singers so imperfectly edu- 
cated. . . . He had a bold and manly manner of 
singing, mixed however with considerable feeling, 
which went to the hearts of his countrymen. He 
Bang like a true Englishman. . . . His forte was 
ballad, and ballad not of the modern cast of 
whining or wanton sentiment 1 , but the original 
manly energetic strain of an earlier and better 
age of English poesy and English song-writing, 
■uch as 'Black-eyed Susan' and 'The Storm,' 
the bold and cheering hunting song, or the love 
song of Shield, breathing the chaste and simple 
grace of genuine English melody.' All who had 
heard Incledon's singing of ' The Storm ' (which 
he sang in character as a sailor) were unanimous 
in pronouncing it unique, both as a vocal and an 
histrionic exhibition. Of the songs written ex- 
pressly for him it may suffice to mention Shield's 
' Heaving the lead ' and ' The Arethusa.' 

Charles Venanzio Incledon, his eldest son, 
originally engaged in agricultural pursuits, but 
on Oct. 3, 1 829, appeared at Drury Lane Theatre 
as Young Meadows in ' Love in a Village,' and 
shortly afterwards played Tom Tug in Dibdin's 
'Waterman.' Meeting however with but very 
moderate success he returned to his former 
avocation, and, it is believed, emigrated to one 
of the colonies. [W. H. H.] 

INGANNO, i.e. Deception. Any fals^ or 
deceptive Cadence, in which the Bass proceeds, 
from the Dominant, to any other note than the 
Tonic :— 

INGLOTT, William, born 1554, became or- 
ganist of Norwich Cathedral. He was distin- 
guished for his skill as a performer on the organ 
and virginals. He died in Dec. 162 1 aged 67, 
and was buried Dec. 31 in the cathedral, where 
on the west side of the southern pillar adjoining 
the entrance to the choir a painted monument to 
his memory was placed June 15, 1622. Nearly 
90 years afterwards the monument, having 
become dilapidated, was restored at the expense 
of Dr. Croft. An engraving of it in its restored 
state is given in ' The Posthumous Works of Sir 
Thomas Browne,' 1 71 2. [W.H.H.] 

INITIALS, ABSOLUTE. Though it is not 
necessary that a Plain Chaunt Melody should 
begin on the Final, Dominant, or even Mediant, 
of the Mode in which it is written, the choice of 
the first note is not left entirely to the Composer's 
discretion. He can only begin upon one of a 
series of sounds, selected from the Regular or 

' ThUwuwritUn In 1818, during Ineledon'i abxnce In America. 


Conceded Modulations of the Scale in which he 
writes, and invariably occupying the first place 
in all Plain Chaunt Melodies referable to that 
Scale. These sounds are called Absolute Initials. 
Their number varies, in different Modes ; no 
Tonality possessing less than three, or more than 
six : and, among them, there are a few, which, 
though freely permitted, by law, are, in practice, 
very rarely used. 

In the following Table, the letters, enclosed in 
brackets, denote the more unusual Initials : while 
those printed in Italics indicate that the sounds 
they represent are to be taken in the lower 
Octave, even though they should thus be brought 
beyond the normal bounds of the Mode. 

Mods I. C. D. P. G. A. 

Mode II. A. C. D. F. [E.] 

Mode m. E. [F ] G. C. 

Mode IV. C. D. E. F. [G.J [AJ 

Mode V. F. A. C. 

Mode VL F. [C] [D.] 

Mode VTI. G. [A ] B. C. D. 

ModeVTir. C. D. F. G. A.C. 

Mode IX. O. A. C. D. E. 

Mode X. E. G. A. C. [B] 

(Mode XI.) B. [C] D. G. 

{Mode XII.) G. A. B. C. [D.] [E.] 

Mode XIII. C. [D.] E. G. 

Mode XIV. [6.] [A.] C. [D.] 

The selection of some of these sounds may 
seem, at first sight, a little arbitrary : but, in 
truth, it is sometimes very difficult to decide 
upon a suitable first note. This is particularly 
the case with regard to Antiphons, the first notes 
of which exercise a marked effect upon the Tones 
to which the corresponding Psalms are sung. It 
will be remembered that the entire Antiphon is 
always repeated, immediately after the Psalm. 
It follows, therefore, that, unless care be taken 
to bring the last note of the Ending of the Psalm 
Tone into true melodic correspondence with the 
first note of the Antiphon, forbidden intervals 
may arise. By a careful arrangement of the Abso- 
lute Initials, the earlier writers on Plain Chaunt 
did their best to reduce the danger of introducing 
such intervals to a minimum. [See Antiphon ; 
Modes, the ecclesiastical.] [W. S. R.] 

INNIG. A word used by Beethoven during 
his German fit (op. 101, ist movement; 109, 
last do.; 121 b), and Schumann (op. 12, * Des 
Abends ' ; op. 24, No. 9 ; op. 56, Nos. 2 and 4, 
Manfred music, No. 2, etc.) to convey an intensely 
personal, almost devotional, frame of mind. [G.] 

IN NOMINE. A somewhat vague name, 
bestowed, by old English writers, on a certain 
kind of Motet, or Antiphon, composed to Latin 
words. It seems to have been used, in the first 
instance, for compositions the text of which began 
with the words in question, or in which those 
words were brought prominently forward : such 
as the Introit, 'In nomine Jesu'; the Psalm, 
'Deus, in nomine tuo'; and other similar cases. 
But its signification certainly became more ex- 
tended : for Butler, writing in 1636, commends 
' the In nominee of Parsons, Tye, and Taverner,' 
just as we should commend the Madrigals of 
Weelkes, or Morley, or Gibbons. The name is 
even employed for instrumental pieces. 




The term, In nomine, is also very reasonably 
applied to a Fugue, in which the solmisation of 
the answer does not correspond with that of the 
subject, and which, therefore, is a fugue in name 
only. [See Hexachord.] [W.S.R.] 

Beethoven's for contralto, with P. F. accompani- 
ment, to words by Carpani, written probably at 
the invitation of the Countess von Rzewuska, and 
forming one of sixty-three compositions to the 
same words by various musicians, professional and 
amateur. Among the most eminent of the con- 
tributors are Salieri, Sterkel, Cherubini, Asioli, 
Righini, Zingarelli, Weigl, Dionis Weber, Toma- 
schek, Alois Forster, Paer, Eberl, Czerny. Zinga- 
relli sent ten versions with quartet accompani- 
ment. Czerny's single setting occupied n folio 
pages. Beethoven's was the last in the volume, 
and is the only one which has survived. The 
Allgemeine Musik. Zeitung for Oct. 19, 1808, 
in announcing the publication, prints two of the 
settings, by Salieri and Sterkel, and in Jan. 1810, 
two more by Reichardt. For another joint-stock 
volume in which Beethoven took part, see Va- 


INSCRIPTION (Lat. Inscriptio, Ital. Motto). 
A Motto, or Sign, or combination of both, placed 
at the beginning of a Canon, to indicate, more or 
less clearly, the manner of its Resolution. 

During the latter half of the 15th century, the 
founders of the Flemish School — by whom the 
more abstruse forms of Imitation were assidu- 
ously cultivated — seem chiefly to have aimed at 
rendering the solution of their Enimme, or ^Enig- 
matical Canons, impossible. Some of their most 
extravagant conceits are presented in the shape 
of Crosses, Circles, Squares, Triangles, Rainbows, 
Chess-boards, Sun-dials, and other equally fan- 
tastic designs, without the addition of any clue 
whatever to their hidden meanings. (See ex- 
amples in Hawkins, Hist. chap. 67.) But, more 
frequently, they are written in a single line — 
called, the Guida — headed by some old proverb, 
or well-known quotation from Holy Scripture, 
which, though ostensibly vouchsafed for the pur- 
pose of giving the student some little insight into 
the secret of their construction, tends rather, as 
a general rule, to increase his perplexity. Head- 
ings, such as these, are called Inscriptions : and so 
obscure is their occasional meaning, that even 
Glareanus calls one of them rfjs otpiyyos alviffxa. 

Foremost among the composers of these in- 
genious works, and high above them all, stands 
Josquin des Pres, the refinement of whose scholar- 
ship is as clearly proved, by the grace of his 
Motti, as his quite exceptional genius is by the 
smooth flow of the Canons to which they are 
prefixed. In the second Agnus Dei of his ' Missa 
L'Ami baudichon,' he intimates that the Tenor 
is to be silent, by the pretty Inscription, ' Agnus 
secundum non est cum grege.' In another place, 
he veils the same meaning under the Greek 
proverb, P&rpaxos ex 2epi<pov, in allusion to 
iElian's statement that the frogs on the Island 
of Seriphos do not croak. Other writers have 
contented themselves with • Vox faucibus hsesit.' 

To shew that the second Voice is to begin at 
the end, and sing backwards, Hobrecht says, 
plainly enough, ' Ut prius, sed dicitur retrograde.' 
Pierre de la Rue more sternly exclaims, 'Vade 
retro, Sathanas.' Another quaint old Composer 
writes, 'Canit more Hebrseorum'; referring to 
the custom of reading Hebrew from right to left. 
Josquin sums up the whole matter in a single 
word — 'Cancriza,' i.e. walk like a crab. Equally 
terse is the motto prefixed to the third Agnus 
Dei in his ' Missa L'Omme arme" ' ; where the 
omission of all rests, in one of the parts, is in- 
dicated by the direction 'Clama ne cesses.* 
Sometimes he gives us a French motto, as in his 
' Missa de Beata Virgine,' where ' Vous jeunerez 
les quatre temps ' shews that one part is to wait 
four semibreves, before taking up the Subject — 
a direction which is less poetically expressed by 
another writer, in the words 'Fuga in epidiapason, 
post duo tempora' — 'a Canon in the Octave above, 
after two Semibreves.' 

Some of Hobrecht's Inscriptions are very ob- 
scure. ' Accidens potest inesse et abesse praeter 
subjecti corruptionem' implies that the part may 
be sung, or omitted, at will, without injury to 
the music. 'Decimas reddo omnia quae possideo* 
shews that the (unwritten) Bass must sing a 
Tenth below the Discant. ' Tu tenor cancriza, et 
per antifrasin canta' indicates that the Tenor is 
to sing backwards, and, with all the intervals 
inverted. Not less oracular is Mouton's 'Duo 
adversi adverse in unum,' which means that two 
singers are to stand opposite each other, with the 
Canon between them, each reading it upside down 
from the other's point of view — an arrangement 
which is also dictated by 'Respice me, ostende 
mihi faciem tuam.' More mysterious still is 
' Justitia et Pax osculatae sunt ' — indicating that 
the two performers are to begin at opposite ends, 
and meet in the middle. 

When black notes are to be sung in the time 
of white ones, we sometimes find 'Nigra sum, 
sed formosa'; or, 'Noctem in diem vertere'; or, 
'Dum habetis lucem credite in lucem.' By 
'Crescit in duplum' (or 'triplum') we under- 
stand that the notes are to be sung in Double 
(or Triple) Augmentation. 'Tres dent sex 
voces' means, that each of the three written 
parts is to be doubled, in Canon, so as to form a 
composition for six Voices. 

The list of these hard sayings is interminable ; 
and the hardness of many of them is increased 
by the Signs of Mode, Time, and Prolation, with 
which they are sometimes accompanied. For 
instance, a Semicircle, a Semicircle with a Bar 
drawn through it, and a Circle with a Point in 
the centre, would, if placed one above the other, 
at the beginning of a Stave, serve to indicate 
that one Voice was to sing four Crotchets in a 
Bar, another, four Minims, and the third, three 
Semibreves. In the last Agnus Dei of Pierre de 
la Rue's ' Missa L'homme arme",' we find a com- 
bination of no less than four such Signs. 

Following the example of Palestrina, the great 
Composers of the 'Golden Age' cast all these 
pedantries aside, and wrote their really beautiful 


Canons in notation which any singer could readily 
understand. Falestrina himself delights in making 
two Voices sing in Canon, while three or four 
others carry on the Subject in close Imitation, or 
complicated Free Fugue ; as in the lovely second 
Agnus Dei of his 'Missa Brevis,' and many 
others, equally beautiful. In all these cases, the 
Voices to which the Canon is committed are 
expected to sing from a single part ; but, the 
Inscription prefixed to that part is so plain, that 
they find no difficulty whatever in doing so. 
Thus, 'Symphonizabis' (Missa Brevis as above) 
indicates a Canon in the Unison. 'Canon in 
Diapason' or ' Epidiapason,' a Canon in the 
Octave above, and so on. The sign, fit, or 
some similar figure — called the Presa — indi- 
cates the place at which the second Voice is to 
begin; and a pause, "\ is placed over the note 
on which it ends. The two Voices can, therefore, 
sing just as easily from a single part, as from two 
separate copies. 

In modern editions, the matter is still farther 
simplified, by writing out the Canon in full ; 
though, in the best copies, the Inscription is still 
carefully retained. [W.S.R.] 

INSTITUT, PRIX DE L', a prize of 20,000 
francs founded by Napoleon III. in 1859, in 
place of the ' Prix triennal ' instituted by the 
decree of April 1855. By a second decree, of 
Dec. 22, i860, it was enacted that from and 
after 1861 the prize should be biennial, and 
should be awarded to such work or discovery, of 
the ten years previous to the award, as should be 
deemed most honourable or useful to the nation, 
in the department of each of the five Academies 
of the Institute successively — r Academic Fran- 
caise, l'Acade'mie des Inscriptions et Belles 
lettres, des Sciences, des Beaux- Arts, des Sciences 
morales et politiques. The first prize was ad- 
judged to M. Thiers, as the representative of 
the Acade'mie Francaise, in 1861. In 1867 the 
turn of the Acade'mie des Beaux Arts arrived, 
and the prize was then awarded to Felicien Da- 
vid, the only musician who has obtained it, the 
award on the second occasion, 1877, having been 
made to a sculptor— M. Chapu. [G. C] 

INSTRUMENT (Lat. Insirumentum, Ital. 
Slromento). In general language, a tool, that 
by means of which work is done; hence, in music, 
an apparatus for producing musical sounds. Nu- 
merous as are the various kinds of instruments 
in practical use at the present day, they form 
but a small proportion of the immense number 
which have been invented and used from time 
to time. Out of nearly 340 different kinds 
mentioned in a list in Koch's Mimihalisches 
Lexicon (art. 'Instrument') only 67 are given 
as being in use at present, and some even of 
these are merely varieties of the same genus. 
Various causes have contributed to the survival 
of certain instruments and the extinction of others. 
Quality of tone would of course be a powerfully 
operating cause, and practicableness in a mechani- 
cal sense would be scarcely less so ; but besides 
♦his. the various ways of combining instruments in 
performance which prevailed at different periods, 


had the effect of proving certain of them to be 
unnecessary, and bo indirectly tended to abolish 
them. Thus before the time of Lully it was cus- 
tomary for the most part to combine instruments 
of the same class only, and we read of a ' Con- 
cert of Violins,' 'Concert of Flutes,' etc.; this 
fact rendered necessary flutes of deeper compass 
than are now used, and accordingly we find 
tenor and bass flutes, extending downwards to 
F on the fourth line of the bass stave. 1 So soon 
however as the combination of wind and stringed 
instruments was found to be preferable, the feeble 
bass of the flute would be insufficient and un- 
necessary, and the larger kinds of flutes naturally 
enough fell into disuse. 

All musical sounds are the result of atmo- 
spheric vibrations ; and such vibrations are excited 
either directly, by blowing with suitable force 
and direction into a tube, or indirectly, by 
agitating an elastic body, such as a stretched 
string, whereby it is thrown into a state of 
vibration, and communicates its own vibrations 
to the surrounding air. One or other of these two 
is the acting principle of every musical instru- 
ment. On tracing the history of the two it does 
not appear that either is of earlier date than the 
other ; indeed tradition with respect to both 
carries us back from history into myth and fable, 
the invention of the earliest form of stringed in- 
strument, the Lyre, being attributed to the god 
Mercury, who finding the shell of a tortoise cast 
upon the bank of the Nile, discovered that the 
filaments of dried skin which were stretched across 
it produced musical sounds ; while the invention 
of the tibia or pipe — the earliest form of which 
is said to have been made (as its name implies) 
from the shank -bone of a crane — is variously 
ascribed to Pan, Apollo, Orpheus and others. 

To attempt to describe, however briefly, all 
the various kinds of instruments which have 
been in use from the earliest ages to the present 
day, would extend this article far beyond its due 
limits. It will only be possible to mention those 
which are still of practical importance, referring 
the reader for a fuller description to the articles 
under the headings of their various names, and for 
the earlier and now obsolete kinds to Hawkins's 
History 3 of Music, which contains copious ex- 
tracts from the works of Blanchinus, Kircher, 
Luscinius, and others, illustrated by wood-cuts. 

In all essential respects, instruments may be 
divided into three classes ; namely, wind instru- 
ments, the descendants of the pipe ; stringed 
instruments, descended from the lyre ; and instru- 
ments of percussion. This classification, which 
is of considerable 'antiquity, is not entirely 
satisfactory, as there are certain modern in- 
struments which can scarcely be classed under 
any one of its heads without confusion — for 
instance the Harmonium, which although played 
by wind, is not strictly a wind -instrument, since 

■ In Lullj'i ballet ' La trlomphe do 1'amour.' Pari*. MM. there U a 
quartet of flutes, the lowest part of which U <m\j poatlble on a bata 

' Heprlnted bj Ncvello and Co. In 2 rail. 8ra. IKS. 
> Casalodorus, writing in the 6th century, give* Uie lame three dl- 
tlslons, uudcr the names mjlalilia, taml/ilia, and pt m—u malia. 



its sounds are produced not from pipes but from 
elastic reeds. Nevertheless the old arrangement 
is sufficiently comprehensive, and appears more 
practical than any other. 

i. Wind instruments (Ger. Blasinstrumente ; 
Ital. Stromenti da venio ; Fr. Instruments a vent). 
These are of two kinds ; namely, those in which 
a separate pipe or reed is provided for each note, 
and those in which the various notes are pro- 
duced from a single tube, either by varying its 
length, or by the action of the lip in blowing. 
In the first kind the wind is provided by means 
of bellows, and is admitted to each individual 
pipe or reed by the action of a key. The in- 
struments of this kind are the Organ, Harmonium, 
Concertina, and Accordion. The only members 
of this class which differ from the others are the 
Syrinx or Pan's-pipes (which although it possesses 
a pipe for each sound has neither keys nor 
bellows, but is blown directly with the breath) 
and the Northumbrian and Irish Bag-pipes, 
which are provided with bellows, but have their 
pipes pierced with holes, as in the flute. Wind- 
instruments which have but a single tube are 
made of either wood or metal (generally brass), 
and the various sounds of which they are capable 
are produced, in the case of two of the metal 
instruments — the Horn and Trumpet, — by simply 
altering the tension of the lips in blowing, 
while in the others and in the wood instruments 
this alteration is supplemented and assisted by 
varying the length of the tube. In brass in- 
struments the length of the tube is altered in 
three different ways ; first, by means of a slide, 
one part of the tube being made to slip inside 
the other, after the manner of a telescope ; 
secondly, by valves, which when pressed have 
the effect of adding a small piece of tube to the 
length of the circuit through which the wind 
passes ; and thirdly, by keys, which uncover holes 
in the tube, and so shorten the amount of tube 
which is available for the vibrating column of air. 
The brass instruments with slide are the Trom- 
bone ' and Slide Trumpet ; those with valves are 
the Cornet a pistons, Valve Horn, Valve Trumpet, 
Fliigelhorn or Valve Bugle, Saxhorn, Valve 
Trombone, Euphonium, Bombardon, Bass Tuba, 
and Contrabass Tuba ; while those with keys are 
the Key -bugle or Kent Bugle and the Ophicleide. 
All these are played with a cup-shaped mouth- 
piece. Wood wind-instruments have the tube 
pierced with holes, which are covered by the 
fingers or by keys, and the uncovering of the holes 
shortens the amount of tube available for vibration 
and so gives notes of higher pitch. Some of them 
receive the breath directly through a suitably 
shaped opening; these are the Flute, Piccolo 
(i. e. fiauto piccolo, a small flute), Fife, and the 
Flageolet and the toy 'tin whistle,' which two 
last are survivors of the now obsolete family of 
flutes a bee. In others the sound is produced 
from the vibrations of a split reed, which is 
either single and fixed in a frame or mouthpiece, 
as in the Clarinet and Bassethorn [see Clarinet], 

1 Mr. Ford's Slide-Horn Is highly spoken of (tee p. 794 a), bat It hu 
oat yet come Into actual use. 

or double, consisting of two reeds bound together 
so as to form a tube with the upper end flattened 
out, as in the Oboe, Cor Anglais or Oboe di 
Caccia, Bassoon, and Contrafagotto or Double 
Bassoon. One wind-instrument of wood remains 
to be mentioned, the use of which is becoming 
rare, though it is still occasionally met with 
in military bands. This is the Serpent, which 
differs from all other wood instruments in having 
a cup-shaped mouthpiece, similar to that of the 
trumpet. It is the only remaining member of a 
now extinct family of German wood instruments 
called Zinken (Ital. Cometti), which were for- 
merly much used in the Church service, and 
were in use as late as 171 5 for playing chorales 
at the top of church towers. 2 

2. Stringed Instruments (Ger. Saiten-instru- 
mente ; Ital. Stromenti da corde ; Fr. Instruments 
a cordes). In all these the sound is produced from 
stretched strings of either catgut, wire, or occa- 
sionally silk, the naturally feeble resonance of 
which is in all cases strengthened by a sound- 
board. As with the wind-instruments, some 
of these are provided with a separate string for 
each note, while in others the various sounds are 
obtained by shortening the strings, of which there 
are now never fewer than three, by pressure with 
the fingers. Stretched strings are thrown into 
vibration in three different ways — friction, pluck- 
ing, and percussion. 

The mode of friction usually employed is that of 
a bow of horse-hair, strewn with powdered rosin 
(see Bow), and instruments so played are called 
'bowed instruments' (Ger. Streichinstrumcnte). 
They are the Violin, Viola or Tenor, Violoncello, 
and Contrabasso or Double Bass ; and an humble 
though ancient member of the *ame family is 
occasionally met with in the Hurdy-gurdy, in 
which the friction is produced by the edge of a 
wooden wheel strewn with rosin and revolving 
underneath the strings. In this instrument the 
stopping or shortening of the strings is effected 
by means of a series of keys, which are pressed 
by the fingers of the left hand, while the right 
hand turns the wheel. [See Huedt-Gdedt.] 

The instruments played by plucking are the 
Harp, in which each note has a separate string, 
and the Guitar, Mandoline, and Banjo, in which 
the strings are ' stopped' by pressure with the fin- 
gers upon a finger-board, provided with slightly- 
raised transverse bars, called frets. In the Cither 
or Zither, an instrument much used in Switzerland 
and the Tyrol, 4 of the 29 strings are capable of 
being stopped with the fingers, while the remaining 
25 are played 'open,' giving but one sound each. 
In most of these instruments the plucking takes 
place with the tips of the fingers {pizzicato), but 
in the Zither the thumb of the right hand is 
armed with a ring bearing a kind of metal claw. 
In the now obsolete Harpsichord and Spinet the 
strings were also played by plucking, each key be- 
ing provided with a small piece of quill or stiff 
leather. [Jack.] Only two stringed instruments 

> In 1636 was published in Paris a ' Phantasle a cinq parties, pour les 
Cornets, par H. Lejeune.' 1. S. Bach occasionally uses theni in his 
Church Cantatas. 



are played by percussion — the Pianoforte and the 
Dulcimer ; in the former the strings are struck 
by hammers attached to the keys, and in the 
latter by two hammers held in the hands. 

3. Instruments of Percussion (Ger. Schlag- 
instrumente ; Ital. Stromenti per la percussione ; 
Fr. Instruments & percussion). These are of two 
kinds, those whose chief use is to mark the 
rhythm, and which therefore need not, and in 
many cases do not, give a note of any definite 
pitch, and those which consist of a series of 
vibrating bodies, each giving a definite note, so 
that the whole instrument possesses a scale of 
greater or less extent. Of the instruments of 
indefinite pitch, some are struck with drumsticks 
or other suitable implements ; these are the Bass 
Drum, Side Drum, Tambour de Provence, Gong 
or Tam-tam, and Triangle ; others, such as Cym- 
bals and Castagnettes, are used in pairs, and 
are played by striking them together ; and one, 
the Tambourine, or Tambour de Basque, is struck 
with the open hand. The instruments of per- 
cussion which give definite notes, and which 
are therefore musical rather than rhythmical, are 
the Kettle Drums (used in pairs, or more), 
Glockenspiel (bells used in military bands and 
occasionally with orchestra), and the Harmonica, 
consisting of bars of either glass, steel, or wood, 
resting on two cords and struck with a hammer. 

4. There are still one or two instruments to be 
mentioned which are not easily classed in any of 
the three categories just described. In the Har- 
monium, which we have accepted as a wind- 
instrument, the sound is really produced by the 
vibrations of metal springs, called reeds, though 
these vibrations are certainly excited and main- 
tained by the force of wind ; so also stretched 
strings may be acted upon by wind, and of this 
the JEolian Harp is an illustration. [See ^Eolian 
Habp.] The instrument or organ of Mr. Baillie 
Hamilton, which is said to be a combination of 
tongue and string, is not sufficiently perfected to 
be described here. 

Metal tongues or reeds may also be played 
by plucking, and this method is employed in 
the so-called Musical Box, in which a series of 
metal tongues are plucked by pins or studs fixed 
in a revolving barrel. — Another instrument played 
by plucking, but possessing only a single reed or 
tongue, is the Jews-harp. In respect to the pro- 
duction of its various notes this instrument differs 
from all others. It is played by pressing the iron 
frame in which the reed is fixed against the teeth, 
and while the reed is in a state of vibration altering 
the form of the cavity of the mouth, by which 
means certain sounds of higher pitch than the 
fundamental note may be produced, and simple 
melodies played. These higher sounds appear to 
be upper ' partial-tones ' of the fundamental note 
of the reed, which are so strongly reinforced by 
the vibrations of the volume of air in the mouth 
as to overpower the fundamental tone, and leave 
it just audible as a drone bass. — In the Har- 
monica proper, another mode of sound-production 
is employed, the edges of glass bowls being rubbed 
by a wetted finger. [See Harmonica.] 

For much of the information contained in this 
article the writer is indebted to Schilling ' Uni- 
versallexicon der Tonkunst.' [F.T.] 

INSTRUMENTATION, see Orchestration. 

INTERLUDE (Germ. Zwischenspiel). A 
short Voluntary, played, by English Organists of 
the older School, between the verses of a Hymn, 
or Metrical Psalm. 

Fifty, or even thirty years ago, a good ex- 
tempore Interlude was regarded as no unfair test 
of an Organist's ability. The late Mr. Thomas 
Adams had a peculiar talent for Voluntaries of 
this kind : and, at S. Peter's, Walworth, John 
Purkis charmed his hearers, at about the same 
period, with delightful little effusions which were 
frequently far more interesting than the Hymns 
between the verses of which they were inter- 
polated. Of late years, however, the Interlude 
has fallen so much into disuse that it is doubtful 
whether a good one is now to be heard in any 
Church in England. 

In French Cathedrals, a long and elaborate 
Interlude is usually played, at Vespers, between 
the verses of the Magnificat, as well as those of 
the Hymn : and, at Notre Dame de Paris, S. 
Sulpice, and other Churches built on the same 
grand scale, where the Organ in the Choir is 
supplemented by a larger one at the western end 
of the Nave, a fine effect is sometimes produced 
by the alternate use of the two instruments ; 
the smaller one being employed for the accompani- 
ment of the voices, while the larger is reserved 
for the Interludes alone. 

Interludes are played, in Germany, not between 
the verses of the Choral, but between the separate 
lines of each verse — an arrangement, which, how- 
ever effective it may be in the hands of an 
accomplished Organist, is generally very much 
the reverse in those of a tyro. (Good examples 
are to be found in Ch. H. Rink's 'XXIV Chorale,' 
op. 64, 1 804.) The delicious orchestral Interludes 
which embellish the Choral, 'Cast thy burthen 
upon the Lord,' in Mendelssohn's 'Elijah,' and 
those on a more extended scale in ' Nun danket ' 
in the 'Lobgesang,' were evidently suggested by 
this old German custom ; while the grand crash 
of brass instruments, introduced between the bines 
of 'Sleepers, wake!' in the same composer's 
' S. Paul, illustrates, perhaps, the most striking 
effect which it has yet been made to produce. 
[See Chorale.] 

For an explanation of the word Interlude, in 
its dramatic sense, see Intermezzo. [W. S. R. ] 

INTERMEZZO (Fr. Intermede. Entr Acte. 
Old. Eng. Enterlude). I. A dramatic entertain- 
ment, of light and pleasing character, introduced 
between the Acts of a Tragedy, Comedy, or 
Grand Opera ; either for the purpose of affording 
an interval of rest to the performers of the 
principal piece ; of allowing time for the pre- 
paration of a grand scenic effect ; or, of relieving 
the attention of the audience from the excessive 
strain demanded by a long serious performance. 

The history of the Intermezzo bears a very 
important relation to that of the Opera ; more 



especially' to that of the Opera Buffa, with the 
gradual development of which it is very inti- 
mately connected. The origin of both may be 
traced back to a period of very remote antiquity. 
It is, indeed, difficult to point out any epoch, in 
the chronicles of Dramatic Art, in which the 
presence of the Intermezzo may not be detected, 
now in one form, and now in another. Its exact 
analogue is to be found in the Satires of the old 
Roman Comedy. In the Mysteries and Miracle 
Plays of the Middle Ages — those strange con- 
necting-links between old things and new — it 
assumed the form of a Hymn, or Carol, sung, 
either in chorus, or by the Angelo nunzio, to a 
sort of Chaunt which seems to have been tradi- 
tional. In a rare old work, by Macropedias, en- 
titled, ' Bassarus. Fabula festivissima (Utrecht, 
1553), some verses, adapted to a melody by no 
means remarkable for its festive character, are 
given at the close of every scene. And the 
popularity of the Tune is sufficiently proved 
by its persistent reiteration in other works of 
nearly similar date. 

5 j fg ^ 5 g g? r "-' r- 1 gj es> e» etc. 

These rude beginnings contrast strangely 
enough with the highly finished Intermezzi decen- 
nially presented in the course of the Passion -Play 
at Ober Ammergau. But, the Passion-Play is 
known to have undergone many important im- 
provements, within a comparatively recent pe- 
riod ; and its case is, in every way, so exceptional, 
that it is no easy task to determine its true posi- 
tion as a historical landmark. 

Almost all the earlier Italian plays were 
relieved by Intermezzi. Many of these were 
simply Madrigals, sung by a greater or less 
number of voices, as occasion served. Some- 
times they were given in the form of a Chorus, 
with instrumental accompaniment. The most 
favourite style, perhaps, was that of a Song, or 
Canzonetta, sung, by a single performer, in the 
character of Orpheus. In no case was the sub- 
ject of these performances connected, in any way, 
with that of the pieces between the Acts of 
which they were interpolated. Their construc- 
tion was extremely simple, and their importance 
relatively small. We first find them assuming 
grander proportions, at Florence, in the year 
1589, on the occasion of the Marriage of the 
Grand Duke Ferdinand, with Christine de 
Lorraine. To grace this ceremony, Giovanni 
Bardi, Conte di Vernio, produced a new Comedy, 
entitled L'Amico fido, with Intermezzi, a grand 
spectacle, prepared expressly for the festival, 
and presented with a degree of splendour hitherto 
unknown. For the first of these, called 'The 
Harmony of the Spheres,' the poetry was written 
by Ottavio Rinuccini, and the music composed 
by Emilio del Cavaliere, and Cristofano Mal- 
vezzi. The second, also written by Rinuccini, 
and called 'The Judgment of the Hamadryads,' 
was set to music by Luca Marenzio. For 


the third, called ' The Triumph of Apollo,' in- 
vented by Bardi, and written by Rinuccini, 
the music was composed, partly by Luca Ma- 
renzio, and partly, it is said, by the Conte di 
Vernio himself. The fourth, entitled ' The 
Infernal Regions,' was written by Pietro Strozzi, 
and accompanied by sombre music, composed, 
by Giulio Caccini, for Violins, Viole, Lutes, 
Lyres of all forms, Double Harps, Trombones, 
and ' Organs of l Wood.' The fifth—' The Fable 
of Arion ' — was written by Rinuccini, and set 
to music, by Cavaliere and Malvezzi. 

This grand performance naturally gave an 
extraordinary impulse to the progress of dramatic 
music. Within less than ten years, it was fol- 
lowed, in the same city, by the production of 
the first Opera Seria, at the Palazzo Corsi. 
Meanwhile, the Intermezzo steadily continued to 
advance in interest and importance. Guarini 
(153 7- 1612) wrote Intermezzi to his own Pastor 
Fido, in the form of simple Madrigals. In 1623, 
L' Amorosa Innocenza was produced, at Bologna, 
accompanied by Intermezzi della Coronazione di 
Apollo, per Dafne convertita in Lauro, set to 
music by Ottavio Vernizzi. This work intro- 
duces us to a new and extremely important 
epoch in the history of the branch of Dramatic 
Art we are now considering. By degrees, the 
Intermezzi were made to embody a little con- 
tinuous drama of their own. Their story — 
always quite unconnected with that of the 
principal piece — was more carefully elaborated 
than heretofore. Gradually increasing in co- 
herence and interest, their disjointed mem- 
bers rapidly united themselves into a consistent 
and connected whole. And thus, in process of 
time, two distinct dramas were presented to the 
audience, in alternate Acts; the character of 
the Intermezzi being always a little lighter than 
that of the piece between the divisions of which 
they were played, and on that very account, per- 
haps, better fitted to win their way to public 
favour. The merry wit inseparable from the 
Neapolitan School undoubtedly did much for 
them ; and, before long, they began to enter into 
formidable rivalry with the more serious pieces 
they were at first only intended to relieve. 
Their popularity spread so widely, that, in 
1723, a collection of them was printed, in two 
volumes, at Amsterdam ; and so lasting was it, 
that, to this day, a light Italian Operetta is 
frequently called an Intermezzo in Musica. 

The next great change in the form of the 
Intermezzo, though really no more than the 
natural consequence of those we have already 
described, was sufficiently important, not only 
to mark the culminating point in its career, 
but to translate it, at once, to a sphere of Art 
little contemplated by those who first called it 
into existence. Already complete in itself, all 
it now needed was independence : an exist- 
ence of its own, apart from that of the graver 
piece to which it owed its original raison d'etre. 
Such an existence was obtained for it, by the 
simple process of leaving the graver piece — 

1 Organi di Ugno. 


whether Tragedy, Comedy, or Serious Opera — 
to depend upon its own resources, while the 
Intermezzo, with its once disconnected links 
united in unbroken sequence, was performed as 
a separate work, in one Act. This revolution 
was effected chiefly by the genius of a young 
composer, whose untimely death, considered in 
relation to its influence upon the Lyric Drama, 
can never be sufficiently deplored. From be- 
ginning to end, the narrative of Pergolesi's Art- 
life is identified with the ultimate fate of the 
Intermezzo. His first important composition — 
a Sacred Drama, called San Onf.lielmo d'Aqui- 
tania — was diversified by Intermezzi, of a play- 
ful character, introduced between its principal 
divisions. His greatest triumph — La Serva Pa- 
drona — was, itself, an Intermezzo, pur et simple. 
This delightful work — the whole interest of which 
is centred in two characters, whose voices are 
accompanied only by a stringed band — was first 
produced, in Italy, between the Acts of another 
piece, in the year 1734. Its success was un- 
bounded. It soon found its way to every Capital 
in Europe ; and, everywhere but in France, was 
received with acclamation. The French, however, 
were slow to appreciate it at its true value. Its 
first performance in Paris, Oct. 4, 1746, was 
little short of a failure : but when, Aug. 1, 1752, 
it was played between the Acts of Lulli's Acts 
et Galathie, it originated a feud between the 
' Lullistes ' and the ' Bouffonnistes,' scarcely less 
bitter than that which raged, at a later period, 
between the rival followers of Gluck and Piccinni. 
National vanity forbade the recognition of the 
Italian style : national good taste forbade its 
rejection. Rousseau, with characteristic im- 
petuosity, threw himself into the thick of the 
fray ; fought desperately on the Italian side ; 
declared French Opera impossible ; and stulti- 
fied his own arguments by the immediate pro- 
duction of a French Jntermede — the well-known 
Devin du Village. Long after this, the con- 
troversy raged, with unabated fury: but, in 
spite of the worst its enemies could do, La Serva 
Padrona exercised a salutary and lasting effect 
upon French dramatic music — indeed, upon 
dramatic music everywhere. In 1750 it met 
with an enthusiastic reception in England. Its 
success was as lasting as it was brilliant : and, 
almost to our own day, it has kept its place upon 
the stage, not between the Acts of a Serious 
Opera, but as an independent piece ; marking 
the critical period at which the history of the 
Intermezzo merges, permanently, into that of 
the Opera Buffa, its legitimate heir. [See Opera 


The anomalous character of this sweeping 
change became at once apparent. It was as 
necessary as ever, that, on certain occasions, some 
sort of entertainment should be given between 
the Acts of serious pieces. The Intermezzo hav- 
ing so far outgrown its original intention as to 
be utterly useless for this purpose, something 
else must needs be found to supply its place. 
The Dance was unanimously accepted as a sub- 
stitute; and soon became exceedingly popular. 


And thus arose a new species of Interlude, which 
at no time, perhaps, attained a greater degree 
of perfection, than under the ■ Lumley Manage- 
ment' at Her Majesty's Theatre, where, night 
after night, a Ballet Divertissement, with Cerito, 
or Carlotta Grisi, for its principal attraction, was 
given between the Acts of a Grand Opera, sung 
by Grisi, Persiani, Rubini, Tamburini, and La- 
blache ; the long line of successes culminating in 
that memorable Pas de Quatre, which, danced 
by Taglioni, Fanny Elsler, Carlotta Grisi, and 
Cerito, is still regarded as one of the greatest 
triumphs of Terpsichorean Art on record. 

Instrumental music is frequently played, in 
Germany, after the manner of an Intermezzo. 
The noble Entr'actes composed by Beethoven, 
for Schiller's 'Egmont,' by Schubert for 'Rosa- 
munde,' and by Mendelssohn, for Shakspeare's 
'Midsummer Night's Dream,' are familiar to 
every one. These, of course, can only be pre- 
sented in association with the great works they 
were originally designed to illustrate. But, less 
appropriate music, good enough of its kind, 
though intended for other purposes, was, at one 
time, by no means uncommon. We once heard 
Vieuxtemps play a Violin Concerto between the 
Acts of an Opera, at Leipzig, in the days when the 
Orchestra was under the masterly direction of 
Ferdinand David : and, in the year 1845, Alboni 
(then unknown in England) sang several of her 
favourite Songs, in the same pretty little Theatre, 
between the Acts of a play. Such performances 
as these may, naturally enough, be repeated, 
at any time. But, with our present ideas of 
Art, anything like a revival of the Intermezzo, 
in its older form, would manifestly be impossible. 
We may learn much from its history, which is 
both instructive, and entertaining : but, for all 
practical purposes, we must be content to leave 
it in the obscurity to which, since the production 
of La Serva Padrona, it has been not unprofit- 
ably consigned. 

II. The word is also used for a short movement, 
serving as a connecting-link between the larger 
divisions of a Sonata, Symphony, or other great 
work, whether instrumental, or vocal ; as in No. 
4 of Schumann's ' Faschingsschwank aus Wien' 
(op. 26). The beautiful Intermezzo which, 
under the name of ' Introduzione,' lends so 
charming a grace to Beethoven's 'Waldstein 
Sonata' (op. 53) is said to be an after-thought, 
inserted in place of the well-known 'Andante in 
F ' (op. 35), which, after due consideration, the 
great Composer rejected, as too long for the 
position he originally intended it to occupy. The 
term is however used for larger movements : — 
as by Mendelssohn for the 3rd movement in his 
F minor Quartet (op. 2 ), or for the ' grand 
adagio' which, under the name of 'Nachruf,' he 
specially composed in memory of his friend Ritz, 
and inserted in his Quintet, op. 1 8, in lieu of the 
previous Minuet (Letter, Feb. 21, 1832) ; or for 
the Entracte expressive of Hermia's search for 
Lysander in the Midsummer Night's Dream 
music. The 2nd movement of Goetz's Symphony, 
virtually a Scherzo, is entitled Intermezzo. 



Schumann and Brahms, again, have both used 
the word to denote independent pieces of small 
dimensions, the former in his 'Opera 4' — six 
pieces usually consisting of a main theme and an 
Alternativo ; and the latter in his latest publi- 
cation (op. 76), eight pieces for the P.F., of which 
4 are Capriccios and 4 Intermezzi. [W. S. R.] 

sion which seems to tend towards the final Tonic 
chord of a perfect cadence through the usual 
Dominant harmony, but is abruptly deflected; 
bo that the promised conclusion is deferred by the 
substitution of other harmony than that of the 
Tonic, after the Dominant chord which seemed 
to lead immediately to it. 

The form which is frequently quoted as typi- 
cal is that in which the chord of the submediant 
or third below the Tonic is substituted for the 
final Tonic chord, as — 

instead of 

from which the principle will be readily grasped. 

In reality the number of different forms is 
only limited by the number of chords which can 
possibly succeed the Dominant chord, and it is 
not even necessary that the chord which follows 
it and makes the interruption shall be in the 
same key. 

Handel frequently used the Interrupted Ca- 
dence to make the final cadence of a movement 
stand out individually and prominently. The 
following example, which is made to serve this 
purpose, is from his Fugue in B minor from the 
set of Six for the Organ, and is very characteristic 
of him :— 


It is interesting to compare this with the con- 
clusion of the last movement of Schumann's 
Sonata for Pianoforte in G minor, where a very 
definite Interrupted Cadence is used for the 
same purpose of enforcing the final cadence of 
the work by isolation, and the process is carried 
out in a thoroughly modern spirit and on an 
extended scale. The Interrupted Cadence itself 
is as follows : — 


Bach frequently used Interrupted Cadences to 
prolong the conclusion of a work, and a form 
which seems to have been a great favourite with 
him is that in which the Tonic minor seventh 
succeeds the Dominant chord, thereby leading to 
a continuance and enforcement of the Tonic in 
the succession of chords at the conclusion. There 
are very remarkable and beautiful examples of 
this in the Prelude in Eb minor, No. 8, in the 
Wohltemperirte Clavier, the last — four bars from 
the end — being in the form above mentioned. The 
effect of this form of the Interrupted Cadence is 
most powerful when the seventh is in the bass, 
and of this there is a very striking instance in 
his Cantata ' Jesu, der du meine Seele,' which is 
as follows : — 

Mozart uses the Interrupted Cadence in a 
similar manner to extend the movement or the 
Bection in which it occurs. As an example from 
him, which presents yet another form, the fol- 
lowing from his Quartet in A, No. 5, may be 
taken : — 



=£ p J 

* *fp. 

r f J ' r £ wt ^ 





A ill 


Beethoven also uses Interrupted Cadences for 
similar purposes to the instances quoted above ; 
but latterly he employed them in a manner 
which it is important to take note of as highly 
characteristic and conspicuous in modern music. 
This is the use of them actually in place of a 
perfect cadence, taking them as a fresh starting 
point, by which means greater continuity is ob- 
tained. A well-known example is that at the 
end of the slow movement of the Appassionata 




Sonata, by means of which the two last move- 
ments are made continuous. Two very remark- 
able and unmistakeable instances occur also in 
the first movement of the Sonata in E (op. 109), 
one of which has already been quoted in the 
article Cadence. Another instance occurs in 
the Quartet in A (op. 132), where the 'working 
out ' commences ; the cadence of F major is 
interrupted at *, and the 'working out' com- 
mences in the next bar, proceeding immediately 
with modulation, as follows :— 









fr fr ^ ri te 

Wagner has made great use of this device, and 
by it secures at once the effect of a conclusion 
and an uninterrupted flow of the music; the 
voice or voices having a form which has all the 
appearance of a full cadence, and the instruments 
supplying a forcible Interrupted Cadence which 
leads on immediately and "without break to the 
succeeding action. An example which will prob- 
ably be familiar is that at the conclusion of the 
chorus at the beginning of the 4th scene of the 
and act of Lohengrin, where Ortruda suddenly 
steps forward and claims the right to precede 
Elsa into the cathedral. Another instance which 
illustrates the principle very clearly is the fol- 
lowing from the 3rd scene of the 1st act of 
Tristan und Isolde :— 

mir lacht das A - ben - teller! 

I , 

1 -*_ #J. N, 

Beethoven also made occasional use of this 
device in Fidelio. One specially clear instance 
is in the Finale of the last act, at the end of Don 
Fernando's sentence to Leonora — 'Euch, edle 
Frau, allein, euch ziemt es, ganz ihn zu befrei'n.' 
By such means as this, one scene is welded on 
to another, and the action is relieved of that 
constant breach of continuity which resulted 
from the old manner of coming to a full close 
and beginning again. [C.H.H.P.] 

_ INTERVAL. The possible gradations of the 
pitch of musical sounds are infinite, but for the 
purposes of the art certain relative distances of 
height and lowness have to be definitely deter- 
mined and maintained. The sounds so chosen 
are the notes of the system, and the distances 
between them are the Intervals. With different 
objects in view, different intervals between the 

sounds have been determined on, and various 
national scales present great diversities in this 
respect — for instance the ancient Gaelic and 
Chinese scales were constructed so as to avoid 
any intervals as small as a semitone ; while some 
nations have made use of quarter-tones, as we 
have good authority for believing the Muezzins 
do in calling the faithful to prayer, and the 
Dervishes in reciting their litanies. The inter- 
vals of the ancient Greek scales were calculated 
for the development of the resources of melody 
without harmony*; the intervals of modern scales 
on the other hand are calculated for the develop- 
ment of the resources of harmony, to which 
melody is so far subordinate that many character- 
istic intervals of modern melody, and not unfre- 
quently whole passages of melody (such as the 
whole first melodic phrase of Weber's Sonata in 
Ab), are based upon the use of consecutive notes 
of a single chord; and they are often hardly 
imaginable on any other basis, or in a scale which 
has not been expressly modified for the purposes 
of harmony. Of the qualities of the different 
intervals which the various notes form with one 
another, different opinions have been entertained 
at different times ; the more important classifica- 
tions which have been proposed by theorists in 
mediaeval and modern times are given in the 
article Harmony. 

The modern scale-system is, as Helmholtz has 
remarked, a product of artistic invention, and 
the determination of the intervals which separate 
the various notes took many centuries to arrive 
at. By the time of Bach it was clearly settled 
though not in general use, and Bach himself gave 
his most emphatic protest in favour of the equal 
temperament upon which it is based in his 
Wohltemperirte Clavier, and his judgment has 
had great influence on the development of modern 
music. According to this system, which is 
specially calculated for unlimited interchange of 
keys, the semitones are nominally of equal dimen- 
sions, and each octave contains twelve of them. 
As a consequence the larger intervals contained 
in the tempered octave are all to a certain 
extent out of tune. The fifth is a little less 
than the true fifth, and the fourth a little larger 
than the true fourth. The major thirds and 
sixths are considerably more than the true major 
thirds and sixths, and the minor thirds and 
sixths a good deal less than the true minor thirds 
and sixths. The minor seventh is a little larger 
than the minor seventh of the true scale, which 
is represented by the ratio 9:16, and is a mild 
dissonance ; and this again is larger than the 
harmonic sub-minor seventh which is represented 
by the ratio 4:7; and this is so slight a dis- 
sonance that Helmholtz says it is often more 
harmonious than the minor sixth. 

The nomenclature of intervals is unfortunately 
in a somewhat confused state. The commonest 
system is to describe intervals which have two 
forms both alike consonant or dissonant as ' major' 
and ' minor' in those two forms. Thus major and 
minor thirds and sixths are consonant, and major 
and minor sevenths and ninths are dissonant ; and 



where they are capable of further reduction they 
are called ' diminished,' as diminished thirds and 
sevenths ; and when of further enlargement as 
' augmented,' as augmented sixths. With inter- 
vals which have only one normal form the terms 
• major ' and ' minor ' are not used ; thus fifths 
and fourths lose their consonant character on 
being either enlarged or reduced by a semitone, 
and in these forms they are called respectively 
' augmented ' and ' diminished ' fifths and fourths. 
The interval of the augmented sixth is indif- 
ferently called 'superfluous' or. 'extreme sharp' 
sixth ; and the same terms are applied to the 
fifth ; the term ' false ' is also used for diminished 
in relation to the fifth and for augmented in 
relation to the fourth. 

The term ' Imperfect' is used in two senses in 
relation to Intervals. In the classification of 
•Consonances it was common to divide them into 
perfect and imperfect, or perfect, middle and 
imperfect ; but as the classification varied at 
different times reference must be made for details 
to the article Harmony (vol. i. pp. 669-685). On 
the other hand, when an interval is commonly 
known in its normal condition as perfect, such as 
a fourth or a fifth, it is natural per contra to speak 
of the interval which goes by the same name, 
but is less by a semitone, as ' imperfect.' 

For further details on the subject see Tem- 
perament. [C.H.H.P.] 

INTONATION (Lat. Intonatio). I. The 
initial phrase of a Plain Chaunt melody : usually 
sung, either by the Officiating Priest, alone, or, 
by one, two, or four leading Choristers. Some 
of the most important Intonations in general use 
are those proper to the Gregorian Tones. Though 
differing widely in character and expression, 
these venerable Chaunts are all constructed upon 
the same general principle, and all exhibit the 
same well-marked combination of four distinct 
elements — the Intonation, the Reciting-Note, the 
Mediation, and the Cadence. The first of these, 
with which alone we are now concerned, consists 
of a few simple notes, leading upwards — except 
in one peculiar and somewhat abnormal case — to 
the Dominant of the Psalm about to be sung, 
and thus connecting it with its proper Antiphon. 
[See Antiphon.] Now, as each Mode has a 
fixed Dominant upon which the greater part of 
every Psalm is recited, it follows, that each Tone 
must also have a fixed Intonation, to lead up to 
that note : and this principle is so far carried 
out that two Tones, having a common Reciting- 
Note, have generally, though not always, a 
common Intonation — as in the case of Tones I 
and VI, III and VIII. This rule, however, is 
broken, in the case of Tone IV ; which, though 
its Reciting Note is identical with that of Tone I, 
has a peculiar Intonation of its own. 1 Almost 
all the Tones have one form of Intonation for 
the Psalms, and another for the Canticles ; while 
some few add to these a third variation, which 

1 Though constructed of similar intervals, the Intonations of Tones 
II and III are not Identical. By no permissible form of transposition, 
«ould the G, A, C of the latter be substituted for the C, D, F of the 


is used only for the second part of the Introit. 
[See Introit.] The subjoined forms are taken 
from the editions of the Roman Vesperal, and 
Gradual, lately published at Ratisbon; in the 
former of which, the Intonation assigned to the 
Magnificat, in the Sixth Tone, varies widely 
from the more usual reading given in the Mechlin 
edition. The forms used for the Introit so nearly 
resemble those for the Canticles, that we have 
thought it necessary to give those of the Fourth 
and Sixth Tones only. 

Tone I. 

Tone IV. 

For the Psalms. 
Tone II. 

Tone V. 

Tone in. 

Tone VI. 

ft j ^r^tt=rti djL rj j ^ |j j^ A ^\y\ 

Tone VIII. 




Tone I. 

For the ' Magnificat.* 
Tone II. 


W : N 35 


Tone III. 

Tone V. 

Tone IV. 

Tone VI. 

N • Y-A 



M : YA 



Tone VII. 

Tone VIII. 

For the Psalm ' In Exitu Israel.' 
Irregular or Peregrine Tone. 

For the Introit. 
Tone IV. Tone VI. 

The Intonation is usually sung to the first 
verse, only, of each Psalm, but, to every verse 
of the Magnificat and Benedictus. When sung 
before the first verse only, whether of Psalm or 
Canticle, it is assigned either to the Officiating 
Priest, or to the two leading Choristers. Before 
the remaining verses of the Magnificat, and 
Benedictus, it is sung by the whole Choir. 

The opening phrases of the Antiphon, the anti- 
phonal portion of the Introit, the Gradual, and 
many other Plain Chaunt Anthems and Hymns, 
are also sung, as Intonations, either by a single 
Priest, or by one, two, or four leading Choristers. 


The Gloria in excehis, and Credo, have fixed 
Intonations of their own, which may be found in 
their proper places, in the Missal. 

It is always interesting to observe the use 
made, by modern composers, of antient materials : 
and we shall find that some of the Intonations 
given, in our examples, have been turned, by the 
greatest Masters of the modern School, to very 
profitable uses indeed. For instance, Handel, 
in ' The Lord gave the word,' from ' The Messiah,' 
uses the Intonation of the First Tone, transposed 
a fourth higher, with wonderful effect — 



■ Mi r i ; p.* 



The Lord ga»e the word ; 

while that of the Eighth (as sung to the Mag- 
nificat) has been employed, in a very striking 
manner, by Mendelssohn, in the ' Lobgesang ' — 

| P" J A.* 

Al - les was - dem hat. 

We have selected these instances from in- 
numerable others, not only because the chief 
interest of the works mentioned is centred in 
these few simple notes ; but because, in both 
cases, the phrases in question are really used as 
Intonations — i.e. as initial phrases, given out in 
unison, to be continued in harmonious chorus. 
Whether the composers were conscious of the 
Bource of the ideas they treated with such masterly 
power, is a question open to argument : but, 
there can be no doubt that John Sebastian Bach, 
when writing his great Mass in B minor, chose 
the opening subject of his magnificent Credo, 
simply because it was the Intonation assigned 
to the Credo in the Plain Chaunt Mass — 



I w-^iTfrrU^ p 



That the effect with which Bach introduces this 
grand old subject was not lost upon Mendelssohn, 
is evident, from a passage in a letter written 
from Rome, by the last-named composer, to his 
friends in Germany (April 4, 1831). 

IT. The art of singing, or playing, correctly 
in tune. Thus, we say that the intonation of 
such and such a performer is either true, or false, 
as the case may be. For a detailed account of 
the conditions upon which perfect tune depends, 
see Tempebament. [W. S. R.] 

INTONING. The practice of singing the 
opening phrase of a Psalm, Canticle, or other 
piece of Ecclesiastical Music, not in full chorus, 
but, as a solo, or semi-chorus, assigned either to 

a single Priest, or to one, two, or four leading 
Choristers. The term is sometimes strangely 
misapplied. For instance, we are constantly 
told that the Litany, or even a whole Service, 
was 'intoned' by some particular person; when 
the word used should have been, in the one case, 
' sung,' and, in the other, ' monotoned.' [W. S. R.] 

INTRADA or ENTRATA. A term used for 
an opening movement, as by Beethoven for the 
introductory piece of the ' Battle-Symphony ' of 
his Battle of Vittoria, or for the first movement 
of the Serenade, op. 25. 'Intrade' is used by 
Mozart for the overture of his ' Bastien' (K. 50) ; 
and 'Intrada o Concerto' by Bach for an in- 
dependent movement (Cat. No. 117). [See 
Entree 2.] [G.] 

INTRODUCTION. The main purpose of an 
Introduction in music is either to summon the 
attention of the audience, or to lead their minds 
into the earnest and sober mood which is fittest 
for the appreciation of great things. The manner 
in which these purposes are accomplished varies 
greatly with the matter which is to follow. If 
that be light and gay any noise will answer the 
purpose, such as brilliant passages or loud chords ; 
but if it be serious it is manifest that the Intro- 
duction should either have proportionate inherent 
interest or such dignity of simplicity as cannot be 
mistaken for triviality. It is interesting to note 
the manner in which this has been carried out by 
great masters, and the more important relations 
which seem to subsist between a movement and 
its Introduction in their works. 

In the first place there are many examples 
of simple signals to attention ; such as the 
single independent chord which opens Haydn's 
Quartet in Eb (Trautwein No. 33) ; the simple 
cadence which introduces his Quartet in C, op. 72 
(Trautwein No. 16), and the group of chords with 
cadence which precedes the Quartet in Bb, op. 72 
(Trautwein No. 12). These have no other re- 
lation to the movement than that of giving notice 
that it is about to commence, and are appropriate 
enough to the clear and simple form of the Haydn 
Quartet. Similar examples are to be remarked 
in very different kinds of music ; as for instance 
at the commencement of the Eroica Symphony,, 
where the quiet soberness of the beginning of 
the movement seems to call for some signal to 
attention, while its supreme interest from the 
very first seems to indicate that introductory 
elaboration would be out of place. In Chopin'a 
Nocturne in B major, again, it is not difficult to 
see the reason for the adoption of the two simple 
forte chords with which it is introduced ; since 
the commencement of the Nocturne proper is so 
quiet and delicate that without some such signal 
the opening notes might be lost upon the au- 
dience ; whilst a more developed Introduction 
would clearly be disproportionate to the dimen- 
sions of the piece. 

In great orchestral works, such as symphonies, 
Haydn usually commences with a set and formal 
Introduction in a slow tempo, which marks the 
importance of the work, and by remaining so 
close to the principal key of the movement as- 



hardly ever to pass the limits of the Tonic and 
Dominant keys, assists the audience to realise 
the tonality. Mozart did not follow the example 
of Haydn in this respect, as many of his sym- 
phonies ;ire without Introductions, — especially 
the well-known ones in C (Jupiter) and G minor. 
In quintets, quartets, sonatas, and such forms of 
chamber-music he is also sparing of Introductions, 
but there is an example of some extent in the 
quintet for pianoforte and wind in Eb (Kochel, 
452), in which the harmonic successions are 
simple, and there is a more celebrated one to the 
string quartet in C, in which the harmonic bases 
vary more freely than in other examples of that 
period which can be adduced. 

Beethoven began from the first to follow up 
this point, and it is said that some pedants never 
forgave him for opening the Introduction to his 
Symphony in C (No. 1) with chords which appear 
not to belong to that key. The Symphony in D 
again (No. a) has a very important Introduction, 
in which there is free modulation, such as to Bb 
and F, and many passages and figures of great 
beauty and interest. In the Symphony in Bb 
the introductory Adagio is in the highest degree 
beautiful and impressive, and contains modula- 
tion even to the degree of an enharmonic change. 
In the Symphony in A the idea of the independ- 
ent Introduction culminates. It has a decidedly 
appreciable form and two definite subjects. It 
opens with great dignity and decision in A major, 
and passes thence to C, the key of the minor third 
above, in which a clear and beautiful second sub- 
ject is given ; after this the figures of the opening 
are resumed and a short transition is made back 
to the original key, passing on from thence to F 
major, the key of the third below, in which the 
second subject again appears. From this key 
u he transition to E, the Dominant of the original 
key, is at the same time easy and natural and 
sufficiently interesting; and considerable stress 
being laid upon this note both by its continuance 
in the harmonies and its reiteration individually, 
it thoroughly prepares the definite commence- 
of the Vivace. 

In the above instances the Introduction is 
practically an independent movement, both as 
regards the substance and the clear division 
which is made between it and the succeeding 
movement by a full or half close. In many of 
his later works Beethoven made an important 
change in respect of the connection between the 
Introduction and the movement introduced ; by 
abolishing the marked break of continuity, by 
the use of figures which are closely related in 
both, and by carrying the subject matter of the 
Introduction into the movement which follows. 

One of the clearest and most interesting ex- 
amples of his later treatment of the Introduction 
is in the first movement of the Sonata in Eb, 
op. 81 a, in which the introductory Adagio opens 
with the text of the movement, which is con- 
stantly reiterated in the 'working out' of the 
Allegro, and yet more constantly and persistently 
and with many transformations in the long and 
beautiful coda. Rubinstein has adopted the 


same device in his Dramatic Symphony in D 
minor ; in which also the first subject of the 
first movement proper is a transformed version 
of the opening subject of the Introduction. 

In several of his later Quartets Beethoven 
makes the most important material of the Intro- 
duction appear in the movement which follows 
it, in different ways — as in the Quartet in Eb, 
op. 127, and that in Bb, op. 130, and A, op. 132, 
in the last two of which the subjects of the 
Introduction and the first movement are very 
closely intermixed. In the Eb Concerto also 
the Introduction reappears with certain varia- 
tions of detail in the latter part of the movement 
previous to the 'recapitulation' of the subject. 
In its intimate connection with the movement 
which follows it, the Introduction to the first move- 
ment of the 9th Symphony is most remarkable. 
It commences mysteriously with the open fifth of 
the Dominant, into which the first rhythms of 
the first subject begin to drop, at first sparsely, 
like hints of what is to come, then closer and 
closer, and louder and louder, till the complete 
subject bursts-in in full grandeur with the Tonic 
chord. In this case the introductory form re- 
appears in the course of the movement, and also 
briefly in the discussion of the previous themes 
which immediately precedes the commencement 
of the vocal portion of the work. 

After Beethoven no composer has grasped the 
idea of intimately connecting the Introduction with 
the work which it introduces more successfully 
than Schumann, and many of the examples in his 
works are highly interesting and beautiful. In 
the Symphony in C, for instance, a striking figure 
of the opening reappears in the first movement, in 
the scherzo, and in the last movement. In the 
Symphony in D, in which all the movements are 
closely connected, the introductory phrases are 
imported into the Romanze, where they occupy 
no unimportant position. In his Sonata in D 
minor, for violin and pianoforte, op. 121, the 
Introduction proposes in broad and clear outlines 
the first subject of the succeeding allegro, in 
which it is stated with greater elaboration. The 
Overture to Manfred affords another very inter- 
esting specimen of Schumann's treatment of the 
Introduction. It opens with three abrupt chords 
in quick tempo, after which a slow tempo is 
assumed, and out of a sad and mysterious com- 
mencement the chief subject of the Overture 
proper is made by degrees to emerge. An earlier 
analogue to this is the Introduction to Bee- 
thoven's Egmont Overture, in which one of the 
chief figures of the first subject of the overture 
seems to grow out of the latter part of the in- 

Of all forms of musical composition none are 
more frequently preceded by an Introduction 
than overtures; the two above mentioned, and 
such superb examples as those in the Overtures 
to Leonora Nos. 2 and 3, and to Coriolan, and 
such well-known ones as those to Weber's Der 
Freischutz and Oberon, Schumann's Genoveva, 
and Mendelssohn's Ruy Bias, will serve to 
illustrate this fact. 


Introductions are not unfrequently found in 
the place of overtures before choral works, as in 
Handel's Joshua, Haydn's Creation, Beethoven's 
Mount of Olives, and Rossini's Stabat Mater. 
In this sense also the ' Yorspiel,' which Wagner 
so often adopts in place of an overture before 
his operas is an Introduction ; as in Lohengrin 
and Rheingold, and the three operas of the Trilogy. 
In these the figures are generally very inti- 
mately connected with the music of the opera, 
and in all but the first they are part of the first 
gcene, into whieh they pass without a break. In 
' Tristan und Isolde ' Wagner gives the name 
'Einleitung' to the Orchestral prelude both of 
the first and second acts, and this term is yet 
more literally translateable as 'Introduction' 
than Vorspiel. In earlier operas the term In- 
troduction is frequently applied to the whole 
first scene, as in Don Giovanni, Zauberflote, 
Figaro, Freischiitz, II Barbiere, Norma, and so 
on. In Fidelio, Beethoven gives the name to the 
opening of the second act, which comprises more 
of an orchestral prelude, like Wagner's * Ein- 

In relation to instrumental music again Intro- 
ductions are occasionally found in other positions 
than at the beginning of an entire work ; as for 
instance the preparatory adagio before the last 
movement of Beethoven's Septet and of his 
Symphony in C, the more important one in the 
same position in Brahms's C minor Symphony, 
the short passage before the slow movement of 
the 9th Sypmhony, the two notes which introduce 
the slow movement of the Bb Sonata (op. 106), 
and the Introduction to the last movement of 
Brahms's Quintet in F minor. [C.H.H.P.] 

INTROIT (Lat. Introitus, Antiphona ad In- 
troitum, Ingresm). An Anthem, sung, by the 
Choir, at the beginning of High Mass, while the 
Celebrant, assisted by the Deacon, and Subdeacon, 
is engaged in saying the Judica me, Deus, and 
Confiteor at the foot of the Altar step. 

The Introit is so called, not, as some have 
supposed, because the Cantors begin to intone 
it at the moment of the Celebrant's approach to 
the Altar, but, because it was antiently sung 
while the Faithful were entering the Church. 1 
Its form has undergone many important changes. 
At present it consists of two distinct members : 
an Antiphon, and a Psalm. The words of the 
Antiphon, or Introit proper, are generally, but 
not always, selected from Holy Scripture. Of 
the Psalm, one verse only is sung, followed by 
the Gloria Patri, at the conclusion of which the 
Antiphon is repeated in full. Proper Introits are 
appointed for every day in the Ecclesiastical 
Year : and, from the first words of these, many 
Sundays derive the names by which they are 
familiarly known — as ' Zcetare Sunday,' the 
Fourth Sunday in Lent; 'Quasimodo Sunday,' 
the First Sunday after Easter, (Dominica in 
Albis — the 'Low Sunday' of the old English 
Kalendar). The music to which the Introit is 
sung is exclusively Plain Chaunt, and is given, 

1 Martene. Be Antiq. EccX. Bit. i. 131. 



complete, in the Roman Gradual. The anti- 
phonal portion of every Introit has a special 
melody of its own. The Psalm is sung to a 
peculiar version of the Gregorian Tones, based 
j upon, but considerably more elaborate than, that 
used for the Vesper Psalms. The Introit for 
the First Mass on Christmas day — which we 
would have transcribed, had space permitted — 
is a remarkably fine specimen of the style. 

The manner of singing the Introit is as follows. 
The first clause is intoned when the Celebrant 
approaches the Altar, by one, two, or four 
Choristers, according to the solemnity of the 
Festival : which done, the strain is taken up by 
the full Choir, and continued as far as the end of 
the Antiphon. The first clause of the Psalm, and 
Gloria Patri, is then intoned, by the leading 
Choristers, and continued, in like manner, by the 
Choir ; after which the Antiphon is repeated, as 
before. During Advent, Septuagesima, and 
Lent, it is sung, like the rest of the Mass, 
without any accompaniment whatever. At other 
Seasons, it is usually sung with the organ — but, 
always, so far as the voices are concerned, in 

No trace of the Introit is retained in the last 
revision of the Book of Common Prayer : though 
the first Prayer- Book of King Edward VI 
(1549) directs its use, in the form of an entire 
Psalm, followed by the Gloria Patri, but sung 
without an Antiphon. At first sight, the Rubric, 
'Then shall he say a Psalm appointed for the 
Introit,' would lead to the supposition that the 
Psalm in question was not intended to be sung 
by the Choir : this idea, however, is disproved 
by the fact that the music for it is supplied in 
Merbecke's 'Booke of Common Praier Noted,' 
printed in 1550, and adapted, throughout, to 
King Edward's First Book. 

N.B. Handel uses the word as a synonym 
for Intrada or Introduction. The autograph of 
' Israel in Egypt ' is headed ' Moses' Song. 
Exodus, Chap. 15. Introitus.' [W.S.R.] 

INVENTION. A term used by J. S. Bach, 
and probably by him only, for small pianoforte 
pieces — 15 in 2 parts and 15 in 3 parts — each 
developing a single idea, and in some measure 
answering to the Impromptu of a later day. [G.] 

INVERSION. (Germ. Umkehrung.) 

The word Inversion bears, in musical termin- 
ology, five different significations. 

I. In Counterpoint it is used to signify the 
repetition of a phrase or passage with reversed 
intervals, or, as it is sometimes called, by con- 
trary motion, e. g. — 

Subject, or theme. 

p j Jjiflflf 

Inversion of subject, or theme. 

<&v, a j rir.rrr- J 


This is a device very frequently adopted in the 
construction of fugues in order to secure variety. 
In J. S. Bach's fugues are many magnificent 



instances of the effective use of this contrivance 
— as in the ' Well-tempered Clavier ' Nos. 6 and 
8 of Part i. Mendelssohn also uses it in his 
Pianoforte fugues in E minor and B minor, 
Op. 35, Nos. I and 3. Sometimes the answer to 
the subject of a fugue is introduced by inversion 
— as in Nos. 6 and 7 of Bach's 'Art of Fugue' 
— and then the whole fugue is called 'a fugue 
by inversion.' Canons and Imitations are often 
constructed in this way. As examples see the 
Gloria Patri in the Deus Misereatur of PurcelTs 
Service in Bb, and the Chorus ' To our great God ' 
in Judas Maccabseus. [See Canon, Fugue, In- 
scription.] [F. A. G. O.] 
II. Double Counterpoint is said to be inverted, 
when the upper part is placed beneath the lower, 
«r vice versa : thus (from Cherubini) — 

(a) Double Counterpoint for 2 Voices. 

We have, here, an example of what is called 
Double Counterpoint in the Octave, in which the 
Inversion is produced by simply transposing the 
upper part an octave lower, or the lower part 
an octave higher. But, the Inversion may take 
place in any other Interval ; thus giving rise to 
fourteen different species of Double Counterpoint 
— those, namely, invertible in the Second, Third, 
Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, 
Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, 
and Fifteenth, either above, or below. In order 
to ascertain what Intervals are to be avoided, 
in these several methods of Inversion, Contra- 
puntists use a table, constructed of two rows of 
figures, one placed over the other ; the upper row 
beginning with the unit, and the lower one, (in 
which the numbers are reckoned backwards,) with 
the figure representing the particular kind of 
Counterpoint contemplated. Thus, for Inversion 
in the Ninth, the upper row will begin with one, 
and the lower, with nine; as in the following 
example — 



By this table, we learn, that, when the relative 
position of two parts is reversed, the Unison will 
be represented by a Ninth ; the Second, by an 
Eighth; the Third, by a Seventh; and so on, 
to the end : and we are thus enabled to see, at a 
glance, how every particular Interval must be 
treated, in order that it may conform strictly to 
rule, both in its normal and its inverted condi- 
tion. In this particular case, the Fifth being 
the only Consonance which is answered by a 
Consonance, is, of course, the most important 
Interval in the series, and the only one with 
which it is possible to begin, or end : as in the 
following example from Marpurg — 


(a) Double Counterpoint in the Ninth. 

(5) Inversion — the upper part transposed a Ninth lower. 



Each of the different kinds of Inversion we 
have mentioned is beset by its own peculiar diffi- 
culty. For each, a separate 'table must be con- 
structed ; and, after carefully studying this, the 
Student will be able to distinguish, for himself, 
between the Intervals upon which he must de- 
pend for help, and those most likely to lead him 
into danger. Without the table, he will be un- 
able to move a step : with its aid, the process is 
reduced to a certainty. 

A detailed account of every possible kind 
of Inversion will be found in the works of Fux, 
Marpurg, Azzopardi, Cherubini, and other great 
writers on Counterpoint, to whom we must refer 
the reader for further information on the subject. 

III. Intervals are said to be inverted, when 
their lowest notes are raised an octave higher, 
and thus placed above the highest ones, or vice 
versa; thus — 

Inversion. Inversion. Inversion. 


In order to ascertain the Inversion of a given 
Interval, add to it as many units as are necessary 
to make up the number nine. The sum of these 
units will represent the Inverted Interval. Thus, 
since six and three make nine, the inversion of 
a Sixth will be a Third : as eight and one make 
nine, the Inversion of an Octave will be an 
Unison. The following Table shews the In- 
versions of all Intervals lying within the com- 
pass of the Octave — 



The process of Inversion not only changes the 
name of an Interval, but, in certain cases, and 
to a certain extent, influences its nature. Major 
Intervals, for instance, become Minor, by Inver- 
sion ; and Minor Intervals, Major. Augmented 
Intervals become Diminished, and Diminished 
ones, Augmented. But, the essential character 

* One and the same table will, however, serve for Inversion In the 
Ninth, and the Second ; the Tenth, and the Third ; the Eleventh, and 
the Fourth, etc., etc. 


of the Interval survives the operation, unchanged, 
and asserts itself, with equal force, in the Inversion. 
In whatever positionthey may be taken, Consonant 
Intervals remain always * consonant ; Dissonant 
Intervals, dissonant; and Perfect Intervals, per- 
fect. [See Interval.] 

IV. A Chord is said to be Inverted, when ary 
note, other than its Root, is taken in the lowest part. 

Thus, if the Root of a Common Chord be trans- 
posed from the lowest part, to one of the upper 
parts, and the Third placed in the Bass, the change 
will produce the Chord of the 6-3. If the Fifth be 
similarly treated, the result of the transference will 
be the Chord of the 6-4. Hence, the Chord of the 
6-3 is called the First Inversion of the Common 
Chord ; and the Chord of the 6-4, the Second. 








If the same process be applied to the Chord of 
the Seventh, we shall, by successively taking the 
Third, Fifth, and Seventh, in the Bass, obtain 
its three Inversions, the 6-5-3, the 6-4-3, and the 

Chord of the 






Chords, in their normal form, with the Root 
in the Bass, are called Fundamental Harmonies : 
those in which any other note occupies this 
position are called Derivative, or Inverted Chords. 
[See Harmony.] 

V. A Pedal Point {Point oVorgue) is described 
as Inverted, when the sustained note, instead of 
being placed in the Bass, is transferred to an 
upper part, as in Mozart's Pianoforte Fantasia in 
C minor (op. 11) : — 

— or, to a middle one, as in the following passage 
from Deh vieni, non tardar, (Nozze di Figaro,) 
where the Inverted Pedal is sustained by the 
Second Violins : — 

1 Although the Perfect Fourth— the Inversion of the Perfect Fifth- 
Is classed, by Contrapuntists, among Discords, It only forms an ap- 
parent exception to the general rule; since It Is admitted to be a 
Consonance, when it appears between the upper parts of a Chord. 

In these, and similar cases, the characteristic 
note (whether sustained, or reiterated), forms no 
part of the Harmony, which remains wholly un- 
affected, either by its presence, or removal. [See 
Harmony.] [W. S. R.] 

IONIAN MODE (Lat. Modus lonicus, Modus 
laxtius). The Thirteenth — or, according to some 
writers, the Eleventh — of the Ecclesiastical 
Modes. [See Modes, the Ecclesiastical.] 

The Final of the Ionian Mode is C. Its com- 
pass, in the Authentic form, extends upwards, 
from that note to its octave ; and, as its semi- 
tones occur between the third and fourth, and the 
seventh and eighth degrees, its tonality corre- 
sponds exactly with that of the major diatonic 
scale as used in modern music — a circumstance 
which invests it with extraordinary interest, when 
considered in connexion with the history of mu- 
sical science. Its Dominant is G — another point 
of coincidence with the modern scale. Its Me- 
diant is E, and its Participant, D. Its Conceded 
Modulations are F, A, and B ; and its Absolute 
Initials C, E, G, and frequently, in polyphonic 
music, D. Its chief characteristics, therefore, 
may be illustrated thus — 

Mode XIII (or XI). 
Fin. Part. Med. Dom. 

The compass of the Plagal, or Hypo-ionian 
Mode, lies a fourth lower than that of the Au- 
thentic form, ranging from G to G. The Domi- 
nant of this Mode is E, its Mediant, A, and its 
Participant, G. Its Conceded Modulations are 
D, F, and the F below the initial G ; and its 
Absolute Initials C, G, A, and, in polyphonic 
music, very frequently D. 


Mode XIV (or XII). 
Fin. Dom. 


It will be seen, that the semitones here fall 
between the third and fourth, and sixth and 
seventh degrees — exactly the position they occupy 
in the Authentic Mixolydian Mode : and, as the 
compass of these Modes is also identical, the one 
is often mistaken for the other, though they are 
as clearly distinguished, by their respective Finals, 
as the modern keys of Eb, and Ffl minor. 

Though not included in the system set forth by 
St. Gregory, the Ionian and Hypo-ionian Modes 
are certainly as old as the 8th or 9th century : 
for, when the question of the number of Modes to 
be retained in use was submitted to the Emperor 
Charlemagne, he at first said that eight seemed 
to be enough, but afterwards authorised^ the em- 
ployment of twelve, thus extending his indul- 
gence to all except the notoriously impure Locrian 
and Hypolocrian. Eight Modes have, indeed, 
been always considered enough for the chaunting 
of the Psalms : hence, we find no Psalm Tones in 
either the Ionian or Hypo-ionian Modes ; though 




other pieces of Ecclesiastical Music exist, in both. 
For instance, the fine Plain Chaunt ' Missa in 
Festis Solemnibus' — better known, perhaps, in a 
less pure form, as the ' Missa de Angelis' — is in 
the Authentic Ionian Mode, throughout : and a 
particularly captivating Hypo-ionian melody has 
been preserved to us, in the Paschal form of the 
Kesponsory 'In manus tuas, Domine,' as given 
in the Mechlin Vesperal. 1 

A strong prejudice existed against the Ionian 
Mode, in mediaeval times, when the softness of 
its intervals gave so great offence, that it was 
commonly called Modus lascivus. The early 
contrapuntists seem also to have regarded it with 
grave suspicion. It was only as Art advanced, 
that the inexhaustible extent of its capabilities 
became gradually apparent. When first em- 
ployed in polyphonic music, the Authentic scale 
was usually transposed (for the greater conveni- 
ence of ordinary combinations of voices) with the 
customary Bb at the signature ; in which con- 
dition it is often mistaken for the modern key of 
F. Palestrina delighted in using it, with this 
transposition, as the exponent of a certain tender 
grace, in the expression of which he has never 
been approached ; as in the ' Missa Brevis,' the 
Missa '^Eterna Christi munera,' the delightful 
Motets, *Sicut cervus desiderat,' and 'Pueri 
Hebraeorum,' and innumerable other instances. 
Giovanni Croce has also employed it in the Motet 
• Virtute magna' — known in England as ' Behold, 
I bring you glad tidings': while in our own 
School, we find instances of its use in the im- 
perishable little Anthem, ' Lord, for Thy tender 
mercy's sake,' and Gibbons's fine Service in F. 

The Hypo-ionian Mode is less frequently trans- 
posed, in writing, than the Authentic scale, though 
it is sometimesfound desirable to depress it a whole 
tone, in performance. This is the Mode selected, 
by Palestrina, for the Missa Papce Marcelli ; and 
by Orlando di Lasso, for his Motet, Confirma hoc, 
Dews — both which compositions are erroneously 
described, in the latest German reprints, as in 
the Mixolydian Mode. 

The melody of the Old Hundredth Psalm, in its 
original form, is strictly Hypo-ionian ; and is given 
in its true Mode, transposed, in the masterly 
setting, by John Dowland, printed in Ravens- 
croft's 'Book of Psalms' (Lond. 1621). [See 
Hymn ; Old Hundredth Psalm.] [W. S. R.] 

IPERMESTRA. An opera of Metastases 
which has proved very attractive to a long list 
of composers. The Dictionnaire Lyrique of 
Clement gives no less than 18 settings of it by 
Galuppi, Sarti, Jommelli, Hasse, Gluck, and 
other eminent musicians. [G.] 

IPHIGENIE EN AULIDE, 'tragedie-opeVa' 
in 3 acts ; words by the Bailli du Rollet, after 
Racine ; music by Gluck. Produced at the Aca- 
demic, Thursday, April 19, 1774. The nightly 
receipts at first were 5000 livres, a sum then 
unheard of. The sum taken on April 5, 1796, 
amounted, owing to the depreciation of the 

1 In the Ratisbon Vesperal, this melody Is reduced, from the Four- 
teenth, to the Sixth Mode; and a similar reduction, from Mode XIII, 
to Mode V, Is by no means uncommon, in Plain Chaunt Office-Books. ' 


assignats, to 274,900 livres. Up to Dec. 22, 
1824, it was played 428 times. [G.] 

lyrique' in 4 acts ; words by Guillard, music by 
Gluck. Produced at the Acade"mie, Thursday, 
May 18, 1779. On June 6, 1796, the assignat 
of 100 livres being equal to only 10 centimes, the 
receipts were 1,071,350 livres= 1,071 livres 7 
sous. Up to June 5, 1829, it was played 408 
times. On Jan. 23, 1 781, the tragedy of the same 
name by Piccinni, words by Dubreuil, was pro- 
duced at the Academie and survived in all 34 
representations. On the first night, one of the 
actresses being obviously intoxicated, a spectator 
cried out ' Iphige"nie en Tauride ! allons done, 
e'est Iphigeme en Champagne ! ' [G.] 

IRENE. An English version (or rather 
transformation) of Gounod's 'Reine de Saba,' 
by H. Farnie ; produced, as a concert, at the 
Crystal Palace, Aug. 12, 1865. [G.] 

IRISH MUSIC. Although it is not long since 
the opinion was generally entertained that Ireland 
had been sunk in barbarism until the English 
invasion, historical and antiquarian researches 
have established the fact that the island was in 
early times the seat of Christianized learning and 
a remarkable artistic civilization. Her music, 
however, and in particular her ancient school of 
Harp-playing, have from early times been in high 
repute, having been lauded in the writings of 
Brompton, Giraldus Cambrensis, and John of 
Salisbury (12th cent.). The latter writes thus : 
' The attention of this people to musical instru- 
ments I find worthy of commendation, in which 
their skill is beyond comparison superior to that 
of any nation I have seen.* Fuller's words are 
equally strong : ' Yea, we might well think that 
all the concert of Christendom in this war [the 
Crusade conducted by Godfrey of Boulogne] would 
have made no music, if the Irish Harp had been 
wanting.' Fordun (13th cent.), Clynn (14th 
cent.), Polidore Virgil and Major (15th cent.), 
Vincenzo Galilei, Bacon, Spenser, Stanihurst, and 
Camden (16th cent.), speak with equal warmth. 
Written music being however comparatively 
modern, no remains are existing, like the beau- 
tiful Irish illuminated MSS. and examples of 
ornamental Celtic metal-work, which would sub- 
stantiate the praises of the above writers. 

Three Irish airs, extracted from Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book, are given in vol. ii. p. 793 
of Mr. Chappell's ' Popular Music of the Olden 
Time' — (1) 'The Ho-hoane' (Ochone), (2) an 
'Irish Dumpe,' and (3) 'Callino Casturame.* 
They are all in 6-8 measure, and seem defi- 
cient in the characteristic features of Irish 
melody. To the latter air there is an allusion in 
Shakespeare, Henry V, act iv. sc. 4, where Pistol 
addresses a French soldier thus : — ' Quality ! 
Calen o custure me!' — an expression which has 
greatly puzzled the critics. It is evidently an 
attempt to spell as pronounced the Irish phrase 
' Colleen, oge astore ! ' — young girl, my treasure ! 

The earliest published collections of Irish 
music are by Burke Thumoth (1720); by Neill 


of Christ Church Yard, in the vicinity of the 
cathedral of that name in Dublin, a few years 
later; and by the son of Carolan in 1747. But 
these being for flute or violin, supply no idea of 
the polyphonic style of the music for the Irish 
Harp, an instrument with many strings of brass 
or some other metal : the Harp preserved in 
Trinity College, Dublin (commonly but erro- 
neously called the Harp of Brian Boru), having 
30 strings ; that of Robin Adair (an Irish chief- 
tain), preserved at Hollybrooke in co. Wicklow, 
37 strings; and the Dallway Harp (1621), 52 
strings. [See Harp, vol. i. p. 686 a.] During the 
incessant wars which devastated the island in 
the 1 6th, 17th, and 18th centuries, the art of 
music languished and decayed : there had indeed 
been many famous performers upon the Harp, 
the national instrument had appeared on the 
coinage of Henry VIII, and had also been ap- 
pended to some State papers a.d. 1567 ; but the 
powers of the law had been brought to bear 
upon the minstrels who sympathized with the 
natives, struggling at this time against the 
English power. When the wars of Elizabeth, 
Cromwell, and William III ceased, the dis- 
tracted country had peace for a while. Soon 
afterwards the Hanoverian Succession was set- 
tled, and foreign musicians visited Ireland, and 
remaining there, introduced the music of other 
countries ; the nobility and gentry too, abandon- 
ing their clannish customs, began to conform to 
the English model : and the Irish melodies went 
out of fashion. 

Some of the celebrated harpers of the 16th and 
/ 7th centuries were Rory Dall O'Cahan (whom 
Sir W. Scott makes the teacher of Annot Lyle) ; 
John and Harry Scott; Gerald O'Daly (the 
composer of Aileen-a-Roon) ; Miles Reilly (born 
1635); Thomas and William O'Conallon (1640); 
Cornelius Lyons ; Carolan (1670) ; Denis Hemp- 
son (1695), who in 1745, when 50 years old, 
went to Scotland and played before Charles 
Edward; Charles Byrne (1712) ; Dominic Mun- 
gan (1715); Daniel Black (171 5); Echlin Kane 
(1720), a pupil of Lyons, before named — Kane, 
who travelled abroad, also played for the Pre- 
tender, and was much caressed by the expatriated 
Irish in Spain and France; Thaddeus Elliot 
(1725); Owen Keenan (1725); Arthur O'Neill 
(1734); Charles Fanning (1736); and James 
Duncan, who having adopted the profession of 
a harper in order to obtain funds to carry on 
a law-suit in defence of his patrimony, was suc- 
cessful, and died in 1800, in the enjoyment of 
a handsome competence. 

Among efforts to arrest the decay of the 
Irish Harp School may be mentioned the 'Con- 
tentions of Bards ' held at Bruree, co. Limerick, 
1 73°-5°> under the presidency of the Rev. Charles 
Bunworth, himself a performer of merit ; a meet- 
ing of harpers at Granard, co. Longford, or- 
ganized by an Irish gentleman, James Dungan 
of Copenhagen, in 1781 ; and the assemblage of 
harpers at Belfast, 1792, when the promoters 
engaged the subsequently well-known collector, 
Edw. Bunting, to write down the music as per- 



formed. From this arose Bunting's three volumes 
of Irish Music, dating 1796, 1809, and 1840: 
accurate drawings, biographical notices, and some 
hundred airs have been left on record by Bunting, 
to whom indeed the subject owes whatever eluci- 
dation it has received. Ten performers from dif- 
ferent parts of Ireland attended the meeting of 
1 79 2 1 and their instruments, tuning, and use of a 
copious Irish musical vocabulary agreed in a 
remarkable manner. The compass of the Harps 
was from C below the bass stave to D above the 
treble one. Their scale was sometimes C, but 
mostly that of G. Each string, each grace, each 
feature had a name peculiar to it. It was proved 
that the old harpers had played with their nails, 
not the fleshy tip of the fingers. They used other 
scales beside those above, but agreed that G 
major was the most ancient : in this lies ' The 
Coolin ' (temp. Henry VIII) : — 

One of the most striking of the Irish airs is 
that called Colleen dhas, etc., to which Moore's 
lines, ' The valley lay smiling,' are adapted : it 
lies on a scale from A to A, but with semitones 
between 2-3 and 6-7, as follows : — 

p^HEL U'-'^tl g F^ 





It was of course to be expected, that singers, 
pipers, whistlers, or violinists, would not always 
adhere to the fixed semitones of a harp scale ; hence 
this air is sometimes corrupted, and its pathetic 
beauty impaired by the introduction of Gj. 
This scale, it may be remarked, is that used for 
the Scottish pipes, where the upper G|j is however 
frequently false; such Scotch airs as ' 
Cope' are suitable to it. 
An example of the scale 

1 Johnnie 

E to E, semitones between 2-3 and 5-6, is found 




in the fine Irish air, ' Remember the glories of 
Brian the Brave J' 

p^^i Jlj.^f^T^ 

gj^l^j l Jijjfl l iPflfl 

Here again, in careless performance, D# may 
have been used instead of Dh, once or twice. 
Very plaintive airs are found in the 4th scale 


^ =^ra-» z 

D to D, semitones between 3-4 and 6-7. In 
scale lies the air ' Weep on ! ' 



i^j Jl|r-C'?T]^ ig 

Moore seems to have noticed the peculiar wail, 
thrice repeated, of the second strain, but to have 
been unaware of the true cause, when he says, 
'We find some melancholy note intrude — some 
minor third or flat seventh, which throws its shade 
as it passes and makes even mirth interesting.' 

The bagpipe of Ireland is distinguished from 
the Scottish pipes by being blown with bellows 
instead of the 'mouth: from this cause, and the 
delicacy of its reeds, the tone is softer. Dr. Bur- 
ney remarked upon the perfection of the intervals 
of the Irish chanter (or melody-pipe), which he 
had never met with in the pipes of North 
Britain. The scale of the Irish bagpipe is 
from C below the treble stave to C above it, 
with all the semitones. The Irish instrument is 
also furnished with a sort of tenor harmony of 
chords : — 

The pipe of Scotland has nothing of this sort, 
and, as previously noticed, its scale is only nine 

1 This Is the distinction between the Musette and the Comemuse, 
the former answering to the Scotch and the latter to the Irish Pipe. 


notes and is not very true in general. There 
generally are two drones in the Scottish pipe, 
A and its octave ; and three in the Irish instru- 
ment, generally middle C, tenor C, and violon- 
cello C. The ancient Irish bagpipe, like that 
of Scotland, was an instrument of shrill and 
warlike tone, by which, as Stanihurst tells us, the 
natives were animated — as other people are by 
trumpets. The bagpipe, perhaps the oldest and 
most widely known instrument in the world, 
still subsists in Ireland ; the harp however is 
almost extinct : both have been in a great 
degree superseded by the violin and flute, which 
are cheaper, more readily repaired, and above 
all more portable : most of the ancient minstrels 
of Ireland found it necessary to maintain atten- 
dants to carry their harps. Of late years, during 
the Temperance movement and the various 
semi-military organizations which have sprung 
up in Ireland, brass and reed bands have be- 
come popular, and play through the streets of 
the towns ; the music produced by them is how- 
ever for the most part execrable. Choral classes 
are not popular throughout the country : they 
meet with no favour among the peasantry of the 
South and West. In the Eastern coast towns, 
like Dublin, Kingstown, Wicklow, and Wexford, 
choral music is not popular, and in the Northern 
town of Belfast, the only manufacturing com- 
munity in the island, we seek in vain for choral 
associations like those of Leeds, Bradford, etc., 
among the artizans, although oratorios are fairly 
supported by the middle class. 

Dismissing the bagpipe, ancient or improved, 
we find among ancient Irish wind-instruments the 
following : — (1) the Ben-Buabhill (pronounced 
Ben-Bufial), a real horn, generally that of a wild 
ox or buffalo ; (2) the Buinne, a metal trumpet 
— the horn and trumpet players were assigned 
regular places in the famous banqueting hall of 
Tara ; (3) the Corn, a large curved tube, pro- 
ducing sounds of great power ; (4) the Stoc, a 
smaller trumpet; (5) the Sturgan, another small 
trumpet. It is singular that all these pipes were 
curved : no straight pipe, like an oboe or clarinet, 
having been found in Ireland. (6) Some large 
horns were discovered, of which the embouchure, 
like that of the Ashantee trumpet, was at the side. 
Singular to say, the Irish possessed an instrument 
very similar to the Turkish crescent or • Jingling 
Johnny ' once used in the British army : it was 
called the 'Musical Branch,' and was adorned 
with numerous bells. There were single bells 
called clothra : the so-called crotals are merely 
sheep-bells of the 17th and 18th centuries. It 
should be remarked that the tympan was not a 
drum, as was formerly supposed, but a stringed 
instrument, and by the researches of the antiquary 
O'Curry it is proved to have been played with a 
bow. Some other allusions to music are found in 
Irish MSS., viz. the aidsbi, an union of all voices, 
a vocal tutti as it were : this was called cepoc in 
Scotland. The certan was some sort of chirping 
sound by female singers : the dordfiansa, a war- 
like song accompanied by the clashing of spears 
after the Greek manner. An interesting example 


was the Irish Cronan or drone bass, after the 
manner of the 'Ground' of Purcell's day, or of 
the Canon, 'Summer is icuinen in.' The Cronan 
was softly sung by a 'Chorus, while the principal 
voice sustained the solo. The following song (the 
air called ' Ballinderry ') refers to various rustic 
localities on the banks of the Bann and Lagan 
rivers : — 

' Tis pretty to be in Ballinderry, 
Tis pretty to be at Magheralin, 
Tis pretty to be at the Castle of Toome, 
'Tis pretty to be at Aghalee,' etc. 

To all of which the Cronan softly furnished the 
bass, ' Och-hone ! och-hone ! ' 



^i^rrc i rcJn i ^frcirCfC 

r ! 






• »i • 


r » r p 






jj-jj. J-IJ. 



Not only have Irish airs been often claimed as 
Scottish, as in the case of ' Limerick's lamenta- 
tion' or 'Lochaber,' but the close resemblance 
between some Irish and Scottish airs has led to 
confusion, and an attempt to generalize. Thus 
it has been quoted, as an unfailing characteristic of 
Irish as of Chinese melody, to omit the fourth and 
seventh of the scale ; this is quite erroneous. In 
many Irish airs, like ' I'd mourn the hopes that 
leave me,' these intervals are wanting ; in others 
they both exist : in some Irish airs the 4th and 7th 
are omitted in the first strain, and present in the 
second part of the air. Many canons have been 
laid down : Bunting, an excellent authority, 
thought the emphatic presence of the submediant, 
or sixth of the scale, a never-failing test of an Irish 
air ; but this note is emphatic in the Scottish air 
'Auld lang syne,' and in many others which 
might be cited. An anonymous writer in a 
Dublin periodical, 'The Examiner,' Aug. 18 16, 
seems to have remarked an interesting point of 
agreement in the structure of Irish melodies : 
* They are formed,' says the writer, ' of 4 strains 
of equal length : the first soft, pathetic, and sub- 
dued ; the second ascending in the scale, becomes 
more bold, energetic, and impassioned ; the third, 
a repetition of the second, is sometimes a little 
varied and more florid, and leads, generally by a 
graceful or melancholy passage, to the fourth. 

1 This explains the passage about the wild cats in the Story of 
Conall (.Campbell's Tales and Legends of the \V. Highlands, UW. 

which is always a repetition of the first.' To this 
model may be referred the pathetic ' Gramachree ' 
in Moore's lines 'The Harp that once through 
Tara's Halls.' 

• ■ 1 g [ ■•- a 

So also the fine marching tune, ' Byrne of Bally - 
manus ' : — 



It has been noticed that many Irish tunes end 
upon the fifth of the key, such as that adapted 
to Moore's song, ' Come, send round the wine ! ' 
Again, to commence as in the next example, and 
reiterate the ending note of the strain, has been 
described as the ' narrative form ' of Irish melody, 
e.g. 'St. Senanus,' to Moore's lines, '0 haste and 
leave this sacred isle ' : — 

and it has not failed to be remarked that Moore's 
fourth line, 'A female form I see,' in obliterating 
this peculiarity, does injustice to the melody by 
rendering the repetition impossible. 

A few words about the dances of Ireland will 
not be out of place. These are (1) the Planxty, 
or Pleraca, 6-8 time, with strains of unequal 
number of bars. (2) The Jig, or Rinnce, with an 
equal number of bars. The Jig was, as its 
name implies, an imitation of the giga of Corelli 
and Geminiani, both very popular in Ireland 
during the 1 8th century : of these there were 
(a) the Double Jig, {b) Single' Jig, (c) Hop 
Jig, and (d) Moneen, or Green-sod Jig. (3) 
The Reel, similar to that of Scotland, of which 
it is the national dance. (4) The Hornpipe. 
(5) Set dances, chiefly by one dancer, and (6) The 
Country dance. Many of the dances in 6-8 
measure were originally march tunes; for it is 
remarkable that the 'slow march,' as used by 
other nations, never prevailed among the Irish, 
whose battle music was frequently in the 6-8 
measure, with two accents in the bar. 

Every civil occupation in Ireland had also its 
appropriate music ; thus milking the cows (an 
occupation in which the ancient Irish took pecu- 
liar delight), spinning, and ploughing, had each 
its tune. 



Such are a few of the characteristics of a native 
minstrelsy second to none in the annals of abori- 
ginal art. But the lines of demarcation by which 
national peculiarities were preserved are being 
daily obliterated : steam has worked many won- 
ders, of which this is not the least remarkable. 
Ireland at the present day differs but little from 
England, Wales, or Scotland. The tunes whistled 
in the Irish streets are not the melodies to which 
Moore in 1 808 supplied words, but ' The March 
of the Men of Harlech,' ' Mandolinata,' and 'Stride 
lavampa' from Verdi's 'Trovatore.' The terrible 
famine of 1847, followed as it was by fever and 
a gigantic emigration that laid whole districts 
waste, could not fail to produce sweeping artistic 
as well as social changes. Much of the antient 
music must have perished with the population. 
Petrie's volume probably represents the last 
comprehensive effort to collect the aboriginal 
strains of Irish music : although given to the 
world in 1855, it embraced the labours of many 
previous years. 

It remains but to notice the various collections 
of Irish music. These are — 

L Burke Thumoth, cir. 1720. 1 10. 

2. Neal of Christ-church Yard, 11. 


3. Bunting's, first 1796, second 

1809, third 1840. 13. 

4. Francis Holden (cited by Geo. 

Petrie). 1806. 

& Moore, with Stevenson, and 
subsequently Sir II. Bi- 
shop ; ten numbers and 
supplement, 1808-1834. 

«. John Mulhulland of Belfast, 

7. G. Thomson (Beethoven's ac- 

companiments), 1814. 

8. Fltzsimons and John Smith, 

». Hon. Geo. O'Callaghan with 18. P. Hughes, 1860. 
Stevenson, 1821-2. ' 

Of these, few are reliable as authorities, save 
those of Petrie and Bunting, both honoured names 
in the annals of Irish music. It is to a Mr. 
Geo. Thomson, of the Trustees' Office, Edin- 
burgh, who was much interested in national airs 
from 1792-1820, especially those of Scotland, and 
engaged Pleyel, Kozeluch, Haydn, Beethoven, 
Hummel, and Weber, as arrangers of them, that 
we owe the Irish music arranged by Beethoven 
between the years 1810 and 1819. Among 16 
national airs, with variations, as duets for violin 
(or flute) and piano (op. 105, 107), are 3 Irish 
melodies — ' The last rose ' (a very incorrect ver- 
sion of the air), 'While History's Muse,' and 
'O had we some bright little isle.' Although 
interesting in their way, these little works of 
Beethoven are very inferior to his Vocal Collec- 
tions. Of these ' 1 2 Irish airs with accompani- 
ments of piano, violin, and cello ' (obbligato), were 
published in 1855 by Artaria & Co. of Vienna, as 
proprietors of Beethoven's MS. It is likely that 
Messrs. Power, owners of Moore's copyright 
lines, refused Mr. Thomson permission to pub- 
lish them along with Beethoven's arrangements, 
for in the new edition of Breitkopf & Hartel, 
of which they form No. 258, the melodies are 
adapted to verses (some comic, and of extreme 
vulgarity) by Joanna Baillie and others; three 

' The Citizen' magazine, 1840. 

Horncastle, London, 1844. 

O'Daly, 'Poets and Poetry of 
Munster,' 1853. 

G. Petrie, in connection with 
the ' Society for the Pre- 
servation of Irish Music,' 
1855. Of this valuable work 
but 1 vol. and part of a 
second appeared. 

Molloy, 1874. 

Joyce, 1875. 

Hoffmann, 1877. 

Dance tunes only. 
IS. M. Levey, 1858-78. 


are arranged as vocal duets ; two have a choral 
refrain. Another collection of 25 Irish airs form* 
No. 261 of Breitkopf & Hartel' b edition ; they are 
arranged in similar form and are equal in ex- 
cellence ; some are found in Moore, others are 
of doubtful authenticity : of the air called ' Garry- 
one,' Beethoven has different arrangements in 
each. That whoever furnished the great mu- 
sician with the text of the airs must have been 
careless or incompetent, will be evident by a 
comparison of the air 'Colleen dhas,' as found 
in No. 9 of Artaria's edition, with that already 
given in this article : not only is the scale 
destroyed and the air deprived of its pathetic 
peculiarity, but whole strains are omitted alto- 
gether. (The air is here transposed for the sake 
of comparison.) 

Some Irish airs among others arranged by 
Beethoven, appear in No. 259 of Breitkopf & 
Hartel's edition, and No. 262 consists of 20 of 
them alone. [R.P.S.] 

IRON CHEST, THE. An English play with 
music; the words by G. Colman, jun., the music 
by Storace. Produced at Drury Lane March 1 2, 
1796. A quintet from it, 'Five times by the 
taper's light,' was a favourite until comparatively 
lately, and will be found in the 'Musical Library.' 
The piece is based on Caleb Williams ; and the 
Advertisement to the reader contains the author's 
announcement that he was 'G. Colman the 
younger.' [G] 

ISAAC, Heinbich. The time and place of 
the birth of so great a man becomes of more 
than usual interest when upon its decision de- 
pends his claim to be called Germany's first great 
composer. If he was really a German, which all 
historians and the evidence of his works lead us 
to believe, it is certain that the beginning of the 
1 6th century found him the central figure of 
the few musicians his country could then num- 
ber. Neither Paul Hoffhaimer, the organist and 
composer, who, after a life of nearly ninety years 
(1449-1537) found his last resting-place at Salz- 
burg, nor Thomas Stoltzer, who, in his short time 
of thirty-six years made his name still more fa- 
mous, nor even Heinrich Finck with his lovely 
lieder and hymns, 1 — none of these were so great 
as Isaac. They had much in common with him, 
and their names may be found side by side with 

■ Which, nevertheless, failed to move the heart of his royal master 
the king of Poland, who laughingly replied to the composer's requeri 
for an increase of salary— 

' A little Finch (Fink) within Its cage 
Sings all the year, nor asks for wage.' 


his in many books of German lieder, but what- 
ever their genius may have been, they have not 
handed down such monuments of greatness as 
exist in the works of Isaac. In the higher forms 
of church composition they scarcely competed 
with him at all. 

According to one tradition he was born at 
Prague, and Ambros ' devotes a charming page 
of his history to showing the Bohemian character 
of some of the subjects used by the composer in 
his masses. He appears to have spent much of 
his time in Florence, and here he was sometimes 
called by the grand title * Arrhigo Tedesco ' in 
strange contrast to the modest, quaint ' h. yzac,' 
another variation of his name. His position in 
Florence, and one date in his life, is shown by a 
MS. said by Dr. Bimbault to have been in the 
library of Christ Church, Oxford, but of which 
we can find no trace there at present. In ' The 
Musical World' (Aug. 29, 1844) Dr. Bimbault 
describes this MS. as containing the music com- 
posed in 1488 by Henry Isaac for the religious 
drama, ' San Giovanni e San Paolo,' written by 
Lorenzo de* Medici for performance in his own 
family. He also states that Isaac was the 
teacher of Lorenzo's children, which fact we 
presume he learnt from the same MS. M. Fe*tis 
shows (1) that he was still, or again in Florence 
many years after 1488, for Aaron speaks of being 
intimate with Josquin, Obrecht and Isaac in 
that city, and Aaron could not have been twenty 
years old (i.e. old enough for such friendship) 
until the year 1509 ; (2) that he was also at one 
time in the service of the Emperor Maximilian I, 
who reigned from 1486-1519; and (3) that he 
must have died some years before 15 31, according 
to a note made upon a MS. of that date in the 
Munich Library, containing a work begun by 
him and finished by his pupil Senfl. 

Of Isaac's works, first in importance come 
23 masses, 10 printed, and 13 in MS. (1) The 
Library of the Lyceum at Bologna has a copy 
of the ' Misse Heinrici Izac,' printed by Petrucci 
in 1506, containing 5 masses, 'Charge de deul,' 
' Misericordias Domini,' ' Quant jay au cour,' ' La 
Spagna,' 'Comme femme.' (2) Bhaw's 'Opus 
decern miss arum 4 vocum' (Wittenberg, 1541) 
contains the 2 masses ' Carminum ' and ' Une 
Musque de Biscay.' (3) 'Liber quindecim mis- 
sarum,' etc. (Nuremberg, Petreius, 1539) con- 
tains the mass, ' praeclara,' one of the most 
remarkable of the composers works. It is com- 
posed on a subject of 4 notes reiterated without 
cessation throughout the mass. Some of the 
numbers, such as the 'Et in terra pax' and the 
4 Qui tollis,' have the character of slow move- 
ments by the lengthening of the four notes over 
several bars, the simple accompaniments of the 
other parts being very beautiful. The subject is 
kept in the treble nearly throughout the mass, 
which is one of Isaac's peculiarities. It is pre- 
sented in various forms in the earlier movements, 
first announced in triple time, then in long notes 
with accompaniments in triple time, till in the 
Credo it bursts out Alia Breve, forming a ma- 

1 Geschichte der Musik, Ui. 380-389. 

ISAAC. 23 

jestic climax. The Mass exists in score in the 
Berlin Library amongst the MS. materials col- 
lected by Sonnleithner for a history of music. 
A copy is also in the Fe"tis Library at Brussels 
(No. 1807). (4) Ott'8 collection, 'Missse 13, 
vocum' (Nuremberg, 1539), contains two masses, 
'Salve nos,' and 'Frbhlich Wesen.' One move- 
ment, ' Pleni sunt,' from the latter, is scored in 
Sonnleithner's MS. 

The 13 MS. masses are mentioned by Ambros 
in his History of Music (iii. 386) — in the Boyal 
Library at Vienna, eight — 'Missa Solennis,' 
Magne Deus, Paschalis, De Confessoribus, Domi- 
nicalis, De B. Virgine, and two De Martyribus, 
all in 4 parts ; and in the Munich Library, four 
6-part ones, — Virgo prudentissima, Solennis, De 
Apostolis, and one without name, and a 4-part 
one, ' De Apostolis.' A MS. volume of Masses 
in the Burgundy Library at Brussels (No. 6428) 
contains the 'Virgo prudentissima' under the title 
' Missa de Assumptione B. V. M., heric ysac' 

Eitner's Bibliographie der Musik-Sammelwerke 
(Berlin, 1877) mentions upwards of forty collec- 
tions between the years 1501 and 1564, which 
contain motets and psalms by Isaac. The Do- 
decachordon of Glarean contains five, three of 
which Burney (ii. 521-4), Hawkins (ch. 70) and 
Forkel, have printed in their Histories, Burney 
having copied them all in his note-books at the 
British Museum. Wyrsung's ' Liber selectarum 
cantionum,' etc. (Augsburg, 1520), contains five 
of the most important of Isaac's works of this 
class, amongst them two 6-part motets, ' Optima 
pastor' and ' Virgo prudentissima,' dedicated re- 
spectively to the Pope Leo X and the Emperor 
Maximilian I. An excellent MS. copy of this work 
exists in the Fe"tis Library at Brussels (No. 1679). 
Of Isaac's lieder, Ott's collection of '115 guter 
newer Liedlein' (Nuremberg, 1544) contains 10. 
One of them, ' Es het ein bawer ein tochterlein,' 
is given in score by Forkel in his History. This 
collection has lately been reprinted by the Ge- 
sellschaft fur Musikforschung (Liepmanssohn, 
Berlin). Forster's collection, ' Ein auszug guter 
Teutscher liedlein' (Nuremberg, Petreius, 1539) 
contains four, and amongst them ' Isbruck [Inns- 
bruck] ich muss dich lassen,' the words said to 
have been written by the Emperor Maximilian. 
The melody was afterwards sung to the hymns, 
' Welt ich muss dich lassen,' and ' Nun ruhen 
alle Walder,' and is one of the most beautiful of 
German chorales. It is introduced by Bach in the 
Passions-Musik (St. Matthew), in the scene of 
the Last Supper. (See 'Innsbruck' in Hymns 
Ancient and Modern.) Whether Isaac actually 
composed the melody, or only wrote the other parts 
to it, is doubtful, but it is remarkable that here, 
as in others of his works, the melody appears in 
the upper part, which was quite unusual in such 
compositions. It is in these Lieder that he 
shows his nationality. In them we have the 
music which the composer brought with him 
from his home, the trace of which is not lost in 
his greater compositions, but blending itself with 
the new influences of an adopted country, and of 
Netherland companions, gives to his music a 



threefold character, ' a cosmopolitan trait ' not to 
be found in the works of any other composer of 
the time (Ambros, iii. 382). [J.R.S.-B.] 

ISABELLA. [See Girardeau.] 

ISHAM, John, Mus. Bac, was for some years 
deputy organist for Dr. Croft. On Jan 22,1711, 
he was elected organist of St. Anne's, Soho, on 
Croft's resignation. On July 17, 1713, he grad- 
uated as Bachelor of Music at Oxford, and on 
April 3, 1 718, was elected organist of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn, with a stipend of £50 per 
annum, upon which he resigned his place at 
St. Anne's, the vestry objecting to his holding 
both appointments. Shortly afterwards he was 
chosen organist of St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
He composed some anthems, and joined with 
William Morley in publishing a joint-collection 
of songs, Isham's two-part song in which, 'Bury 
delights my roving eye,' was very popular in its 
day, and is reprinted by Hawkins in his History 
(ch. 168). He died in June 1726, and was 
buried on the 12 th of that month in St. Mar- 
garet's church. [W.H.H.] 

ISOUARD, or ISOARD, Nicolo, usually 
known as Nicolo, born Dec. 6, 1775, at Malta, 
where his father was a merchant and secretary 
of the ' Massa Frumentaria,' or government 
storehouses. He was taken to Paris as a boy, 
and educated at the Institution Berthaud, a 
preparatory school for the engineers and artillery. 
Much of his time was taken up with the study 
of the pianoforte under Pin, but he passed a 
good examination for the navy. He was how- 
ever recalled before receiving his commission, 
and on his return to Malta in 1 790 was placed 
in a merchant's office. His pianoforte-playing 
made him welcome in society ; and encouraged 
by this he went through a course of harmony 
with Vella and Azopardi, and with Amendola 
of Palermo — where he passed several years 
as clerk to a merchant — and completed his studies 
under Sala and Guglielmi at Naples, where he 
was employed by a German banking firm. He 
now determined to become a composer, and aban- 
doning commerce, much against his father's wish, 
produced his first opera, ' L'avviso ai Maritati,' 
at Florence in 1 795. After this date he called 
himself simply Nicolo, in order not to compromise 
his family, and it was under this name that he 
made his reputation. From Florence he went 
to Leghorn, and composed 'Artaserse,' an 
opera seria, which procured him the cross of 
San Donato of Malta. He succeeded Vincenzo 
Anfossi as organist of St. John of Jerusalem 
at Malta, and on the death of San Martino be- 
came maltre de chapelle to the Order, retaining 
both posts until the occupation of the island by 
the French (June 10-13, 1798). During these 
early years he acquired that facility which was 
afterwards one of his most marked characteristics. 
There was not a branch of composition which he 
did not attempt, as a list of his works at this 
date will show : — 9 Cantatas ; masses, psalms, 
and motets ; vocal pieces for concerts ; and S or 9 
operas which it is not necessary to enumerate. 

Prince de Catane ' (March 4) ; * Le 
Francals a Venlse ' (June 14, 1813) ; 
'Le Siege de Mezieres' (Feb. 12), 
with Cherubim, Catel, and Boiel- 
dieu; 'Joconde' 0?eb. 28); ' Jean- 
not et Colin' (Oct 17, 1814); 'Lea 
deux Maria' (March 18); and 
' L'une pour l'autre ' (May 11. 


At this time he was strongly urged to go to 
Paris. 1 On his arrival he found a useful friend 
in Rodolphe Kreutzer, and the two composed 
conjointly 'Le petit Page' (Feb. 14, 1800), and 
'Flaminius a Corinthe (Feb. 28, 1801). At 
the same time Delrieu re-wrote the librettos of 
two of his Italian operas, which were performed 
under their original titles, 'L' Impromptu de 
Campagne ' (June 30, 1800), and 'Le Tonnelier' 
(May 17, 1801). Isouard also made considera- 
ble mark in society as a pianist. To his friend- 
ship with Hoffmann and Etienne he owed not 
only sound advice, but a series of librettos upon 
which he was able to work with a certainty of 
success. Thus favoured by circumstances, he 
produced in 16 years no less than 33 operas. 
The following list is in exact chronological order, 
which Fe'tis has not been careful to observe : — 

'La Statue, oula fern me avare' j'Cendrillon' (Feb. 22, 1810); 'La 
(April 29); 'Michel Ange ' (Dec. 11, Victims de« Arts' (Feb. 27), with 
1802); 'Les Confidences' (Slarch Solie 1 and Berton; 'La Fete du 
30); 'Le Baiser et la Quittance ' I village ' (March 31); 'Le Billet de 
(June 17), with Mebul, Kreutier, loterie' (Sept. 14); 'Le Magicien 
and Boieldieu ; ' Le Mddecln Turc ' j sans Magie ' (Nor. 4, 1811) ; ' Lulll 
(Not. 19, 1803); 'L'lntrigue aux et Qulnault' (Feb. 27, 1812); 'Le 
feneires' (Feb. 24); 'Le Dejeuner 
de Garcons' (April 24); 'La Ruse 
Inutile ' (May 30) ; ' Leonce ' (Nov. 
18, 1805); 'La Prise de Fassau' 
(Feb. 8); 'Idala' (July 30, 1806); 
' Les Rendei-vous bourgeois ' (May 
9) ; ' Les Creanclers ' (Dec. 10, 1807) ; 
■Un Jour A Paris' (May 24); 'Ci- 
marosa* (June 28, 1808); 'L'ln- 
trigue au Be'rail" (April 25, 1809); 

To this long list must be added ' Aladin, on la 
Lampe merveilleuse,' which he did not live to 
finish, but which was completed by Benincori. 

Isouard had the gift of melody, and remark- 
able skill in disposing his voices so as to obtain 
the utmost effect. Instances of this are — the 
quintet in 'Michel Ange,' quite Italian in its 
form; the ensemble and trio in the 'Rendez- 
vous bourgeois ' ; the quartet in the 2nd act 
of ' Joconde ' ; the trio in the same opera, and 
that of the three sisters in ' Cendrillon ' ; the 
finale in the ' Intrigue aux fenetres ' ; the trio 
and the duet in ' Jeannot et Colin,' and many 
others. To these qualities must be added the ori- 
ginality and unadorned simplicity of his music, 
which gave it a kind of troubadour character. 
His later works, composed when Boieldieu was 
running him hard, are manifestly superior to 
the earlier ones, when he had no competitor. 
' Joconde,' the favourite romance in which will 
never be forgotten, far surpasses 'Cendrillon,' 
though inferior to 'Jeannot and Colin,' which 
for finish, taste, sentiment, and charm of style 
will always be appreciated by musicians. 

Another of Isouard's good points is that his 
comedy never degenerates into vulgarity. In 
Boileau's words, this composer — 

'Distingua le naif da plat et du buffon.' 
He strictly observed the proprieties of the stage, 
and thoroughly understood the French public. 

1 Fayolle, In his 'Dlctlonnalre des Muslciens.' states that General 
Vaubois took him to Paris as his private secretary, but a comparison 
of dates will show this to have been an Impossibility. General 
Vaubois was In command of the French at Malta, and with a gar- 
rison of 4,000 men maintained his position against the blockading 
forces of the allies without and the Maltese themselves within, for 
two years from 1798. Isouard, on the other hand, reached Paris with 
his family In 1799. Fe'tis has reproduced this error. 


In his own way he continued Gre*try's work, 
but being no originator was eclipsed by Boiel- 
dieu and afterwards by Auber. The successes 
of his rival provoked him beyond control, and 
when Boieldieu was elected by the Institut in 
1817 to succeed MeTiul in preference to him- 
self, his mortification was extreme. It was, per- 
haps, to drown the remembrance of this defeat, 
and of the triumphs of his opponent, that, al- 
though a married man, he plunged into a 
course of dissipation which ruined his health 
and brought on consumption, from which he 
died in Paris, March 23, 181 8. 

There is no biography of Isouard, nor indeed 
any sketch at all adequate. Several portraits have 
been published, but are of no artistic merit. From 
one of them was executed in 1853 the marble bust 
now in the foyer of the Opera Comique. 

Isouard is little known in England. The only 
two of his pieces which appear to have been 
brought out on the London stage are ' Les Ren- 
dezvous bourgeois' (St. James's, May 14, 1849), 
and 'Joconde,' English version by Mr. Santley 
(Lyceum, Oct. 25, 1876). [G.C.] 

ISRAEL IN EGYPT, the fifth of Handel's 
19 English oratorios. The present second part 
was composed first. The autograph of it is headed 
'Moses song. Exodus Chap. 15. Introitus. 
Angefangen Oct. 1, 1 738,' and at the end ' Fine 
Octob r . 11, 1738, den 1 Novemb 1 . vollig geen- 
digt.' The present first part is headed ' 1 5 Octob r . 
1738. Act y e 2 d .' Three pages were written 
and erased ; and on the fourth page begins the 
present opening recitative, headed ' Part y 6 2 of 
Exodus.' At the end of the Chorus 'And be- 
lieved' stands 'Fine della Parte 2 da d'Exodus. 

{October^} 1 738 -' The ™ t0 S™V h is » Buck " 
ingham Palace, and the two parts are bound in 
their present order, not in that of composition. 

The title ' Israel in Egypt ' appears in the an- 
nouncements of the first performance, which was 
on April 4, 1739. On April 11 it was performed 
again 'with alterations and additions.' Else- 
where it is announced that 'the Oratorio will 
be shortened and intermixed with songs' — four 
in number. It was given a third time April 
1, 1740, with the Funeral Anthem as a first 
part, under the name of the 'Lamentation of 
the Israelites for the Death of Joseph.' 

Dr. Chrysander suggests that the adaptation 
of the Funeral Anthem as an introduction fol- 
lowed immediately on the completion of Moses' 
Song, and that 'Act y° 2 d ' followed on that 
adaptation ; and it is difficult to resist the con- 
conclusion that he is right, though beyond the 
words 'Act y* 2 d ' and the addition of a short over- 
ture to the Funeral Anthem there is no positive 
evidence. The use of the word ' Act ' prevents 
our taking ' Act the 2 d ' as ' second ' in relation 
to ' Moses Song ' ; it was second in order of com- 
position, but not in historic order, nor in order of 
performance — and 'Moses Song' contains the 
musical climax to the whole work. 

The first subsequent performance in England 
of the work as composed, without additions or 



omissions, was given by the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, Feb. 23, 1849. In Germany it was first 
performed in any shape by the Sing-Akademie 
of Berlin, Dec. 8, 1831. 

This oratorio is distinguished among those of 
Handel as much for its sustained grandeur as 
for the great number of allusions to previous 
compositions, both of Handel's own and of other 
musicians, that it contains. Those which have at 
present been recognised are as follow : — 

'They loathed.' Shortened from Fugue in A minor in 
his own Six organ fugues. 

' He spake the word.' The voice parts from a Symphony 
for double orchestra in Stradella's Serenata. 1 

Hailstone Chorus. From Stradella's Serenata. 

' He smote all the firstborn.' From Fugue in A minor 
in his own Six organ fugues. 

' But as for his people.' From Stradella's Serenata. 

' Egypt was glad' Almost note for note from an Organ 
canzona in D by Kerl.2 

' And believed the lord.' From Stradella's Serenata. 

' He is my God,' almost note for note from the opening 
of Erba's Magnificat. 

'The Lord is my strength.' From 'Et exultavit' in 
the Magnificat. 

' The Lord is a man of war.' From ' Te eternum Pa- 
trem ' in Urio's Te Deum, and 'Quia fecit' in Magnificat. 

' The depths have covered them.' From Magnificat. 

' Thy right hand' From ditto, 'Quia respexit.' 

' Thou sen test forth.' Almost note for note from ditto, 
' Fecit potentiam.' 

'And with the blast.' From ditto, 'Deposuit' 

'The earth swallow'd them.' Almost note for note 
from ' Sicut erat' in ditto. 

' Thou in Thy mercy.' From ditto, ' Esurientes.' 

' I will sing unto the Lord.' Repeated from beginning 
of Part IL 

Notwithstanding this astonishing number of 
adaptations great and small, so vast is the fusing 
power of Handel's genius, and also perhaps so 
full of faith the attitude in which a great work 
of established reputation is contemplated, that 
few hearers suspect the want of unity, and even 
Mendelssohn, keen as was his critical sense, 
while editing the ' Israel ' for the Handel Society, 
never drops a hint of any anomaly or inconsistency 
in the style of any of the pieces. Mendelssohn 
wrote organ accompaniments to the songs and 
duets, though, strange to say, they have seldom 
been used in public in this country. 

As to the compiler of the words of ' Israel ' there 
is neither evidence nor tradition. It is therefore 
possible that they may have been selected by 
Handel himself. In the first part some of the 
words are taken from the Prayer-book version 
of the Psalms. In other cases the ordinary 
Authorised version has been adopted, but not 
exactly followed. [G.] 

ISTESSO TEMPO, L', 'the same time,' a 
caution in cases of change of rhythm or time- 
signature. It may mean that the measure re- 
mains as before while the value of the note 
changes — as in the change from 9-16 to 6-16 in 
Beethoven's Op. in, or from 2-4 to 6-8 in 
' Bagatelle,' Op. 119, No. 6 ; or that the measure 
changes while the note remains — as in Op. 126, 
No. 1 ; or that neither note nor measure change 
—as in Op. Ill, 6-16 to 12-32, and Op. 120, 
Var. 3. Or that a former tempo is resumed, 
as in his Sonata, op. no — 'L'istesso tempo di 
Arioso,' ' L'istesso tempo della fuga.' [G.] 

> See the Analyses of Urio's Te Deum and Btr idella's Serenata, by 
Mr. l'rout, in the Monthly Musical Record for Not. and Dec. 1871. 
a Printed by Hawkins, chap. 124. 



comic opera in 2 acts ; words by Anelli, music by 
Rossini. Produced at San Benedetto, Venice, in 
1 81 3; at Paris, Feb. 1, 181 7; and in London, 
Jan. 27, 1819; in English, Dec. 30, 1844. [G.] 

ITALIAN SIXTH, THE, is the augmented 
sixth accompanied by the major third, as 


IVANOFF, or IVANHOFF, Nicholas, born 
in 1809, an Italianized Russian, appeared in 
England in the season of 1834. * P u pil of 
E. Bianchi, he had a very beautiful tenor voice, 
• a chaste and simple style of singing, but little 
execution' (Lord Mount-Edgcumbe). On the 
other hand, Mr. Chorley wrote, — 'Nothing could 
be more delicious as to tone — more neat as to exe- 
cution. No such good JRodrigo in Otello has 
been heard since I have known the opera : ' and 
Moscheles, in his Diary, says, • he attracted the 
public by his great flexibility of voice, but he 
displeased my German ear by using his head- 
voice too frequently, particularly when singing 
Schubert's Serenade. His sickly, sentimental 
style became so wearisome that some wag cir- 
culated a joke about him declaring that his real 
name was " I've enough." ' Sweet as were his 
voice and method of vocalisation, his acting and 
appearance on the stage were utterly null and 


insignificant; 'In England, he was never seen 
to attempt to act; subsequently, he essayed to 
do so in Italy, I have heard ; but, by that time, 
the voice had begun to perish' (Chorley). He 
reappeared in London in 1835 and 37, but he 
never fulfilled the promise of his first season, and 
soon retired. With others of the Italian troupe 
he had taken part, but without effect, in the 
Festival at Westminster Abbey in 1 834. Ivanhoff 
is still living in retirement at Bologna. [J. M.] 
IVES, Simon, was a vicar choral of St. Paul's 
cathedral. In 1633 he was engaged, together 
with Henry and William Lawes, to compose the 
music for Shirley's masque, ' The Triumph of 
Peace,' performed at Court by the gentlemen of 
the four Inns of Court on Candlemas day, 1633-4, 
for his share in which he received £100. On 
the suppression of choral service he became a 
singing master. His elegy on the death of 
William Lawes, ' Lament and mourn,' appeared 
in separate parts at the end of H. and W. 
Lawes's ■ Choice Psalmes,' 1 648. It is given in 
score in J. S. Smith's ' Musica Antiqua.' Many 
catches and rounds by Ives are printed in 
Hilton's ' Catch that Catch can,' 1652, and Play- 
ford's 'Musical Companion,' 1672; 'Si Deus 
nobiscum,' 3 in 1, is given in Hullah's 'Vocal 
Scores.' Songs by him are to be found in various 
collections. He died in the parish of Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, in 1 66 2. [W. H. H.] 


JACK (Ft. Sautereau; Ital. Saltarello; Ger. 
Docke, Springer). In the action of the 
harpsichord tribe of in- 
struments the jack repre- 
sents the Plectrum. It is 
usually made of pear-tree, 
rests on the back end of 
the key-lever, and has a 
moveable tongue of holly 
working on a centre, and 
kept in its place by a bristle 
spring. A thorn or spike 
of crowquill projects at 
right angles from the tongue. 
On the key being depressed 
the jack is forced upwards, 
and the quill is brought to 
the string, which it twangs 
in passing. The string is 
damped by the piece of 
cloth above the tongue. 
When the key returns to its 
level, the jack follows it 
and descends; and the quill 
then passes the string with- 
out resistance or noise. In 
some instruments a piece 
of hard leather is used in- 
stead of the quill. In cut- 
ting the quill or leather great attention is 

paid to the gradation of elasticity which 
secures equality of tone. A row of jacks ia 
maintained in perpendicular position by a rack ; 
and in harpsichords or clavecins which have 
more than one register, the racks are moved to 
or away from the strings by means of stops 
adjusted by the hand ; a second rack then en- 
closing the lower part of the jack to secure its 
position upon the key. We have in the jack 
a very different means of producing tone to the 
tangent of the clavichord or the hammer of the 
pianoforte. The jack, in principle, is the plec- 
trum of the psaltery, adjusted to a key, as the 
tangent represents the bridge of the monochord 
and the pianoforte hammer the hammer of the 
dulcimer. We do not exactly know when jack 
or tangent were introduced, but have no reason 
to think that the invention of either was earlier 
in date than the 14th century. By the middle 
of the 1 6th century the use of the clavecin in- 
struments with jacks had become general in 
England, the Netherlands and France; and in 
Italy from whence they would seem to have 
travelled. They were used also in Germany, but 
the clavichord with its tangents asserted at least 
equal rights, and endured there until Beethoven. 
The first years of the 18th century had witnessed 
in Florence the invention of the hammer-clavier, 
the pianoforte ; before the century was quite 
out the jack had everywhere ceded to the 


hammer. Although leather for the tongue of 
the jack has been claimed to have been the 
invention of Pascal Taskin of Paris in the 
1 8th century (his much-talked-of ■ peau de 
buffle'), it has been found in instruments of the 
1 6th and 17th; and it may be that leather 
preceded the quill, the introduction of which 
Scaliger (1484-1550) enables us to nearly date. 
He says (Poetices, lib. i. cap. lxiii) that when he 
was a boy the names clavicymbal and harpsichord 
had been appellations of the instrument vulgarly 
known as monochord, but that subsequently 
points of crowquill had been added, from which 
points the same instrument had become known 
as spinet — possibly from the Latin * spina,' a 
thorn, though another and no less probable 
derivation of the name will be found under 

Shakspeare's reference to the jack in one of 
his Sonnets is well-known and often quoted— 

' Do I envy those jacks that nimble leap 
To kiss the tender inward of thy hand ' ; 

but appears to mean the keys, which as the 
' sweet fingers ' touch them make ' dead wood more 
blest than living lips.' A nearer reference has 
been preserved by Rimbault (The Pianoforte, 
London, i860, p. 57) in a MS. note by Isaac 
Reed to a volume of old plays. Lord Oxford 
said to Queen Elizabeth, in covert allusion to 
Raleigh's favour and the execution of Essex, 
'When jacks start up, heads go down.' [A. J.H.] 

JACKSON, John. One Jackson, who in 
1669 held the office of 'Instructor in Musick' 
at Ely Cathedral for three months, has been 
conjectured to be identical with the John Jack- 
son who early in 1676 was appointed nominally 
a vicar choral but in fact organist of Wells 
Cathedral. 1 His name is not found in the 
Chapter books after 1688, so that it is presumed 
that he died or resigned in that year. He com- 
posed some church music now almost wholly 
lost. An anthem, 'The Lord said unto my 
Lord,' included in the Tudway Collection (Harl. 
MS. 7338) ; a Service in C, in the choir books 
of Wells, and four chants in a contemporary 
MS. organ part in the library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society are all his compositions that 
are to be found complete. The last-named MS. 
contains the organ parts of the Service in C and 
8 anthems, and in the choir books at Wells are 
some odd parts of an anthem and a single part 
of a Burial Service. [W. H. H.] 

JACKSON, William, known as Jackson of 
Exeter, son of a grocer in that city, was born in 
May 1 730. He received a liberal education, and 
having displayed a strong partiality for music, 
was placed under John Silvester, organist of 
Exeter Cathedral, for instruction. In 1748 he 
removed to London and became a pupil of John 
Travers. On his return to Exeter he established 
himself as a teacher. In 1755 he published a 
set of • Twelve Songs,' ' which were so simple, 

1 In some cathedrals the statute* do not specify an organist as an 
officer of the church. In such the custom Is to assign to one of the 
vicars choral the performance of the duty of organist. 



elegant, and original, that they immediately be- 
came popular throughout the kingdom.' He 
afterwards produced • Six Sonatas for the Harpsi- 
chord,' ' Elegies for three voices,' and a second 
set of * Twelve Songs.' These were followed by 
1 Six Epigrams,' a third set of ' Twelve Songs,' 
and a setting of Warton's 'Ode to Fancy.' In 
1 767 he composed the music for a dramatic piece 
called ' Lycidas,* altered from Milton's poem, on 
the occasion of the death of Edward, Duke of 
York, brother of George III, and produced at 
Covent Garden on Nov. 4, but never repeated. 
He next published 'Twelve Canzonets for two 
voices,' which were highly successful, and one of 
which, 'Time has not thinned my flowing 
hair,' enjoyed a long career of popularity. To 
these succeeded 'Eight Sonatas for the Harpsi- 
chord,' and 'Six Vocal Quartetts.' In 1777 
Jackson received the appointments of sub- 
chanter, organist, lay vicar, and master of the 
choristers of Exeter Cathedral. In 1780 he 
composed the music for General Burgoyne's 
opera, * The Lord of the Manor,' which was pro- 
duced at Drury Lane, Dec 27, with great success, 
and kept possession of the stage for more than 
half a century, mainly owing to Jackson's music. 
The beautiful song, ' Encompassed in an angel's 
frame,' is one of those gems which time can 
never affect. In 1 782 Jackson published ' Thirty 
Letters on various subjects,' — three of them 
relating to music, which were well received and 
in 1795 reached a third edition. 'The Meta- 
morphosis,' a comic opera, of which Jackson was 
believed to be the author as well as, avowedly, 
the composer, was produced at Drury Lane, Dec. 
5, 1783, but performed only two or three times. 
In 1 79 1 Jackson published a pamphlet entitled 
' Observations on the present State of Music in 
London.' In 1798 he published 'Four Ages, 
together with Essays on various subjects,' in- 
tended as additions to the ' Thirty Letters.' His 
other musical publications comprised a second 
set of 'Twelve Canzonets for two voices,' 'Twelve 
Pastorals,' a fourth set of 'Twelve Songs,' 
'Hymns in three parts,' and 'Six Madrigals.* 
His cathedral music was collected and published 
many years after his death by James Paddon, 
organist of Exeter Cathedral. He died of dropsy, 
July 12, 1803. Jackson employed much of his 
leisure time in painting landscapes in the style 
of his friend Gainsborough, in which he attained 
considerable skill. Whilst much of his music 
charms by its simplicity, melodiousness, refine- 
ment and grace, there is also much that sinks 
into tameness and insipidity ; his church music 
especially is exceedingly feeble. Notwithstanding 
this, 'Jackson in F' is even now popular in some 
quarters. [W.H.H.] 

JACKSON, William, known as Jackson of 
Masham, born Jan. 9, 1816, was son of a miller, 
and furnishes a good instance of the power of 
perseverance and devotion to an end. His passion 
for music developed itself at an early age, and his 
struggles in the pursuit of his beloved art read 
almost like a romance in humble life. He built 
organs, learned to play almost every instrument, 



wind and string, taught himself harmony and 
counterpoint from books, until at length, in 1832, 
when he had reached the mature age of 16, 
the lord of the manor of Masham having pre- 
sented a finger organ to the church, Jackson was 
appointed organist with a stipend of £30. 
Through the circulating library in Leeds, he 
was able to study the scores of Haydn, Mozart, 
Spohr and Mendelssohn. In 1839 he went into 
business at Masham as a tallow-chandler, and 
in the same year published an anthem, 'For joy 
let fertile valleys ring.' In 1840 the Hudders- 
field Glee Club awarded him their first prize for 
his glee, 'The sisters of the sea'; and in 1841 
he composed for the Huddersfield Choral Society 
the 103rd Psalm for solo voices, chorus and 
orchestra. In 1 845 he wrote an oratorio, ' The 
Deliverance of Israel from Babylon,' and soon 
afterwards another entitled 'Isaiah.' In 1852 
he made music his profession and settled in 
Bradford, where, in partnership with William 
Winn, the bass singer, he entered into business 
as a musicseller, and became organist, first, of 
St. John's Church, and afterwards (in 1856) of 
Horton Lane Chapel. On Winn's quitting 
Bradford, Jackson succeeded him as conductor of 
the Choral Union (male voices only). He was 
chorus-master at the Bradford festivals in 1853, 
56 and 59, and became conductor of the Festival 
Choral Society on its establishment in 56. For 
the festival of 56 he again set the 103rd Psalm, 
and for that of 59 composed 'The Year,' a 
cantata, the words selected by himself from 
various poets. He compiled and partly composed 
a set of psalm tunes, and harmonised 'The 
Bradford Time Book,' compiled by Samuel Smith. 
Besides the works already mentioned, he com- 
posed a mass, a church service, anthems, glees, 
part-songs and songs, and wrote a Manual of 
Singing, which passed through many editions. 
His last work was a cantata entitled ' The Praise 
of Music' He died April 15th, 1866. His son, 
William, born 1853, was bred to the profession 
of music, became organist of Morningside 
Church, Edinburgh, and died at Ripon, Sept. 10, 
1877. [W.H.H.] 

JACOB, Benjamin, born in London in 1 778, 
was at a very early age taught the rudiments of 
music by his father, an amateur violinist. When 

7 years old he received lessons in singing from 
Robert Willoughby, a well-known chorus-singer, 
and became a chorister at Portland Chapel. At 

8 years of age he learned to play on the harp- 
sichord, and afterwards studied that instrument 
and the organ under William Shrubsole, organist 
of Spa Fields Chapel, and Matthew Cooke, organist 
of St. George, Bloomsbury. At 10 years of age 
he became organist of Salem Chapel, Soho, and 
little more than a year afterwards was appointed 
organist of Carlisle Chapel, Kennington Lane. 
Towards the latter end of 1790 he removed to 
Bentinck Chapel, Lisson Green, where he re- 
mained until Dec. 1 794, when the Rev. Rowland 
Hill invited him to assume the place of organist 
at Surrey Chapel. In 1 796 he studied harmony 
under Dr. Arnold. In 1800 he conducted a series 


of oratorios, given under the direction of Bartle- 
man in Cross Street, Hatton Garden. As he 
advanced in years he became more and more 
distinguished as one of the best organists of his 
time, and in 1808 began a series of perform- 
ances at Surrey Chapel, of airs, choruses, and 
fugues played upon the organ alone, without any 
interspersion of vocal pieces. In that and the 
following year Samuel Wesley addressed to him, 
as to a kindred spirit, a remarkable series of 
letters on the works and genius of John Sebastian 
Bach. These letters were published in 1875 by 
Miss Eliza Wesley, the writer's daughter; the 
originals are now in the library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society. In 1 809 Jacob gave an organ 
performance at Surrey Chapel in conjunction with 
Wesley, the two playing alternately the fugues 
of Bach and Handel and other pieces. In 181 1, 
181 2 and 1 81 4 Jacob repeated the performances 
in conjunction with Dr. Crotch. As a conse- 
quence of his high reputation he was frequently 
engaged to open new organs and to act as judge 
on trials for vacant organists' seats. 

In Nov. 1823 he quitted Surrey Chapel for the 
newly-erected church of St. John, Waterloo Road. 
This led to a dispute between him and the Rev. 
Rowland Hill, resulting in a paper war, in which 
the musician triumphed over the divine. The 
excitement of the controversy, however, proved 
too much for Jacob ; he was attacked by disease, 
which developed into pulmonary consumption, 
and terminated his existence Aug. 24, 1829. 
His compositions were not numerous, consisting 
principally of psalm tunes and a few glees. The 
collection of tunes, with appropriate symphonies, 
set to a course of psalms, and published under 
the title of ' National Psalmody,' which he edited, 
is well known. [W. H .H.j 

JACQUARD, Leon Jean, eminent violon- 
cellist, born at Paris Nov. 3, 1826; studied 
at the Conservatoire, where he obtained the 2nd 
prize for cello in 1842, and the 1st prize in 1844. 
In 1876 he married Mile. Laure Bedel, a pianist 
of distinction, and at the end of 1877 succeeded 
Chevillard as professor of his instrument at the 
Conservatoire. Jacquard is eminently a classical 
player — a pure and noble style, good intonation, 
and great correctness : if he has a fault it is that 
he is somewhat cold, but his taste is always irre- 
proachable, and his seances of chamber music are 
well attended by the best class of amateurs. He 
has composed some Fantasias for the cello, but it 
is as a virtuoso and a professor that he will be 
remembered. [G. C] 

JACQUIN, VON. A Viennese family with 
which Mozart was on the most intimate and 
affectionate terms. The father, Johann Franz 
Freiherr von Jacquin, was a celebrated botanist, 
whose house in the botanical garden was the 
great resort of the most intellectual and artistic 
society of Vienna ; the son Gottfried, an accom- 
plished amateur with a fine bass voice, was a very 
intimate friend of Mozart's, and the recipient of 
some of his cleverest letters ; and the daughter 
Franziska was one of his best pupils (Letter, 
Jan. 14, 1787). For Gottfried he wrote the air 


'Mentre ti lascio' (Kbchel 513), and for the 
family more than one charming little Canzonet 
for 2 sopranos and a bass, such as 'Ecco quel 
fiero' or 'Due pupille amabili ' (K. 436, 439). 
An air of Gottfried's, ' Io ti lascio ' is to this day 
often sung in concert rooms as Mozart's. He 
took part in the funny scene which gave rise to 
Mozart's comic 'Band! Terzett ' — 'Liebes Mandl, 
wo ists Bandl.' The lines which Gottfried wrote 
in Mozart's Album — ' True genius is impossible 
without heart ; for no amount of intellect alone 
or of imagination, no, nor of both together, can 
make genius. Love, love, love is the soul of 
genius' — characterise him as faithfully as those 
of his father, written in the same book, do the 
old man of tact and science s— 
' Tibi, qui posais 

Blandus auritas fidibus canoris 
Ducere quercus, 
In amicitise tesseram.' TG.l 

JADASSOHN, Salomon, born at Breslau 
Sept. 15, 1 83 1. His years of study were passed 
partly at home under Hesse, Liistner and Brosig, 
partly at the Leipzig Conservatorium (1848), 
partly at Weimar under Liszt, and again in 
1853, at Leipzig under Hauptmann. Since that 
time he has resided in Leipzig, first as a teacher, 
then as the conductor of the Euterpe concerts, 
and lastly in the Conservatorium as teacher of 
Harmony, Counterpoint, Composition, and the 
Pianoforte. His compositions are varied and 
numerous (58, to May 1879). Among the most 
remarkable are Symphony No." 3, in D (op. 50) ; 
3 Serenades for Orchestra (ops. 42, 46, 47); 2 
pieces for Chorus and Orchestra (ops. 54, 55) ; 
Serenade (op. 35) and Ballet-music (op. 58), 
each for P. F. and each a series of canons ; songs, 
duets, etc. His facility in counterpoint is great, 
and his canons are both ingenious and effective. 
As a private teacher Jadassohn is highly 
esteemed. [G.] 

JADIN, Louis Emmanuel, son, nephew, and 
brother of musicians, born Sept. 21, 1768, at 
Versailles, where his father Jean, a violinist and 
composer, settled at the instigation of his brother 
Georges, a performer on the bassoon attached to 
the chapelle of Louis XV. As a child Louis 
showed great talent for music ; his father taught 
him the violin, and Hullmandel the piano. After 
being ' page de la musique ' to Louis XVI, he was 
in 1 789 appointed 2nd accompanyist, and in 1 791 
chief maestro al cembalo at the Theatre de Mon- 
sieur, then in the Rue Feydeau. This post gave 
him the opportunity of producing 'Joconde' 
(Sept. 14, 1 790), a comic opera in 3 acts. Jadin's 
industry was extraordinary. Though fully en- 
gaged as composer, conductor, and teacher, he 
lost no opportunity of appearing before the 
public. He composed marches and concerted 
pieces for the Garde Nationale ; patriotic songs 
and pieces de circonstance such as ' Le Congrls 
des Rois,' in conjunction with others, 'L'Apo- 
theose du jeune Barra,' 'Le Siege de Thionville' 
( J 793). ' Agricol Viola ou le jeune heros de la 
Durance,' for the various fetes of the Revolution ; 
and 38 operas for the Italiens, the Theatres 



Moliere and Louvois, the Varietes, the Academie, 
and chiefly the Feydeau. Of this mass of music, 
however, nothing survives but the titles of 
'Joconde' and 'Mahomet II' (1803) familiar 
to us from the operas of Isouard and Rossini. 
This does not necessarily imply that Jadin was 
without talent, but like many others his librettos 
were bad, and his music, though well written, 
was wanting in dramatic spirit, and in the style, 
life, passion and originality necessary for success. 
In fact his one quality was facility. 

In 1802 he succeeded his brother as professor 
of the pianoforte at the Conservatoire, and was 
' Gouverneur des pages ' of the royal chapel from 
the Restoration to the Revolution of 1830. He 
received the Legion of Honour in 1824. To the 
close of his life he continued to produce romances, 
nocturnes, trios and quartets, string quintets, and 
other chamber-music. Of his orchestral works, 
' La Bataille d' Austerlitz ' is the best known. He 
was one of the first to compose for two pianos, 
and was noted as the best accompanyist of his 
day. In private life he was a good talker, and 
fond of a joke. He died in Paris, April n, 1853. 

His brother Hyacinthe, born at Versailles 
1769, a pupil of Hullmandel's, and a brilliant 
and charming pianist, played at the Concerts 
Feydeau in 1796-97, and was a favourite with 
the public up to his early death in 1802. On 
the foundation of the Conservatoire he was ap- 
pointed professor of the pianoforte, but had 
barely time to form pupils, and both Louis Adam 
and Boieldieu excelled him as teachers. He 
composed much both for his instrument and 
the chamber ; 4 concertos and sonatas for 2 and 
4 hands for P. F. ; sonatas for P. F. and violin ; 
string trios and quartets, etc. ; all now old- 
fashioned and forgotten. [G.C.] 

JAHNS, Friedrich Wilhelm, born at Berlin 
Jan. 2, 1809. His talent for music showed it- 
self early, and strongly ; but the first important 
event in his musical life was the first performance 
of Freischfltz (June 18, 1821), which not only 
aroused his enthusiasm for music, but made him 
an adherent of Weber for ever. After some hesi- 
tation between the theatre and the concert-room, 
he finally chose the latter, and became a singer 
and teacher of singing, in which capacity he was 
much sought for. In 1845 he founded a singing 
society, which he led for 25 years. In 1849 he 
was made 'Konigliche Musikdirector ' ; in 1871 
'Professor'; and has since been decorated with 
the orders of Baden, Saxony, Bavaria, and Han- 
over. He has composed and arranged much for 
the piano, but the work by which he will live 
for posterity is his Thematic Catalogue of Weber's 
works ('CM. vonW. in Beinen Werken,' 1871), 
founded on Kochel's Catalogue of Mozart, but 
much extended in limits beyond that excellent 
work. It is in fact a repertory of all that concerns 
the material part of those compositions, including 
elaborate information on the MSS., editions, per- 
formances, Weber's handwriting, etc. etc. — a large 
vol. of 500 pages. The library which he formed 
in the course of this work, is one of the sights of 
Berlin. [G.] 



JAELL, Alfred, pianoforte player, born 
March 5, 1832, at Trieste. Began his career at 
1 1 years old as a prodigy, and seems to have ac- 
quired his great skill by constant performance in 
public. In 1844 he was brought to Moscheles 
at Vienna, who calls him a Wunderknabe. In 
1845 and 6 he resided in Brussels, next in Paris, 
and then, after the Revolution of 1848, went to 
America for some years. In 1 854 he returned to 
Europe. In 1862 he played at the Musical 
Union, and on June 25, 1 866, at the Philharmonic 
Society; and since that date has divided his time 
between the Continent and England. 

In 1866 Mr. Jaell married Miss Trautmann, a 
pianist of ability. His published works consist of 
transcriptions, potpourris, and other salon pieces. 
He has always shown himself anxious to bring 
forward new compositions ; and played the con- 
certos of Brahms and of Raff at the Philharmonic, 
at a time when they were unknown to that 
audience. [G.] 

JAHN, Otto, the biographer of Mozart, a dis- 
tinguished philologist, archaeologist, and writer on 
art and music, born June 1 6, 1 8 1 3, at Kiel ; studied 
at Kiel, Leipzig, and Berlin, took his degree in 
1 83 1, visited Copenhagen, Paris, Switzerland and 
Italy, in 39 settled in Kiel, in 42 became professor 
of archaeology and philology at Greifswalde, and in 
47 director of the archaeological Museum at Leip- 
zig, was dismissed for political reasons during 
the troubles of 1 848-49, and in 55 settled at Bonn 
as professor of classical philology and archaeology, 
and director of the university art-museum. 
Here he remained till 1869, when he retired 
during his last illness to Gottingen, and died 
on Sept. 9. Jahn wrote important books on 
all the subjects of which he was master, but 
his musical works alone concern us. Foremost 
among these is his 'W. A. Mozart' (Leipzig, 
Breitkopf & Hartel, 4 vols, 1856-59, 2nd ed. 
2 vols, 1867, with portraits and facsimiles). His 
picture of the great composer is scarcely less 
interesting and valuable than his description of 
the state of music during the period immediately 
preceding Mozart, while the new facts pro- 
duced, the new light thrown on old ones, and the 
thorough knowledge of the subject evinced 
throughout, all combine to place the work at the 
head of musical biographies. 1 

Jahn intended to treat Haydn and Beethoven 
on the same scale, and had begun to collect 
materials, but these projects were stopped by his 
death*. Jahn also published an essay on Men- 
delssohn's 'Paulus' (Kiel 1842); and an accu- 
rate comparative edition, with preface, of Beetho- 
ven's 'Leonore' (Fidelio) for P.F. (B. & H. 
Leipzig 1 851). For the 'Grenzboten' he wrote 
two spirited reports of the Lower Rhine Musical 

1 For the English reader this admirable book suffers from the fre- 
quent Interpolation of long digressions on the rise and progress of 
various sections of music, which, though most valuable In themselves, 
interrupt the narrative and would be more conveniently placed in an 
Appendix. Its Index also leaves much to be desired. [o.] 

J The materials collected for Haydn went to Herr C. F. Pohl, and 
those for Beethoven to Mr. Thayer, and are being employed by those 
writers in their biographies of the two composers. Mr. Pohl was desig- 
nated by Jahu as his successor in the biography of llajdn. [a.] 


Festivals of 1855-56 ; an article on the complete 
edition of Beethoven's works, full of sound cri- 
ticism and biographical information ; and two 
controversial articles on Berlioz and Wagner. 
These and other contributions of the same kind 
were published as ' Gesammelte Aufsatze iiber 
Musik' (Leipzig 1868). His four collections of 
original songs (3 and 4 from G roth's ' Quickborn, 1 
Breitkopf & Hartel), also evince the possession 
of that remarkable combination of a highly culti- 
vated sense of beauty with scientific attainments, 
which places him in the first rank among writers on 
music. Kochel's Catalogue of Mozart is with great 
appropriateness dedicated to Jahn. [C.F.P.] 

W1SSENCHAFT— ' Year-books of musical 
science.' A publication due to the remarkable 
energy and interest of Dr. Chrysandtr, by whom 
it is edited and published, through Breitkopf & 
Hartel. Two volumes have appeared. For pains 
and ability the papers leave nothing to be de- 
sired, but the severe polemic spirit which is occa- 
sionally manifested is much to be regretted. 

I. 1863. 1. Sound, and 2. Tern- j maun Bach In Halle (235-248). 11. 
perament, both by Hauptmann Mendelssohn's Organ-part to 1s- 

(17-54). 3. Tinctor's 'Diffini- 
torium,' by H. Bellermann (55- 
U4). 4. The Llmburg Chronicle, 
and German Volksgesang In 14th 
cent. (115-146). 5. The Bruns- 
wick -Wolfenbllttel Band and 
Opera, 16th-18th cent. (147-286). 
6. Henry Carey and God save the 
King (287-407). 7. Handel's Organ- 
part to Saul (408-428). 8. Beetho- 
ven's connection with Birchail and 
Stumpf (429-452). 

II. 1867. 9. ' DasLochelmerLie- 
derbuch.nebst der ArsOrganlsandl, 
von Conrad Paumann '—a descrip- 
tion and complete analysis of a 
German MS. collection of songs of 
the 15th cent., and a MS. book of 
organ pieces of the same date, with 
facsimiles, woodcuts, and very nu- 
merous examples— In all 234 pages, 
by F. W. Arnold and H. Beller- 
mann. 10. J. S. Bach and Friede- 

rael in Egypt (249-267). 12. lie- 
views :—Keissmann's General His- 
tory of Music (268-300) ; Westphal's 
Rhythm and History of Greek 
Music (300-310): Coussemaker's 
' Scriptorum de Musica . . . novam 
seriem' and 'L'art harmonlque' 
(310-314); Wackernagel on the 
German ' Klrchenlied ' (314-323); 
Hommel's ' Gelstllche Volkslieder ' 
(323-324); Rlegel's Liturgical Mu- 
sic (324-327) ; Liliencron's Historical 
Volkslieder (327-329); Thayer's 
Chronological List of Beethoven's 
Works (329-330); Bitter's Life of 
J. 8. Bach (330-333); Rudhart's 
History of the Opera at Munich 
(333-335) : Koch's Musical Lexicon, 
edited by Dommer (335); KrOger'i 
System of Music (336). 13. List of 
the Choral Societies and Concert 
Institutions of German* and Switz- 
erland (337-374). TQ 1 

JAMES, John, an organist in the first half 
of the 1 8th century, noted for his skill in extem- 
poraneousperformance. Afterofficiatingforseveral 
years as a deputy he obtained the post of organ- 
ist of St. Olave, Southwark, which he resigned in 
1738 for that of St. George in the East, Mid- 
dlesex. He died in 1745. His published com- 
positions consist of a few songs and organ pieces 
only. [W.H.H.] 

JAMES, W. N., a flautist, pupil of Charles 
Nicholson, was author of a work entitled *A 
Word or two on the Flute,' published in 1826, in 
which he treats of the various kinds of flutes, an- 
cient and modern, their particular qualities, etc., 
and gives critical notices of the style of pla3'ing 
of the most eminent English and foreign per- 
formers on the instrument. [W.H.H.] 

JANIEWICZ, 1 Felix, violinist, a Polish gen- 
tleman, born at Wilna 1762. He went to 
Vienna in 1 784 or 5 to see Haydn and Mozart, 
and hear their works conducted by themselves. 

1 As the letter J In Polish has the sound of I or V, he altered the 
spelling of his name to Yaulewicz, in order that in England it might 
be pronounced correctly. 


He had nearly made arrangements to study 
composition under Haydn, when a Polish prin- 
cess offered to take him to Italy ; and he availed 
himself of her protection in order to hear the 
best violinists of the period, such as Nardini, 
Pugnani and others, as well as the best singers. 
After 3 years in Italy he went to Paris, and 
appeared at the Concerts Spirituels and Olym- 
piens. Madame de Genlis procured him a pension 
from the Due d'Orleans as a musician on the 
establishment of Mademoiselle d'Orleans, but 
on the reduction of the expenses of the Duke's 
court in 1790 he left Paris. In 1792 he came 
to London, and made his de"but in February 
at Salomon's Concerts. He also appeared at 
Rauzzini's Bath concerts, visited Ireland Beveral 
times, and for many years conducted the sub- 
scription concerts at Liverpool and Manchester. 
In 1800 he married Miss Breeze, a Liverpool 
lady. He was one of the 30 members who 
originally formed the London Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and was one of the leaders of the orchestra 
in its first season. In 18 15 he settled in Edin- 
burgh, took leave of the public at a farewell 
concert in 1829, and died in that city in 1848. 

His style was pure, warm, and full of feeling, 
with that great execution in octaves which La 
Motte first introduced into England. Besides 
this, he was an excellent conductor. Parke in 
his Musical Memoirs, and 6. F. Graham in his 
account of the Edinburgh Musical Festival in 
1815, speak of the elegant and finished execution 
of his Concertos. Some of these were published 
in Paris ; but he considered his best work to be 
a set of 3 Trios for 2 Violins and Bass, published 
in London. [V. de P.] 

JANITSCHAREN, i. e. Janissaries. A term 
used by the Germans for what they also call 
Turkish music — the triangle, cymbals, and big 
drum (see Nos. 3 and 7 of the Finale of the 
Choral Symphony). The Janissaries were abol- 
ished in 1825. Their band is said to have con- 
tained 2 large and 3 small oboes and 1 piccolo 
flute, all of very shrill character; 1 large and 
2 small kettle-drums, 1 big and 3 small long 
drums, 3 cymbals, and 2 triangles. [G.] 

born, probably in Rome, 1741, learnt music and 
singing from Rinaldini, G. Carpani and Pisari, 
under whom, and through the special study of 
Palestrina, he perfected himself in the methods 
and traditions of the Roman Bchool. In 181 1, 
on the retirement of Zingarelli, he became Maes- 
tro di Capella at S. Peter's, a post which he held 
during the rest of his life. He died from the 
effects of an apoplectic stroke, March 16, 1816, 
and was buried in the church of S. Simone e 
Giuda. A Requiem by his scholar Basili was 
sung for him on the 23rd. Baini was his pupil 
from 1802, and the friendship thus begun lasted till 
the day of his death. Baini closed his eyes, and all 
that we know of Janacconi is from his affectionate 
remembrance as embodied in his great work on 
Palestrina. — It is strange that one who is said 
to have been so highly esteemed at home should 
be so liUle known abroad. His name does not 



appear in the Catalogue of the Sacred Harmonic 
Society, or the Euing Library, Glasgow, and 
the only published piece of music by him which 
the writer has been able to find is a motet 
in the 2nd part of Mr. Hullah's Part Music, 
•The voice of joy and health,' adapted from 
a ' Laetamini in Domino,' the autograph of 
which, with that of a Kyrie for 2 choirs, formed 
part of the excellent Library founded by Mr. 
Hullah for the use of his classes at St. Martin's 
Hall. This motet may not be more original than 
the words to which it is set, but it is full of 
spirit, and vocal to the last degree. Janacconi 
was a voluminous writer ; especially was he noted 
for his works for 2, 3 and 4 choirs. The catalogue 
of the Landsberg Library at Rome does not 
exhibit his name, but Santini's collection of 
MSS. contained a mass and 4 other pieces, for 
4 voices ; 14 masses, varying from 8 to 2 voices, 
some with instruments ; 42 psalms, and a quan- 
tity of motets and other pieces for service, 
some with accompaniment, some without, and for 
various numbers of voices. A MS. volume of 6 
masses and a psalm forms No. 181 1 in the Fe"tis 
library at Brussels ; the other pieces named at 
the foot of Fe"tis's article in the Biographie seem 
to have disappeared. [G.] 

JANNEQUIN, Clement, composer of the 
1 6th century, by tradition a Frenchman, and one 
of the most distinguished followers, if not actually 
a pupil, of Josquin Despres. There is no musician 
of the time of whose life we know less. No 
mention is made of his holding any court ap- 
pointment or of his being connected with any 
church. We may perhaps guess that, like many 
other artists, he went in early life to Rome, and 
was attached to the Papal Chapel ; for some of his 
MS. masses are said to be still preserved there, 
while they are unknown elsewhere. But he 
must soon have abandoned writing for the church, 
for among his published works two masses, 
' L'aveugle Dieu ' and ' La Bataille,' and a single 
motet ' Congregati sunt,' seem almost nothing by 
the side of more than 200 secular compositions. 
Later in life, it is true, he writes again with 
sacred words, but in a far different style, setting 
to music 82 psalms of David, and 'The Proverbs 
of Solomon' (sdon la veriU Hebraique), leading 
us to conjecture that he may have become, like 
Goudimel, a convert to the reformed church, as 
F^tis thinks, or that he had never been a Chris- 
tian at all, but was of Jewish origin and had 
only written a few masses as the inevitable trials 
of his contrapuntal skill. But apart from these 
vague speculations, it is certain that Jannequin 
trod a very different path from his contempora- 
ries. Practically confining himself to secular 
music, he exhibited great originality in the choice 
and treatment of his subjects. He was the fol- 
lower of Gombert in the art of writing descriptive 
music, and made it his speciality. Among his 
works of this class are * La Bataille,' written to 
commemorate and describe the battle of Marig- 
nan, fought between the French and Swiss in 
151 5, to which composition Burney has directed 
particular attention in his History, and which he 


has copied in his Musical Extracts (Brit. Mus. 
Add. MSS. 11,588), 'Le chant des Oyseaux,' 'Le 
caquet des Femmes,' 'La chasse de lie"vre, Le 
chant du Rossignol,' and one containing imita- 
tions of the street cries of Paris — ' Voulez ouyr 
les cris de Paris.' To those who would know how 
far it may be possible to reproduce these com- 
positions at the present day, it will be a fact of 
interest that the first three of them were sung in 
Paris in 1828 under the direction of M. Choron 
and ' produced a surprising effect.' The Bataille 
was sung by pupils of the Conservatoire in a 
course of historical lectures by M. Bourgault 
Ducoudray, Dec. 26, 1878. 

A second edition of some of Jannequin's works 
was published in Paris (according to Fe"tis) in 
the year 1559, and the composer must have been 
living at that time, for they were 'reveuz et 
corrigez par lui meme.' 

In the tame year, according to the same 
authority, Jannequin published his music to 
82 psalms, with a dedication to the Queen 
of France, in which he speaks of his poverty 
and age. Old indeed he must have been, for 
the year after, 1560, Ronsard the poet, an 
amateur of music and intimately connected with 
the musicians of his time, in writing a preface 
for a book of chansons published by Le Boy 
& Ballard at Paris, speaks of Jannequin with 
reverence enough as one of Josquin's celebrated 
disciples, but evidently regards him as a com- 
poser of a bygone age. [J.R.S.-B.] 

JANOTHA, Natalie, born at "Warsaw ; first 
appeared there when nine years old ; studied at 
the Berlin Hochschule under Rudorff and Bar- 
giel, and with Franz Weber at Cologne. Also 
for several years with Madame Schumann, whose 
first pupil she was to appear in public. In 
London she played at Philharmonic, Popular 
Concerts, Crystal Palace, &c. ; in Leipzig at 
the Gewandhaus, and was made Court Pianist 
to Emperor Wilhelm I. Among her compo- 
sitions are nine 'mountain scenes' for P. F. ; 
a * court gavotte ' dedicated to Q. Victoria ; 
an 'Ave Maria' composed for Pope Leo XHIth's 
jubilee, and dedicated to him. Miss Janotha 
holds the highest diploma of the Academy of 
S. Cecilia at Rome. [q. ] 

JANSA, Leopold, violinist and composer, 
was born in 1797 at Wildenschwert in Bohemia. 
Though playing the violin from his childhood, 
he entered the University of Vienna in 181 7 
to study law according to the wish of his 
father, but very soon gave up the law and 
devoted himself to music. After a few years 
he appeared successfully as a violinist in 
public; in 1824 became member of the Im- 
perial Band, and in 1834 Conductor of Music 
at the University of Vienna. Jansa, though 
a good player and sound musician was not 
a great virtuoso. In 1849 he lost hi3 appoint- 
ment in Vienna for having assisted at a concert 
in London for the benefit of the Hungarian 
Refugees. He then remained in London and 
gained a good position as teacher. He died 
at Vienna in 1 875. 


The most eminent of his pupils is Madame 
Norman-Neruda. Jansa published a consider- 
able number of works for the violin : — 4 con- 
certos ; a concertante for 2 violins ; Violin 
Duets; 8 string-Quartets, etc. — all written in 
a fluent musicianlike style, but with no claim 
to originality. His duets are much valued by 
all violin- teachers. [P. D . ] 

JARNOWICK — whose real name, as he wrote 
it in Clement's Album, was Giovanni Marie 
Giornovichj, though commonly given as above — 
was one of the eminent violin-players of the last 
century; born at Palermo 1745, and a scholar 
of the famous Lolli. He made his debut in 
Paris in 1770 at one of the Concerts Spirituels, 
and for some years was all the rage in that 
capital. Owing to some misbehaviour he left 
Paris in 1779 and entered the band of the King 
of Prussia, but his disputes with Duport drove 
him thence in 1783. He then visited Austria, 
Poland, Russia, and Sweden, and in 179 1 arrived 
in London, where he gave his first concert on 
May 4. He had great success here, both as 
player and conductor. His insolence and conceit 
seem to have been unbounded, and to have 
brought him into disastrous collision with Viotti, 
a far greater artist than himself, and with J. B. 
Cramer — who went the length of calling him 
out, a challenge which Jarnowick would not 
accept — and even led him to some gross mis- 
conduct in the presence of the King and Duke of 
York. He died in Petersburg in 1804 — it is said 
during a game of billiards. From the testimony 
of Kelly, Dittersdorf, and other musicians, it is 
not difficult to gather the characteristics of 
Jarnowick's playing. His tone was fine, though 
not strong ; he played with accuracy and finish, 
and always well in tune. His bow-hand was 
light, and there was a grace and spirit about 
the whole performance, and an absence of effort, 
which put the hearer quite at ease. These 
qualities are not the highest, but they are highly 
desirable, and they seem to have been possessed 
in large measure by Jarnowick. In mind and 
morals he was a true pupil of Lolli. [G.] 

JAY, John, Mus. Doc, born in Essex, Nov. 
27, 1770, after receiving rudimentary instruction 
from John Hindmarsh, violinist, and Francis 
Phillips, violoncellist, was sent to the continent 
to complete his education. He became an ex- 
cellent violinist. He returned to England in 
1 800, settled in London, and established himself 
as a teacher. He graduated as Mus. Bac. at 
Oxford in 1809, and Mus. Doc. at Cambridge 
in 1 81 1, and was an honorary member of the 
Royal Academy of Music. He published several 
compositions for the pianoforte. His eldest 
daughter was a harpist and his second a pianist. 
His son, John, is a good violinist. Dr. Jay died 
in London, Sept. 17, 1849. [W.H.H.] 

JEAN DE PARIS. Operacomique in 2 
acts ; music by Boieldieu. Produced at the 
Theatre Feydeau April 4, 181 2. [G.] 

JEBB, Rev. John, D. D., formerly Preben- 
dary in Limerick Cathedral, now Canon of Here- 


ford and Rector of Peterstow, Herefordshire, 
an able writer on choral service. His works in- 
clude 'Three Lectures on the Cathedral Service 
of the United Church of England and Ireland,' 
delivered at Leeds in 1841 and published in 
that year ; ' The Choral Service of the United 
Ohurch of England and Ireland, being an In- 
quiry into the Liturgical System of the Cathe- 
dral and Collegiate foundations of the Anglican 
Communion,' 8vo. 1843 ; 'The Choral Responses 
and Litanies of the United Church of England 
and Ireland,' 2 vols. fol. 1847-57 (an inter- 
esting and valuable collection) ; and ' Catalogue 
of Ancient Choir Books at St. Peter's College, 
Cambridge.' He edited Thos. Caustun's ' "Venite 
exultemus and Communion Service.' [W.H.H.] 

JEFFRIES, George, steward to Lord Hatton, 
of Kirby, Northamptonshire (where he had lands 
of his own), and organist to Charles I. at Oxford 
in 1643, composed many anthems and motets, 
both English and Latin, still extant in MS. 
Several are in the Aldrich collection at Christ 
Church, Oxford, and nearly one hundred — eighty 
of them in the composer's autograph — are in 
the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. His 
son Christopher, student of Christ Church, was 
a good organist. [W.H.H.] 

JEFFRIES, Stephen, born 1660, was a chor- 
ister of Salisbury Cathedral under Michael Wise. 
In 1680 he was appointed organist, of Gloucester 
Cathedral. He composed a peculiar melody for 
the cathedral chimes, printed in Hawkins' His- 
tory, chap. 160. He died in 1 71 2. [W.H.H.] 

JEITTELES, Alois. [See Liederkreis.] 

JENKINS, John, born at Maidstone in 1592, 
became a musician in early life. He was 
patronised by two Norfolk gentlemen, Dering 
and Hamon L'Estrange, and resided in the 
family of the latter for a great portion of his life. 
He was a performer on the lute and lyra-viol 
and other bowed instruments, and one of the 
musicians to Charles I and Charles II. He was 
a voluminous composer of Fancies, some for 
viols and others for the organ ; he also produced 
some light pieces which he called ' Rants.' Of 
these 'The Mitter Rant,' an especial favourite, 
was printed in Playford's 'Mustek's Hand- 
maid,' 1678, and other publications of the period. 
Two others by him, ' The Fleece Tavern Rant,' 
and ' The Peterborough Rant,' are in Playford's 
'Apollo's Banquet,' 1690. Another popular 
piece by him was ' The Lady Katherine Audley's 
Bells, or, The Five Bell Consort,' first printed in 
Playford's 'Courtly Masquing Ayres,' 1662. 
His vocal compositions comprise an Elegy on the 
death of William Lawes, printed at the end of 
Hand W. Lawes' ' Choice Psalms,' 1 648 ; ' Theo- 
phila, or, Love's Sacrifice; a Divine Poem by 
E[dward] B[enlowe] Esq., several parts thereof 
set to fit aires by Mr. J. Jenkins,' 1652; two 
rounds, ' A boat, a boat,' and ' Come, pretty 
maidens,' in Hilton's 'Catch that catch can,' 
1652 ; some songs etc. in 'Select Ayres and Dia- 
logues,' 1659; and 'The Musical Companion,' 
1672 ; and some anthems. He published in 1660 
VOL. 11. 


' Twelve Sonatas for two Violins and a Base with 
a Thorough Base for the Organ or Theorbo' 
(reprinted at Amsterdam, 1664), the first of the 
kind produced by an Englishman. His numerous 
' Fancies ' were never printed. Many MS. copies 
of them however exist, a large number being at 
Christ Church, Oxford. J. S. Smith included 
many of Jenkins's compositions (amongst them 
' The Mitter Rant' and ' Lady Audley's Bells') 
in his ' Musica Antiqua.' Jenkins resided during 
the latter years of his life in the family of Sir 
Philip Wodehouse, Bart., at Kimberley, Norfolk, 
where he died Oct. 27, 1678. He was buried 
Oct. 29 in Kimberley Church. [W.H.H.] 

JENNY BELL, an opera comique in 3 acts ; 
words by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced at 
the Opera Comique June 2, 1855. T^ e scene 
is laid in England and the characters are English, 
and the airs of God save the King and Rule 
Britannia are introduced. [G.] 

JENSEN, Adolph, composer, born Jan. 12, 
1837, at Kbnigsberg, was a pupil of Ehlert and 
F. Marpurg. In 1856 he visited Russia, but 
returned the next year to Germany, and was for 
a short time Capellmeister at Posen. He then 
paid a two years visit to Copenhagen, where he 
became intimate with Gade. i860 to 66 were 
spent in his native place, and to this time a 
large proportion of his works (op. 6-33) are 
due. From 1866 to 68 he was attached to 
Tausig's school as teacher of the piano, and 
since that time resided on account of his health 
at Gratz and other places in South Germany. 
He died at Baden Baden, Jan. 24, 1879. 

Jensen was an enthusiast for Schumann, and 
for some months before Schumann's death was 
in close correspondence with him. He has pub- 
lished various pieces, 620pp. in all — 'The Journey 
to Emmaus,' for Orchestra ; ' Nonnengesang,' for 
Women's Chorus, Horn, Harp, and Piano ; two 
Liedercyclus, ' Dolorosa ' and ' Erotikon ' ; and 
many other songs ; Sonatas and smaller pieces for 
Piano, which take high rank in his own country, 
and are much beloved by those who know them 
here. His genius is essentially that of a song- 
writer — full of delicate tender feeling, but with 
no great heights or depths. [G.] 

JEPHTHA. I. Handel's last oratorio. His 
blindness came on during its composition and de- 
layed it. It was begun Jan. 2 1 , and finished Aug. 
30,1751. The words were by Dr. Morell. Pro- 
duced at Covent Garden Feb. 26,1752. Revived 
by the Sacred Harmonic Society April 7, 1841. 
[Quaver, iv. 766k] 2. ' Jefte in Masfa' (Jeph- 
thah at Mizpeh) was the title of a short oratorio 
by Semplice, set by Barthelemon at Florence in 
1776 ; performed there, in Rome — where a chorus 
from it even penetrated to the Pope's chapel, 
and procured the composer two gold medals — and 
in London in 1 7 79 and 82 . A copy of it is in the 
Sacred Harmonic Society's Library. 3. Jephtha 
and his Daughter. An oratorio in 2 parts ; the 
words adapted from the Bible, the music by C. 
Reinthaler. Produced in England by Mr. Hullah 
at St. Martin's Hall April 16, 1856. [G.] 



JERUSALEM I. Grand opera in 4 acts; 
music by Verdi, the words by Royer and Waez ; 
being a French adaptation of I Lombardi. Pro- 
duced at the Academie Nov. 26, 1847. 2. A 
Sacred Oratorio in 3 parts ; the words selected 
from the Bible by W. Sancroft Holmes, the music 
by H. H. Pierson. Produced at Norwich Festival 
Sept. 23, 1852. [G.] 

JESSONDA. A grand German opera in 3 
acts ; the plot from ' La Veuve de ' Malabar.' 
Words by Edouard Gehe, music by Spohr. Pro- 
duced at Cassel July 28, 1823; in London, at 
St. James's theatre (German company), June 18, 
1840; in Italian, at Covent Garden, Aug. 6, 
1853. [<*•] 

JEUNE HENRI, LE. Opera-comique in 2 
acts ; libretto by Bouilly, music by Mdhul. Pro- 
duced at the Theatre Favart May 1, 1 797. The 
overture has always been a favourite in France. 
The piece was damned, but the overture was re- 
demanded on the fall of the curtain, having been 
already encored at the commencement. [G.] 

JEUX D'ANCHES. The French name for 
the Reed Stops of an Organ. [W. S. R.] 

JEW'S-HARP, possibly a corruption of Jaw's- 
harp. In French it is called Guimbarde, and 
in German Maul-trommel, Mund-harmonica, or 
Bmmmelsen (i.e. buzzing-iron). In the High- 
lands, where it is much used, it is called Tromp. 
This simple instrument consists of an elastic 
steel tongue, rivetted at one end to a frame of 
brass or iron, similar in form to certain pocket 
corkscrews, of which the screw turns up on a 
hinge. The free end of the tongue is bent out- 
wards, at a right angle, so as to allow the finger 
to strike it when the instrument is placed to the 
mouth, and firmly supported by the pressure of 
the frame against the teeth. 

A column of air may vibrate by reciprocation 
with a body whose vibrations are isochronous 
with its own, or when the number of its vibra- 
tions are any multiple of those of the original 
sounding body. On this law depends the expla- 
nation of the production of sounds by the jew's- 
harp. The vibration of the tongue itself cor- 
responds with a very low sound ; but the cavity 
of the mouth is capable of various alterations ; 
and when the number of vibrations of the con- 
tained volume of air is any multiple of the origi- 
nal vibrations of the tongue, a sound is produced 
corresponding to the modification of the oral 
cavity. Thus, if the primitive sound of the 
tongue is C, the series of reciprocated sounds 
would be C, E, G, Bt>, C, D, E, F, G, etc., and 
by using two or more instruments in different 
keys, a complete scale may be obtained, and 
extremely original and beautiful effects produced. 
The elucidation of this subject is due to the 
ingenious researches of Professor Wheatstone, 
which may be found in the ' Quarterly Journal 
of Science, Literature, and Art,' for the year 
1828, 1st part, of which the above is a condensed 

A soldier of Frederick the Great of Prussia, so 

1 See Spohr's Selbstblognpbie, it 143. 


charmed the king by his performance on two jew's- 
harps that he gave him his discharge, together 
with a present of money, and he subsequently 
amassed a fortune by playing at concerts. 

In 1827 and 1828 Charles Eulenstein appeared 
in London [Eulenstein] and by using 16 jew's- 
harps produced extraordinary effects. [V. de P.] 

JOACHIM, Joseph, the greatest of living 
violin-players, was born at Kittsee, a village 
near Pressburg, June 28, 1831. He began to 
play the violin at five years of age, and showing 
great ability he was soon placed under Szervac- 
sinsky, then leader of the opera-band at Pesth. 
When only seven years old, he played a duet in 
public with his master with great success. In 
1 841 he became a pupil of Boehm in Vienna, 
and in 1843 went to Leipzig, then, under 
Mendelssohn's guidance, at the zenith of its 
musical reputation. On his arrival at Leipzig 
as a boy of twelve, he proved himself already an 
accomplished violinist, and very soon made his 
first public appearance in a Concert of Madame 
Viardot's, Aug. 10, 1843, when he played a 
Rondo of de Beriot s; Mendelssohn, who at once 
recognised and warmly welcomed the boy's ex- 
ceptional talent, himself accompanying at the 
piano. On the 16th of the following November 
he appeared at the Gewandhaus Concert in 
Ernst's fantasia on Otello; and a year later 
(Nov. 25, 1844) took part in a performance at 
the Gewandhaus of Maurer's Concertante for 
four violins with Ernst, Bazzini and David, 
all very much his seniors. The wish of his 
parents, and his own earnest disposition, pre- 
vented his entering at once on the career of 
a virtuoso. For several years Joachim remained 
at Leipzig, continuing his musical studies under 
Mendelssohn's powerful influence, and studying 
with David most of those classical works for the 
violin — the Concertos of Mendelssohn, Beethoven 
and Spohr, Bach's Solos, etc. — which still con- 
stitute the staple of his repertoire. At the same 
time his general education was carefully attended 
to, and it may truly be said, that Joachim's 
character both as a musician and as a man was 
developed and directed for life during the years 
which he spent at Leipzig. He already evinced 
that thorough uprightness, that firmness of 
character and earnestness of purpose, and that 
intense dislike of all that is superficial or untrue 
in art, which have made him not only an artist 
of the first rank, but, in a sense, a great moral 
power in the musical life of our days. 

Joachim remained at Leipzig till October 
1850, for some time side by side with David 
as leader of the Gewandhaus orchestra, but also 
from time to time travelling and playing with 
ever-increasing success in Germany and Eng- 
land. On the strong recommendation of Men- 
delssohn he visited London for the first time as 
early as 1844, and at the 5th Philharmonic Con- 
cert (May 27) played Beethoven's Concerto (for 
the 4th time only at those concerts) with great suc- 
cess. His first actual public appearance in this 
country was at a benefit concert of Mr. Bunn's 
at Drury Lane on March 28. After this he 


repeated his visits to England in 1847, 49, 52, 
58, 59, 62, and ever since. His annual appear- 
ance at the Monday Popular, the Crystal Palace, 
and other concerts in London and the principal 
provincial towns has become a regular feature 
of the musical life in England. His continued 
success as a solo- and quartet-player, extending 
now over a period of more than thirty years, is 
probably without parallel. Since the foundation 
of the Monday Popular Concerts he has been 
the principal violinist of those excellent concerts, 
which have perhaps done more than any other 
musical institution in England towards popu- 
larising that highest branch of the art — classical 

In 1849 Joachim accepted the post of Leader 
of the Grand-Duke's band at Weimar, where 
Liszt, who had already abandoned his career as 
a virtuoso, had settled and was conducting 
operas and concerts. His stay in Weimar was 
not however of long duration. To one who had 
grown up under the influence of Mendelssohn, 
and in his feeling for music and art in general 
was much in sympathy with Schumann, the 
revolutionary tendencies of the Weimar school 
could have but a passing attraction. In 1854 
he accepted the post of Conductor of Concerts 
and Solo-Violinist to the King of Hanover, 
which he retained till 1866. During his stay 
at Hanover (June 10, 1863) he married Amalia 
Weiss, the celebrated contralto singer. [See 
Weiss.] In 1868 he went to Berlin as head 
of a newly established department of the Royal 
Academy of Arts — the 'Hochschule fur ausii- 
bende Tonkunst ' (High School for Musical Exe- 
cution, — as distinct from composition, for which 
there was already a department in existence). 
Joachim entered heart and soul into the arduous 
task of organising and starting this new in- 
stitution, which under his energy and devotion 
not only soon exhibited its vitality, but in a very 
few years rivalled, and in some respects even 
excelled, similar older institutions. Up to this 
period Joachim had been a teacher mainly by 
his example, henceforth he is to be surrounded 
by a host of actual pupils, to whom, with a 
disinterestedness beyond praise, he imparts the 
results of his experience, and into whom he 
instils that spirit of manly and unselfish devotion 
to art which, in conjunction with his great 
natural gifts, really contains the secret of his 
long-continued success. In his present sphere 
of action Joachim's beneficent influence, en- 
couraging what is true and earnest, and dis- 
regarding, and, if necessary, opposing what is 
empty, mean, and superficial in music, can 
hardly be too highly estimated. It will readily 
be believed that in addition to the universal 
admiration of the musical world numerous marks 
of distinction, orders of knighthood from Ger- 
man and other sovereign princes, and honorary de- 
grees have been conferred on Joachim. From 
the University of Cambridge he received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Music on the 8th 
March, 1877. No artist ever sought less after 
«uch things, no artist better deserved them. 



As to his style of playing, perhaps nothing 
more to the point can be said, than that his in- 
terpretations of Beethoven's Concerto and great 
Quartets and of Bach's Solo Sonatas are uni- 
versally recognised as models, and that his style 
of playing appears especially adapted to render 
compositions of the purest and most elevated 
style. A master of technique, surpassed by no 
one, he now uses his powers of execution ex- 
clusively for the interpretation of the best 
music. If in latter years his Btrict adherence 
to this practice and consequent exclusion of all 
virtuoso-pieces has resulted in a certain limita- 
tion of repertoire, it must still be granted that 
that repertoire is after all richer than that of 
almost any other eminent violinist, comprising 
as it does the Concertos of Bach, Beethoven, 
Mendelssohn, four or five of Spohr's, Viotti's 
22nd, his own Hungarian, Bach's Solos, the 2 
romances of Beethoven, and in addition the 
whole range of classical chamber-music, to which 
we may now add the Concerto of Brahms, 
played for the first time in England at the 
Crystal Palace Feb. 22, 1879, and given by him 
at the Philharmonic on March 6 and 20. 

Purity of style, without pedantry ; fidelity of 
interpretation combined with a powerful indivi- 
duality — such are the main characteristics of 
Joachim the violinist and the musician. 

As a composer Joachim is essentially a follower 
of Schumann. Most of his works are of a 
grave, melancholic character, — all of them, it 
need hardly be said, are earnest in purpose and 
aim at the ideal. Undoubtedly his most im- 
portant and most successful work is the Hun- 
garian Concerto (op. 11), a creation of real 
grandeur, built up in noble symphonic propor- 
tions, which will hold its place in the first rank 
of masterpieces for the violin. The following is 
a list of his published compositions : — 

Op. 1. Andantino and Allegro 

Scherzoso (Violin and 

2, 3 'Stucke (Bomanze. Fan- 

taisiestuck, Fruhllngs 

fan tasie) ■ for Violin and 

S. Concerto (6 minor) ' tn 

elnem Satze' for Violin 

and Orchestra. 
4. Overture to 'Hamlet.' for 

& 3 Stucke (Llndenrauschen, 

Abendglocken, Ballade) 

for Violin and Piano. 
9. Hebrew Melodies, for Viola 

and Piano. 
10. Variations on an original 

Theme for Viola and 


Op. n. Hungarian Concerto for 
Violin and Orchestra. 
12. Kotturno In A. for Violin 

and small Orchestra. 
IS. Overture, in commemora- 
tion of Kleist the poet— 
for Orchestra, 
It. Scena der JIarfa (from 
Schiller's unfinished play 
of Demetrius), for Con- 
tralto Solo and Or- 
Two Marches, In C and D, 
with Trios. 
N.B. Op. 6, 7, 8, Overtures to 
Demetrius, Henry the IVth, and a 
Flay of Goizl's respectively, are 
still In MS. 


JOAN OF ARC. A grand historical opera 
in 3 acts ; the words by' Mr. Bunn, the music 
by Balfe. Produced at Drury Lane Nov. 30, 
1837. [GJ 

JOANNA MARIA. [See Gallia.] 
JOCONDE, ou Les Coubeors d'Aventdbe. 
Opera-comique in 3 acts; libretto by Etienne, 
music by Isouard. Produced at the Theatre 
Feydeau Feb. 28, 181 4; in English, by Carl 
Rose (Santley's translation), Lyceum, Oct. 25, 
1876. [G.j 




JOHN THE BAPTIST, ST. An oratorio in 
2 parts ; the text selected from the Bible by Dr. 
E. G. Monk; the music by G. A. Macfarren. 
Produced at Bristol Festival Oct. 23, 1873. [G.] 

JOHNSON, Edward, Mus. Bac., graduated 
at Cambridge 1594, and was one of the ten 
composers who harmonised the tunes for Este's 
1 Whole Booke of Psalms,' 1592. He contributed 
the madrigal, ' Come, blessed bird ! ' to ' The 
Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601. Another madrigal 
by him, ' Ah, silly John,' is preserved in MS. in 
the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. 
Nothing is known of his biography. [W. H. H.] 

JOHNSON, Robert, an ecclesiastic who 
flourished in the middle of the 16th century, 
was composer of motets, part-songs and virginal 
pieces. Burney says ' He was one of the first of 
our church composers who disposed their parts 
with intelligence and design. In writing upon 
a plainsong (moving in slow notes of equal 
length), which was so much practised in those 
times, he discovers considerable art and ingenuity, 
as also in the manner of treating subjects of fugue 
and imitation.' His part-song 'Defiled is my 
name ' is printed in the Appendix to Hawkins's 
History and his motet, ' Sabbatum Maria,' and 
an Almain from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book 
in Burney 's History Two of his motets are 
contained in Add. MSS. 5059 and 11,586, 
British Museum. He was the composer of the 
part-song 'Tye the mare, Tom boy,' the words 
of which are printed in Ritson's • Ancient Songs, 

I79°> P- 130. 

Another Robert Johnson, a lutenist and 
composer, possibly a relative of the above-named, 
was in January 1573-4 a retainer in the house- 
hold of Sir Thomas Kytson, of Hengrave Hall, 
Suffolk. In April 1575, being still in Sir 
Thomas's service, he assisted at the grand enter- 
tainment given by the Earl of Leicester to Queen 
Elizabeth at Kenilworth. He subsequently came 
to London, but at what precise date cannot be 
ascertained, and became a composer for the 
theatres. In 16 10 he composed the music for 
Middleton'8 tragi-comedy, 'The Witch,' printed 
in Rimbault's ' Ancient Vocal Music of England.' 
In 161 1 he was in the service of Prince Henry, 
at an annual salary of £40. In 1 6 1 2 he composed 
music for Shakspere's 'Tempest,' and in 161 7 
songs for Beaumont and Fletcher's ' Valentinian' 
and 'The Mad Lover.' (See Add. MS. 11,608, 
Brit. Mus.) In 162 1 he wrote music for Ben 
Jonson's ' Masque of the Gipsies," some of the 
songs of which are contained in a MS. volume 
in the Music School, Oxford. He was one of the 
contributors to Leighton's 'Teares or Lament- 
acions,' 16 [4. A beautiful ballad by him, 'As 
I walked forth one summer's day,' is also printed 
in Rimbault's 'Ancient Vocal Music of England.' 
His name occurs Dec. 20, 1625, in a privy seal 
exempting the King's musicians from payment 
of subsidies. [W.H.H.] 

JOMMELLI, Niccol6, is the most conspicuous 
name in the long list of eminent composers who 
during the first half of the 18th century were 


' the outcome and ornament of that Neapolitan 
school which had become famous under Aless- 
! andro Scarlatti. It was a period of transition in 
I musical art all over Italy. It witnessed the 
abandonment of the old Gregorian modes in 
j favour of modern tonality. Counterpoint itself, 
while pursued as ardently as ever, and still 
recognised as the orthodox form of expression for 
musical thought, was assuming to that thought 
a new and different relation. Ideas were sub- 
jected to its conditions, but it no longer con- 
stituted their very essence. The distinctive 
tendency of all modern Art towards individual- 
isation was everywhere making itself felt, and 
each successive composer strove more and more 
after dramatic truthfulness as a primary object, 
while at the same time there was educated in 
the schools of Italy a race of great singers to 
whom individual expression was a very condition 
of existence. Pure contrapuntal Art — strictly im- 
personal in its nature, in that, while each part 
is in itself complete, all are equally subordinate 
to the whole, was being supplanted by a new 
order of things. In the music destined to convey 
and to arouse personal emotions one melodious 
idea predominates, to which all the rest, however 
important, is more or less subservient and ac- 
cessory. Nor is harmony, then, the final result 
of the superimposition of layer on layer of inde- 
pendent parts, but the counterpoint is contrived 
by the subdivision and varied time-apportionment 
of the harmony, and partakes of the nature of 
a decoration rather than a texture — the work is 
in fresco and not in mosaic. 

To the greatest minds alone it belongs to 
unite with intuition that consummate art which 
makes scholastic device serve the ends of fancy, 
and, while imparting form to the inspirations of 
genius, receives from them the stamp of origin- 
ality. In the long chain connecting Palestrina, 
in whose works contrapuntal art found its purest 
development, with Mozart, who blended imagin- 
I ation with science as no one had done before him, 
1 one of the last links was Jommelli. Gifted with a 
I vein of melody tender and elegiac in its character, 
with great sensibility, fastidious taste, and a sense 
I of effect in advance of any of his Italian contem- 
! poraries, he started in the new path of dramatic 
j composition opened up by Scarlatti, Pergolesi, 
and Leo, at the point where those masters left 
off, and carried the art of expression to the highest 
pitch that, in Italy, it attained up to the time of 
! Mozart. 

Born at A versa, near Naples, Sept. 11, 1714, 
his first musical teaching was given him by 
a canon named Mozzillo. At sixteen he en- 
tered the Conservatorio of San Onofrio as the 
pupil of Durante, but was transferred to that 
of La Pieta de' Turchini, where he learned 
vocal music from Prato and Mancini, and com- 
position from Feo and Leo. It was the boast 
of these schools that young musicians on leaving 
them were adepts in all the processes of counter- 
point and every kind of scholastic exercise, but 
it seems that a special training at Rome was 
judged necessary to fit Jommelli for writing 


church music, the chief object he is said at that 
time to have had in view. However this may 
have been, his first works were ballets, in which 
no indication of genius was discernible. He 
next tried his hand on cantatas, a style of com- 
position far better suited to his especial gifts, 
and with so much success that Leo, on hearing 
one of these pieces performed by a lady, a 
pupil of Jommelli's, exclaimed in rapture, 'A 
short time, madam, and this young man will be 
the wonder and the admiration of Europe ! ' 
The young composer himself had less faith in his 
own powers. According to the notice of his life 
by Piccinni, he so much dreaded the verdict of the 
public that his first opera, 'L'Errore Amoroso,' 
was represented (at Naples, in 1737) under the 
name of an obscure musician called Valentino ; 
the work, however, met with so encouraging 
a reception that he ventured to give the next, 
4 Odoardo,' under his own name. 

In 1 740 he was summoned to Rome, where he 
was protected by the Cardinal Duke of York, 
and where his two operas ' H Ricimero' and 
'L'Astianatte' were produced. Thence he pro- 
ceeded to Bologna, where he wrote ' Ezio.' 
During his sojourn there he visited that celebrity 
of musical learning, the Padre Martini, presenting 
himself as a pupil desirous of instruction. To 
test his acquirements, a fugue subject was pre- 
sented to him, and on his proceeding to treat it 
with the greatest facility, ' Who are you, then V 
asked the Padre ; ' are you making game of 
me ? It is I, methinks, who should learn of 
you.' 'My name is Jommelli,' returned the 
composer, ' and I am the maestro who is to write 
the next opera for the theatre of this town.' In 
later years Jommelli was wont to affirm that he 
had profited not a little by his subsequent inter- 
course with Martini. 

After superintending the production of some 
important works at Bologna and Rome, Jommelli 
returned to Naples, where his opera 'Eumene' 
was given at the San Carlo with immense success. 
A like triumph awaited him at Venice, where 
his 'Merope' aroused such enthusiasm that the 
Council of Ten appointed him director of the 
Scuola degl' Incurabili, a circumstance which 
led to his beginning at last to write that sacred 
music which had been the object of his early 
ambition, and was to become one chief source 
of his fame. Among his compositions of the 
kind at this time was a 'Laudate' for double 
choir of eight voices, which, though once cele- 
brated, appears never to have been printed. In 
1745 we find him at Vienna, where he wrote 
successively 'Achille in Sciro' and 'Didone.' 
Here he formed with the poet Metastasio an 
intimate acquaintance. Metastasio entertained 
the highest opinion of his genius, and was also 
able to give him much useful advice on matters 
of dramatic expression and effect. Sometimes 
the accomplished friends amused themselves by 
exchanging rdles ; Jommelli, who wrote his native 
language with fluency and elegance, becoming 
the poet, and his verses being set to music by 



From Vienna, in 1748, he went again to 
Rome, where he produced • Artaserse.' He found 
an influential admirer and patron in Cardinal 
Albani, thanks to whose good offices he was, in 
1749, appointed coadjutor of Bencini, chapel- 
master of St. Peter's. He quitted this post in 1 754 
to become chapel-master to the Duke of Wur- 
temberg at Stuttgart, where he remained in the 
enjoyment of uninterrupted prosperity for more 
than fifteen years. Through the munificence of 
his duke he lived in easy circumstances, with all 
the surroundings most congenial to his cultivated 
and refined taste, and with every facility for 
hearing his music performed. Here he produced 
a number of operas, an oratorio of the Passion, and 
a requiem for the Duchess of Wurtemberg. In 
these works German influence becomes apparent 
in a distinct modification of his style. The 
harmony is more fully developed, the use of 
modulation freer and more frequent, while the 
orchestral part assumes a greater importance, 
and the instrumentation is weightier and more 
varied than in his former works. There is no 
doubt that this union of styles gave strength to 
his music, which, though never lacking sweetness 
and refinement, was characterised by dignity 
rather than force. It added to the estimation in 
which he was held among the Germans, but was 
not equally acceptable to Italians when, his fame 
and fortune being consolidated, he returned to 
pass his remaining years among his own country- 
men. The fickle Neapolitans had forgotten their 
former favourite, nor did the specimens of his 
later style reconquer their suffrages. ' The opera 
here is by Jommelli,' wrote Mozart from Naples 
in 1770. 'It is beautiful, but the style is too 
elevated, as well as too antique, for the theatre.' 
The rapid spread of the taste for light opera had 
accustomed the public to seek for gratification 
in mere melody and vocal display, while richness 
of harmony or orchestral colouring were looked 
on rather as a blemish by hearers impatient 
of the slightest thing calculated to divert theit 
attention from the 'tune.' 'Armida,' written 
for the San Carlo Theatre in 1771, and one of 
Jommelli's best operas, was condemned as heavy, 
ineffective, and deficient in melody. ' II Demo- 
foonte' (1772) and 'L'Ifigenia in Aulide' (1773) 
were ill executed, and were failures. 

The composer had retired, with his family, to 
Aversa, where he lived in an opulent semi- 
retirement, seldom quitting his home except to 
go in spring to l'lnfrascata di Napoli, or in 
autumn to Pietra bianca, pleasant country resorts 
near Naples. He received at this time a com- 
mission from the King of Portugal to compose 
two operas and a cantata. But his old sus- 
ceptibility to public opinion asserted itself now, 
and the failure of his later works so plunged 
him in melancholy as to bring on an attack of 
apoplexy. On his recovery he wrote a cantata 
to celebrate the birth of an heir to the crown 
of Naples, and shortly after, the Miserere for 
two voices (to the Italian version by Mattei) 
which is, perhaps, his most famous work. This 
was hiB 'swan's song' ; it was hardly concluded 




when he died at Naples, aged 60, Aug. a 8, 


Jommelli was of amiable disposition, and had 
the polished manners of a man of the world. 
Good looking in his youth, he became corpulent 
in middle age. Burney, who saw him at Naples 
in 1770, says he was not unlike Handel, a like- 
ness which cannot be traced in any portraits of 
him that are extant. The catalogue of his works 
contains compositions of all kinds, comprising 
nearly fifty operas and four oratorios, besides 
masses, cantatas, and a great quantity of church 
music. As a contrapuntist he was accomplished 
rather than profound, and his unaccompanied 
choral music will not bear comparison with the 
works of some of his predecessors more nearly 
allied to the Roman school. His Miserere for 
five voices, in G minor (included in Rochlitz's 
collection), contains great beauties, the long 
diminuendo at the close, especially, being a 
charming effect. But the work is unequal, and 
the scholarship, though elegant and ingenious, 
occasionally makes itself too much felt. 

His ideas have, for the most part, a tinge of 
mild gravity, and it is not surprising that he 
failed in ballets and other works of a light 
nature. Yet he has left an opera buffa, 'Don 
Jastullo,' which shows that he was not devoid 
of a certain sedate humour. This opera is 
remarkable (as are others of his) for the free em- 
ployment of accompanied recitative. Jommelli 
was one of the earliest composers who perceived 
the great dramatic capabilities of this mode of 
expression, which has, in recent times, received 
such wide development. He saw the absurdity, 
too, of the conventional Da Capo in airs consist- 
ing of two strains or movements, by which the 
sympathy of the hearer, worked up to a pitch 
during the second (usually Allegro) movement, is 
speedily cooled by the necessity for recommencing 
the Andante and going all through it again. 
He would not comply with this custom except 
where it happened to suit his purpose, but aimed 
at sustaining and heightening the interest from the 
outset of a piece till its close, — anticipating by 
this innovation one of Gluck's greatest reforms. 

His invention seems to have required the 
stimulus of words, for his purely instrumental 
compositions, such as overtures, are singularly 
dry and unsuggestive. Yet he had a more keen 
appreciation of the orchestra than any contem- 
porary Italian writer, as is evinced in his scores 
by varied combinations of instruments, by ob- 
bligato accompaniments to several airs, and by 
occasional attempts at such tone-painting as the 
part written for horns con tordini in the air 
'Teneri affetti miei' in 'Attilio Regolo.' In 
his Stuttgart compositions the orchestra becomes 
still more prominent, and is dialogued with the 
vocal parts in a beautiful manner. The Requiem 
contains much pathetic and exquisite music ; but 
intensity is wanting where words of sublime or 
terrible import have to be conveyed. In this 
work and the 'Passion' is to be found a great 
deal that is closely allied to composition of a 
similar kind by Mozart, and to the earlier master 

is due the credit of much which often passes 
as the sole invention of Mozart, because it is 
known only through the medium of his works. 
A comparison between the two is most interesting, 
showing, as it does, how much of Mozart's musical 
phraseology was, so to speak, current coin at the 
time when he lived. — The Miserere which was 
Jommelli's last production seems in some respects 
a concession to Italian taste, which possibly 
accounts for the comparatively great degree of 
subsequent popularity it enjoyed, and suggests 
the thought that, had its composer been spared 
a few more years, his style might once more 
have been insensibly modified by his surroundings. 
It possesses, indeed, much of the sympathetic 
charm that attaches to his other works, but the 
vocal parts are so florid as to be sometimes 
unsuitable to the character of the words. 

He cannot, however, be said to have courted 
popularity by writing for the vulgar taste. 
Among contemporary composers of his own 
school and country, he is pre-eminent for purity 
and nobility of thought, and for simple, pathetic 
expression. His genius was refined and noble, 
but limited. He expressed himself truthfully 
while he had anything to express, but where 
his nature fell short there his art fell short 
also, and, failing spontaneity, its place had 
to be supplied by introspection and analysis. 
His sacred music depicts personal sentiment as 
much as do his operas, and whereas a mass by 
Palestrina is a solemn act of public worship, 
a mass by Jommelli is the expression of the 
devotion, the repentance or the aspiration of an 

The following works of Jommelli's have been 
republished in modern times, and are now ac- 
cessible : — 

Salmo (Miserere). 4 voices and orchestra 
(Breitkopf & Hartel). 

Victimae paschali. 5 voices, score (Schott). 

Lux eterna. 4 voices (Berlin, Schlesinger). 

Hosanna filio, and In Monte Olivete. 4 
voices (Berlin, Schlesinger). 

Requiem, for S.A.T.B. Accompaniment ar- 
ranged for P.F. by Clasing (Cranz). 

Many other pieces of his are, however, included, 
wholly or in part, in miscellaneous collections, 
such as Latrobe's Sacred Music, the Fitzwilliam 
Music, Choron's 'Journal de Chant,' Rochlitz's 
' Collection de Morceaux de Chant,' and Gevaert's 
'Les Gloires de l'ltalie,' etc. [F.A.M.] 

JONAS, Eotle, one of the younger rivals 
of Offenbach in operabouffe, born of Jewish 
parents March 5, 1827, entered the Conserva- 
toire Oct. 28, 41, took second prize for harmony 
1846, and first ditto 47, and obtained the second 
•grand prix' for his 'Antonio' in 49. His de"but 
at the theatre was in Oct. 55 with 'Le Duel de 
Benjamin' in one act. This was follow by 
'La Parade' (Aug. 2, 56); 'Le Roi boit' (Apr. 
57) ; 'Les petits Prodiges' (Nov. 19, 57); 'Job 
et son chien ' (Feb. 6, 63) ; * Le Manoir des La- 
renardiere ' (Sept. 29, 64) ; and ' Avant la noce ' 
(March 24, 65)— all at the Bouffes Parisiens. 
Then, at other theatres, came 'Les deux Arle- 


quins' (Dec. 29, 65) ; 'Le Canard a trois bees' 
(Feb. 6, 69). Many of his pieces have been 
given in London, such as 'Terrible Hymen' at 
Covent Garden, Dec. 26, 66; 'The Two Har- 
lequins ' (by A'Beckett) at the Gaiety, Dec. 2 1, 
68 ; and ' Le Canard,' also at the Gaiety, July 
28, 71. This led to his composing an operetta 
in 3 acts to an English libretto by Mr. A. 
Thompson, called ' Cinderella the younger,' pro- 
duced at the Gaiety Sept. 25, 71, and reproduced 
in Paris as 'Javotte' at the Theatre Lyrique, 
Dec. 22 following. 

M. Jonas was professor of Solfeggio at the 
Conservatoire from 1847 to 66, and professor of 
Harmony for military bands from 1859 to 70. 
He is also director of the music at the Portu- 
guese synagogue, in connection with which he 
published in 1854 a collection of Hebrew tunes. 
He has also been bandmaster of one of the 
legions of the Garde Nationale, and since the 
Exposition of 67 has organised the competitions 
of military bands at the Palais de l'industrie, 
whereby he has obtained many foreign decora- 
tions. Since 'Javotte,' M. Jonas has brought 
out no piece of importance. [G.] 

JONES, Edwabd, was born at a farm house 
called Henblas, — i. e. Old Mansion, — Llanderfel, 
Merionethshire, on Easter Sunday, 1752. His 
father taught him and another son to play on 
the Welsh harp, and other sons on bowed in- 
struments, so that the family formed a complete 
string band. Edward soon attained to great 
proficiency on his instrument. About 1775 he 
came to London, and in 1783 was appointed 
bard to the Prince of Wales. In 1786 he pub- 
lished ' Musical and Poetical Relicks of the 
Welsh Bards, with a General History of the 
Bards and Druids, and a Dissertation on the 
Musical Instruments of the Aboriginal Britons '; 
a work of learning and research. Another 
edition appeared in 1794, and in 1802 a second 
volume of the work was issued under the title of 
'The Bardic Museum.' Jones had prepared a 
third volume, a portion only of which was pub- 
lished at his death, the remainder being issued 
subsequently. The three volumes together con- 
tain 225 Welsh airs. Besides this, he compiled 
and edited ' Lyric Airs ; consisting of Specimens 
of Greek, Albanian, Walachian, Turkish, Ara- 
bian, Persian, Chinese, and Moorish National 
Songs and Melodies ; with ... a few Explana- 
tory Notes on the Figures and Movements 
of the Modern Greek Dances, and a short 
Dissertation on the Origin of the Ancient Greek 
Music,' 1804; 'The Minstrel's Serenades'; 
' Terpsichore's Banquet, a Selection of Spanish, 
Maltese, Russian, Armenian, Hindostan, Eng- 
lish, German, French and Swiss Airs ' ; ' The 
Musical Miscellany, chiefly selected from emi- 
nent composers ' ; ' Musical Remains of Handel, 
Bach, Abel, etc. ' ; ' Choice Collection of Italian 
Songs'; 'The Musical Portfolio, consisting of 
English, Scotch, Irish, and other favourite 
Airs ' ; « Popular Cheshire Melodies ' ; ' Mu- 
sical Trifles calculated for Beginners on the 
Harp' ; and 'The Musical Bouquet, or Popular 



Songs and Ballads.' Besides his professional 
pursuits Jones filled a situation in the Office of 
Robes at St. James's Palace. He collected an 
extensive library of scarce and curious books, 
part of which, to the value of about £300, he sold 
in the latter part of his life, and the remainder 
was dispersed by auction after his death, realising 
about £800. He died, as he was born, on Easter 
Day, April 18, 1824. [W.H.H.] 

JONES, John, organist of the Middle Temple 
Nov. 24, 1 749 ; of the Charterhouse (following 
Dr. Pepusch) July 2, 1753; and of St. Paul's 
Cathedral Dec. 25, 1755. He died, in possession 
of these three seats, Feb. 1 7, 1 796. He published 
'Sixty Chants Single and Double' (1785) in 
the vulgar florid taste of that time. One of 
these was sung at George III.'s state visit to 
S. Paul's April 23, 1789, and at many of the 
annual meetings of the Charity Children. At 
that of 1 79 1 Haydn heard it, and noted it in his 
diary as follows (with a material improvement 
in the taste of the fourth line) : — 


'No music has for a long time affected me so much 
as this innocent and reverential strain.' [G.] 

JONES, Rev. William, known as 'Jones 
of Nay land,' born at Lowick, Northampton- 
shire, July 30, 1726, and educated at the 
Charter House and at University College, Ox- 
ford. He included music in his studies and 
became very proficient in it. In 1764 he was 
presented to the vicarage of Bethersden, Kent, 
and subsequently became Rector of Pluckley in 
the same county, which he exchanged for the 
Rectory of Paston, Northamptonshire. He is 
said to have been presented to the Perpetual 
Curacy of Nayland, Suffolk, in 1776, but his 
name does not occur in the registers until 1 784. 
In Jan. 1 784 he published ' A Treatise on the 
Art of Music,' which gained him considerable 
reputation. In March, 1789, he published by 
subscription his Op. ii, ' Ten Church Pieces for 
the Organ, with Four Anthems in score [a 
psalm tune 1 and a double chant], composed for 
the use of the Church of Nayland in Suffolk, 
and published for its benefit.' In 1798 he be- 
came Rector of Hollingbourne, Kent. He was 
the author of many theological, philosophical, 
and miscellaneous works. He died at Nayland, 
Jan. 6, 1800, and was buried in the vestry of 
the church on Jan. 14. A second edition of his 
Treatise on Music was published at Sudbury 
in 1827. [W.H.H.] 

JONES, Robert, Mus. Bac., a celebrated 
lutenist, published in 1601 'The First Booke of 
Ayres,'— one of the pieces in which, ' Farewell 
deere love ' (alluded to by Shakspere in ' Twelfth 
Night'), is printed in score in J. S. Smith's 
'Musica Antiqua,' — and 'The Second Booke of 

I Now known as S. Stephen'!. 



Songs and Ayres, set out to the Lute, the Base 
Violl the playne way, or the Base by tableture 
after the leero fashion ' ; a song from which — 
'My love bound me with a kisse,' is likewise 
given in 'Musica Antiqua.' He contributed 
the madrigal, 'Faire Oriana, seeming to wink 
at folly,' to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' pub- 
lished in the same year. In 1607 he published 
'The First Set of Madrigals of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
parts, for Viols and Voices, or for Voices alone, 
or as you please,' and in 1 608 ' Ultimum Vale, 
or the Third Book of Ayres of 1, 2, and 4 Voyces.' 
In 1609 appeared 'A Musical! Dreame, or the 
Fourth Booke of Ayres ; The first part is for 
the Lute, two voyces and the Viole de Gambo : 
The second part is for the Lute, the Viole and 
four voices to sing: The third part is for one 
voyce alone, or to the Lute, the Base Viole, or 
to both if you please, whereof two are Italian 
Ayres.' In 1611 he published 'The Muse's 
Gardin for delight, or the Fift Booke of Ayres 
only for the Lute, the basse Violl and the 
Voyce.' He contributed three pieces to Leigh- 
ton's 'Teares or Lamentacions ' published in 
1614. In 1616 Jones, in conjunction with 
Philip Rossetor, Philip Kingman and Ralph 
Reeve, obtained a privy seal for a patent author- 
ising them to erect a theatre, for the use of the 
Children of the Revels to the Queen, within the 
precinct of Blackfriars, near Puddle Wharf, on 
the site of a house occupied by Jones. But the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen were opposed to the 
scheme, and procured from the Privy Council an 
order prohibiting the building being so applied, 
and by their influence Jones and his fellows were 
compelled to dismantle their house and surrender 
their patent. [W. H. H.] 

JOSEPH. 1. 'Joseph and his Brethren.' 
The 8th of Handel's English oratorios ; the 
words by James Miller, the music composed in 
August 1743. Produced at Covent Garden 
March 2, 1744- 2 - Opera-comique in 3 acts; 
libretto by Duval, music by MeTiul. Produced 
at the Theatre Feydeau Feb. 17, 1807. Chiefly 
known by the romance of Joseph, 'A peine au 
sortir de 1'enfance' ('Ere infancy's bud') and a 
prayer for male voices, 'Dieu dTsrael.' The 
romance of Benjamin, 'Ah lorsque la Mort,' 
is given in the Musical Library, ii. 142. 3. An 
oratorio in 2 parts ; the words selected from the 
Bible by Dr. E. G. Monk ; the music by G. A. 
Macfarren. Produced at the Leeds Festival 
Sept. 21, 1877. [G.] 

JOSHUA. The 14th of Handel's English 
oratorios ; words by Dr. Morell. The music was 
begun on July 19 and finished Aug. 19, 1747, 
and the work was produced at Covent Garden 
theatre March 9, 1 748. The chorus, ' The na- 
tions tremble,' is said to have affected Haydn 
extremely when he heard it at the Antient 
Concerts. 1 'See, the conquering hero comes' is 
originally in Joshua, and was transferred to 
Judas. The oratorio was revived by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society June 19, 1839. [G.] 

> Appendix to Shield's ' Introduction to Harmony.' 


JOSQUIN, ormore strictly JOSSE, DESPRES, 
— latinised into Jodocus A Pratis, and 
italianised into Giusqcino — one of the greatest 
masters of the Netherland school, the successor 
of Ockenheim as its representative, and the 
immediate predecessor in musical history of 
Lassus and Palestrina, was born about the 
middle of the 1 5th century, probably at or near 
St. Quentin in Hainault. In the collegiate church 
of that town, according to Claude Hemere", the 
'arte canendi clarissimus infantulus' began his 
promising career. Here, perhaps, the little 
chorister would get his pet name Jossekin, 
which clung to him through life, and in its 
Latin form Josquinus gives us the title by 
which as a composer he always has and always 
will be known. His real name, however, ap- 
pears in his epitaph and in a legal document 
discovered by M. Delzaut at Conde. 

Of the rest of Josquin's early life we know 
that he was for some time chapel-master at 
St. Quentin, and also that he was received as 
a pupil by Ockenheim, who, himself the greatest 
living composer, was gathering round him such 
disciples as he thought worthy the trust of carry- 
ing on his labours after him. We can scarcely 
be wrong in assuming that Josquin stayed with 
Ockenheim for some years. Long and patient 
labour could alone make him familiar with all 
the subtleties of that master's art, and that he 
had thoroughly learnt all that Ockenheim could 
teach him before he came to Rome is apparent 
from his earlier compositions. Had he written 
nothing else these works by themselves would 
have entitled him to a name as great as his 

Exactly 400 years ago we find Josquin at the 
Papal court of Sixtus IV (1471-1484) already 
regarded as the most rising musician of the day, 
rapidly gaining the proud position of being the 
greatest composer which the modern world had 
yet produced, and making that position so secure, 
that for upwards of sixty years his title remained 
undisputed. Agricola, Brumel, Gombert, Clemens 
non Papa, Genet, Isaac, Goudimel, Morales, 
these are only a few of the names of the great 
musicians who flourished in this period, and yet 
where are they, when Baini thus describes the 
state of music in Europe before the advent of 

Palestrina ? ' Jusquino des Pres l'idolo 

dell' Europa Si canta il solo Jusquino in 

Italia, il solo Jusquino in Francia, il solo Jus- 
quino in Germania, nelle Flandre, in Ungheria, 
in Boemia, nelle Spagne, il solo Jusquino.' 

Though Josquin's stay at Rome was not a 
long one, the fruits of his labours there, in the 
form of several MS. masses, are still preserved and 
jealously guarded from curious eyes in the library 
of the Sistine chapel. 

It is almost impossible to decide at what times 
of his life Josquin paid visits to, or received 
appointments at the respective courts of Hercules 
of Ferrara, Lorenzo of Florence, Louis XII of 
France or the emperor Maximilian I. It is cer- 
tain that all these princes were in their turn 
his patrons. For the first he wrote his mass 


' Hercules dux ' Ferrariae,' and his Miserere. 
Aaron tells us how Josquin, Obrecht, Isaac, and 
Agricola were his intimate friends in Florence. 
Various anecdotes are told of his stay at the 
French court. How he was anxious to obtain 
promotion from the king, but when the courtier 
to whom he applied for help always put him off 
with the answer 'Lascia fare mi,' weary of 
waiting Josquin composed a mass on the sub- 
ject La, sol, fa, re, mi, repeated over and over 
again in mimicry of the oft-repeated answer, and 
how the idea pleased the king's fancy so much 
that he at once promised Josquin a church bene- 
fice. How Louis nevertheless forgot his promise 
and Josquin ventured to refresh the royal memory 
with the motets 'Fortio mea non est in terra 
viventium ' and ' Memor esto verbi tui.' Lastly, 
how Louis XII, admiring music from the respect- 
ful distance of complete ignorance, desired the 
great composer to write something expressly for 
him, and how Josquin wrote a canon, in accom- 
paniment to which the 'Vox regis' sustained 
throughout a single note. 2 Whether Louis ever 
did give the promised benefice to Josquin is un- 
certain, though the motet ' Bonitatem fecisti cum 
servo tuo' is generally supposed to have been a 
thank-offering for such an appointment. But we 
have proof that the last years of the composer's 
life were spent in the enjoyment of church pre- 
ferment at Conde*. He had probably passed from 
the service of Louis to that of Maximilian, who 
became possessed of the Netherlands in 1 5 1 5, and 
may have presented Josquin with this position 
of retirement. Of his death at this place, a MS. 
at Lille gives the evidence in a copy of his 
epitaph, in the choir at Conde', as follows : — 
Chy gist sire Josse Despres 
Prevost de Cheens fut jadis 
Priez Dieu pour les Trepassez qui leur doile son 
Trepassa l'an 1521 le 27 d'Aoust 
Spes mea semper fuisti 

Josquin's printed compositions consist of 19 
masses, about 50 secular pieces, and upwards of 
150 motets with sacred words, a complete list 
of them being given in Eitner's * Bibliographie 
der Musik-Sammelwerke' (Berlin, 1877). Seve- 
ral composers of the same period have left more 
published works, but Glarean tells us that Jos- 
quin was very critical about his own compositions, 
and sometimes kept them back for years before 
he allowed their performance. Some evidence 
of the spread of his music is afforded by the 
fact mentioned by Burney (Hist. ii. 489) that 
Henry the VIII.'s music book at Cambridge 
contains some of it, and that Anne Boleyn had 
collected and learned many of his pieces during 
her residence in France. 

Of the 19 masses, 17 were printed in 3 books 

• In this mass the tenor sings the subject, 
lie ut re ut re fa ml re, 
the Towels In these syllables corresponding with those In the wordi 
* Hercules dux Ferrarie.' 

8 Whether the king was able to master this simple achievement, 
or whether, like Heusel— for whom Mendelssohn wrote a similar 
part In the ' Son and Stranger '—he proved ' quite unable to catch 
tnc note, though blown and whispered to him from every side,' we 
arc not told. The canon itself Is given bj Hawkins, chap. 70. 



by Petrucci. The most beautiful of them are 
the ' La sol fa re mi,' the ' Ad fugam ' and the 
'De Beata Virgine.' The first or these, if we 
credit the story of its origin, would be composed 
after the year 1498, when Louis XII ascended 
the throne. Two other masses, ' Pange Lingua ' 
and ' Da pacem,' not included in the above books 
are probably of a still later date. These 5 
masses are those in which Josquin shows the 
greatest advance on the school of his master. 

Among the finest of the motets we may 
mention the settings of the genealogies in the 
first chapters of St. Matthew and St. Luke, a 
5 -part ' Miserere,' and the 4-part psalms ' Planxit 
autem David' (the lament for Saul and Jonathan) 
and ' Absolon fili mi.' Some of the masses and 
many of the motets exist in MS. score, with 
modern notation, in the Fe"tis library at Brussels. 
In their original form they can be found in all 
the great libraries of Europe. 

Of the secular works, the most important col- 
lection is in the 7th book of Susato's songs pub- 
lished in 1545, which contains 24 pieces by 
Josquin. Here we find the beautiful dirge written 
on the death of Ockenheim, which is also printed 
in score by Burney in his History. 

It must however be borne in mind, that in 
distinguishing works of these old composers, we 
are often more attracted by some historical inte- 
rest, some quaintness in the choice of the text, 
or some peculiarity in the musical notation, than 
by the features of the music itself, and when we 
do try to separate one piece of music from the 
other we are naturally led at first to admire 
most whatever comes nearest to our modern 
ideas (those pieces for instance written in the 
modes most like our own keys), and to be disap- 
pointed when a mass or motet, which we know 
by tradition to be a masterpiece, fails to move 
us, and to lay it aside with the explanation that 
it is only a dry contrapuntal work. But it is 
not fair to study the music of this period simply 
to find out how much our modern schools owe to 
it. When Burney calls Josquin 'The father 
of modern harmony' he does not perhaps give 
the title of which the composer would himself be 
proudest, 'for there are musicians alive now,' 
says Doni in his Musical Dialogues, ' who, if 
Josquin were to return to this world would make 
him cross himself.' We must regard these 
Netherland masters, not only in their relation- 
ship to succeeding generations, but as the chief 
lights of a school of religious music which had 
at that time reached so complete a form that 
any further progress without an entire revolu- 
tion seemed impossible ; a school of church music 
which, were we to consider alone the enormous 
demands it made on the industry and intellect of 
its followers, would excite our reverence, but 
which, when we consider the wonderful hold it 
had on popular feeling throughout Europe for 
nearly a century, kindles in us the hope that we 
may not be too far separated by our modern 
ideas from the possibility of once again being 
moved by the fire of its genius. If the absence 
of a satisfactory modern school of church music 



has already been acknowledged by many, and a 
widespread movement exists in Germany to 
recall the old music to the service of the Catholic 
church, then we may indeed hope to gain a more 
intimate knowledge of Josquin and his followers, 
than by groping about libraries, copying MSS. or 
reaching theoretical treatises. Fortunately the 
study of counterpoint is hardly a more necessary 
condition of appreciating the music of Josquin, 
than it is in the case of Bach. But the ear will 
have to accustom itself to many extraordinary 
combinations of sounds, meagre harmonies, un- 
satisfactory cadences, final chords which seem to 
have lost all character, before any of these works 
can be thoroughly enjoyed. In the meantime, 
and till we may possibly hear them performed 
again in the churches for which they are written, 
there is much pleasure to be derived from the 
private study of them ; and a real love for them, 
even with an imperfect understanding, grows 
up in us very quickly. 

The reasons which the council of the church 
gave for suddenly abandoning the works of Jos- 
quin's school were not founded on any want of 
admiration for their musical effect. One obj ection 
was the fact of the melodies which the composers 
took for their canto fermo being secular, and the 
voice to which it was assigned singing the secular 
words, while the other voices sang the words of 
the mass. The other objection was that the 
excessively florid style in which the parts were 
often written made the words of so little import- 
ance that it was often impossible to trace their 
existence. The first objection was not a strong 
one, for the church had sanctioned the use of the 
secular melodies as the foundation of masses for 
more than a century, and some of the melodies 
had become almost hallowed to their purpose. 
The singing of the secular words might have 
been easily given up without forsaking the 

But the second objection was stronger; for 
though Josquin began, and his followers, Gom- 
bert especially, tried still more, to give expres- 
sion to the general sense of the text, still we 
find often a few syllables scattered over a page 
to do service for a host of notes, as if the notes 
were everything and the words nothing. Still as 
the first objection applies entirely to the masses, 
so the second also applies to them much more 
than to the motets, and it is by these latter 
works, we venture to think, that their composers 
will be known, if their music is destined to live 

Apart however from all considerations of the 
vitality of the school which he represents, of 
the reason of its downfall or the chances of 
its revival, 'Josquin deserves to be classed as 
one of the greatest musical geniuses of any 
period.' (Kiesewetter's History of Music.) For- 
tune favoured him in appointing the time of his 
birth. He was the first composer who came 
into the world with the materials of his work 
thoroughly prepared for him. Masses written 
with counterpoint had been taken to Home from 
the Netherlands towards the end of the 14th 


century, and Dufay, who was a singer in the 
Papal chapel in 1380 (or exactly 100 years 
before Josquin held the same position), was a 
contrapuntist of sufficient importance to be quoted 
as an authority by theoretical writers of a much 
later date, and whose art though simple was 
sufficiently perfect to suggest that he too must 
have had predecessors to prepare his way. But 
we cannot regard musicians from the time of 
Dufay to that of Ockenheim as composers in the 
sense that Josquin was one. Their genius was 
expended on the invention of counterpoint, which 
Josquin was the first to employ as a means to a 
higher end. They were but pilgrims to a pro- 
mised land, which they may have seen from afar ; 
but Josquin was the first who was to be allowed 
to enter it. ' In Josquin,' says Ambros (whose 
knowledge of and admiration for the old music 
surpasses that of any modern historian), ' we have 
the first musician who creates a genial impres- 

In another sense, a very practical one, Josquin 
stands first on the list of composers. He is 
the oldest writer whose works are preserved to 
us, if not entire, at least in such quantities as 
adequately to represent his powers. The inven- 
tion of printing music by moveable types, which 
gave such a wonderful impetus to publication, 
dates from 1498, the very time when Josquin was 
at the height of his power ; and it is a testimony 
to the superiority of his music over that of his 
predecessors, that though Ockenheim is supposed 
to have been still living at the beginning of the 
1 6th century, and perhaps as late as 151 2, the 
publishers thought fit to print very few of his 
compositions, whilst few collections were issued 
to which Josquin did not largely contribute. 

Commer, in his ' Collectio Operum Musicorum 
Batavorum' (Berlin, Trautwein), has printed 
1 2 motets and two chansons. 

Bochlitz in his 'Sammlung' (Schotts) gives 
a hymn, ' Tu pauperum refugium ' ; portions of 
a mass; and a motet, ' Misericordias Domini,' 
all for 4 voices. Choron, in his ' Collection 
generale,' gives his Stabat Mater a 5 ; and 
Hawkins (chap. 72) a motet, a 4, 'O Jesu fili.' 
The 11 large volumes of Burney's Musical Ex- 
tracts (Add. MSS. 11,581-91) contain many and 
valuable compositions of Josquin's. 

In Van der Straeten's 'La Musique aux Pays- 
Bas' (Brussels, 1867) a portrait of Josquin is 
reproduced from a book published by Peter 
Opmeere at Antwerp in 159T. It seems to have 
been copied from a picture originally existing in 
the Brussels cathedral, and thence probably came 
the tradition that Josquin was buried there. 
Opmeere accompanies the portrait with the fol- 
lowing words : ' Conspicitur Josquinus depictus 
Bruxellis in D. Guduhe [ecclesia], in tabula arse 
dextrse ante chorum honesta sane facie ac blandis 
oculis.' [J.R.S.-B.] 

JOTA (pronounced Hota, with a strong gut- 
tural aspirate). One of the most characteristic of 
the North Spanish national dances. It is a kind 
of waltz, always in three-time, but with much 
more freedom in the dancing than is customary 


in waltzes. 'It is danced,' says a 'traveller, 'in 
couples, each pair being quite independent of the 
rest. The respective partners face each other; 
the guitar twangs, the spectators accompany, with 
a whining, nasal drawling refrain, and flapping 
of hands. You put your arm round your partner's 
waist for a few bars, take a waltz round, stop, 
and give her a fling round under your raised arm. 
Then the two of you dance, backward and for- 
ward, across and back, whirl round and chassez, 
and do some nautch- wallah -ing, accompanying 
yourselves with castanets or snapping of fingers 
and thumbs. The steps are a matter of your 
own particular invention, the more outris the 
better ; and you repeat and go on till one of you 
tires out.' Every province in the North has its 
own Jota, the tune and style of which have ex- 
isted from time immemorial. Thus there is a 
Jota Aragonesa and a Jota Navarra, quite dif- 
ferent in melody and accompaniment, but always 
in three-time. Of the former, a better example 
could hardly be given than that which forms the 
chief subject of Glinka's orchestral overture or 
piece ' Jota Aragonese.' 



^^^m mii^M. 

jM j|g 


Of the Jota Navarra, an equally good and 
simple specimen is to be found in the second part 
of Sarasate's Spanish Dances (op. 22). 

The Jota is much played in the North of Spain, 
and wherever it is heard a dance is sure to be 
the instant result. [G.] 

1 Major Campion, ' On Foot In Spain,' 1879, p. 157. 
* This is quite Oriental. 

JOULE, Benjamin St. John Baptist, born 
at Salford, Nov. 8, 1817, studied the violin 
under Richard Cudmore, and the organ, singing, 
and theory, under Joseph John Harris. From 
May 8, 1846, to March 20, 1853, he was organist 
and choir-master at Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, 
and from April 28, 1849, *° Oct. 3, 1852, also 
held a similar position at St. Margaret's, Whalley 
Range, Manchester. Since March 27, 1853, he 
has been honorary organist of St. Peter's Church, 
Manchester. He is also President of the Man- 
chester Vocal Society, and author or compiler 
of ' The Hymns and Canticles pointed for Chant- 
ing,' 1847 ; * Directorium Chori Anglicanum,* 
1849; a very comprehensive ' Collection of Words 
of Anthems,' 1859; a pointed Psalter; and other 
works connected with choral service, several of 
which have reached many editions. He has also 
lectured on Church Music, and been a con- 
tributor to various periodicals. He was music 
critic to 'The Manchester Courier' from 1850 to- 
1870. [W.H.H.] 

JUBILATE— the first word of the Vulgate ver- 
sion — is the Psalm (100th) which is given as an 
alternative to the Benedictus, to follow the second 
lesson in the morning service of the Anglican 
Church. The ancient custom of the church was 
to read lessons and psalms alternately, and 
psalms so used were called responsories. The 
Jubilate was specially used in this manner in the 
offices of Salisbury and York, so its adoption in 
the reformed service was only a perpetuation of 
ancient custom in the churches of England. 
Amalarius also (a.d. 820) speaks of it as used 
in Lauds apart from its ordinary occurrence in 
the order of the Psalms. Nevertheless it did 
not appear in Cranmer's Prayer-book of 1549, 
but was added in the revised edition which was 
made in the reign of Edward VI, 1552. Con- 
sequently there is no chant given for it in Mar- 
beck's first adaptation of ancient chants to the 
English service called 'The Book of Common 
Praier Noted,' which was published in 1550. 

It is curious that the Jubilate is much oftener 
used than the Benedictus, which is looked upon, 
quite as the exception. One of the most dis- 
tinguished clerical writers on the choral service of 
the church, Mr. Jebb, has observed that the Bene- 
dictus is so infinitely preferable in every respect 
tti at it is impossible to attribute the preference 
which is given to the Jubilate to any other motive 
than its being shorter. In confirmation of this 
view it is interesting to note that while the en- 
thusiasm of the Reformation was still hot, the 
great musicians of that time, Tallis, Byrd, and 
Farrant, chose the incomparably more beautiful 
and more appropriate, but longer, Benedictus; 
but when that enthusiasm was worn away hardly 
anything but the shorter Jubilate is to be met 
with. If we take for instance the most famous 
collections of the ancient services of the church 
in their order, we find three settings of the Jubi- 
late in Barnard's collection, eight in Boyce's, and 
no less than fifteen in Arnold's. 

Handel set the Jubilate for the thanksgiving 
service which was held after the Peace of 



Utrecht, which was concluded March 31, 1 713. 
Mendelssohn also set the Psalm, but not for 
liturgical use. [C. H. H. P.] 

M. von Weber ; composed for the festival held at 
Dresden in commemoration of the ->oth anniver- 
sary of the accession of Frederick Augustus I. of 
Saxony ; op. 59. The autograph is dated Dres- 
den, Sept. 11, 1818, and the first performance 
was at the Court Theatre on Sept. 20. The over- 
ture winds up with 'God save the KiDg.' Weber 
had written a Jubel cantata for the occasion, 
but it was put aside, and the overture — an en- 
tirely independent work — performed instead. [G.] 
JUDAS MACCABEUS. The 1 2th of Han- 
del's English oratorios, written by command of 
the Prince of Wales. Handel himself is said to 
have suggested the subject (a propos to the Duke 
of Cumberland's victories in Scotland) to Dr. 
Morell, who made the libretto. The music was 
begun July 9, and completed Aug. 1 1, 1 746, and 
it was produced at Co vent Garden April 1, 1747. 
It has always been a favourite. ' See, the con- 
quering hero comes' was transferred to Judas 
from Joshua. The air ' Wise men flattering,' and 
the chorus ' Sion now ' — were introduced several 
years after the production of the oratorio, and 
the latter is said to have been one of the last 
pieces composed by Handel. [G.] 

JUDITH. 1. An oratorio ; words by W. Hug- 
gins, music by Deiesch. Produced in London 
1733. 2. An oratorio by Dr. Arne (his 2nd); 
the words selected and adapted by Isaac Bicker- 
Btaff. Produced at the Lock Hospital Chapel 
Feb. 29, 1764. 3. A 'biblical cantata' in 3 
scenes ; words selected from the Bible by Chorley, 
music by H. Leslie. Composed for Birmingham 
Festival, and first performed Sept. 1858 ; also at 
St. Martin's Hall March 8, 59. [G.] 

JUIVE, LA. Opera in 5 acts; words by 
Scribe, music by Hale"vy. Produced at the 
Acade"inie Feb. 23, 1835. In England by the 
Brussels troupe at Drury Lane in French July 29, 
1846 ; in Italian, 'La Ebrea,' at Covent Garden 
July 25, 1850. [G.] 

JULLIEN (originally JULIEN), Louis An- 
toink, was born at Sisteron, Basses Alpes, April 
23, 1 81 2. His father was a bandmaster, and the 
boy was thus familiar with instruments and music 
from his cradle. At 21 he went to Paris and 
entered the counterpoint class of Le Carpentier 
at the Conservatoire, Oct. 26, 1833. Composition, 
however, and not counterpoint was his object, 
and after a year's trial he quitted Le Carpentier 
for HaleVy, Dec. 16, 1834, but with no greater 
success; he refused to do the exercises, and in- 
sisted on presenting the Professor with dances as 
specimens of 'composition' — not perhaps quite to 
Halevy's annoyance if it be true, as it used to 
be said, that the waltz 'Rosita,' which became 
the rage in Paris as Jullien's, was written by 
his master. He did not obtain a single men- 
tion at the Conservatoire, and at the beginning 
•of 1836 finally left it, and soon after appeared 
before the public as the conductor of concerts of 


dance music at the Jardin Turc. The ' Hugue- 
nots ' was just then in all the flush of its great 
success, and one of Jullien's first quadrilles was 
made upon the motifs of that opera, the announce- 
ment of which, as quoted by M. F^tis, is exactly 
in the style with which Londoners afterwards 
became familiar. To this enterprise he joined 
the establishment of a musical paper. No wonder 
that he was unsuccessful. In June 1838 he 
became insolvent, and had to leave Paris. His 
first appearance in London seems to have been as 
conductor, jointly with Eliason, of shilling ' Con- 
certs d'Ete" ' at Drury Lane theatre, which opened 
June 8, 1 840, with an orchestra of 98, and chorus 
of 26. On the 18th of the following January he 
conducted ' Concerts d'hiver ' at the same theatre, 
with a band of 90 and chorus of 80. These were 
followed by 'Concerts de Socie'te'' at the English 
Opera House, Lyceum, Feb. 7 to Mar. 18, 1842, 
comprising Rossini's Stabat for the first time 
in England. On Dec. 2, 42, began his 'annual 
series of concerts' at the English Opera House, 
and he thenceforward continued them season after 
season, at the close of the year, now at one theatre, 
and now at another, till the Farewell series in 
1859. 'His aim,' in his own words, 'was always to 
popularise music.' and the means he adopted for 
so doing were — the largest band ; the very best 
performers, both solo and orchestral ; and the 
most attractive pieces. His programmes con- 
tained a certain amount of classical music — 
though at the beginning hardly 60 much as that 
given by some of his predecessors, who announced 
a whole symphony on each evening. This 
was probably too much for a shilling audi- 
ence in the then state of musical taste, and 
Jullien's single movements and weaker doses just 
hit the mark. Later on in his career he gave 
whole symphonies, and even two on one evening. 
No doubt this judicious moderation did good, and 
should always be remembered to his credit, or that 
of his advisers. But the characteristic features 
of Jullien's concerts were, first, his Monster 
Quadrille, and secondly himself. He provided 
a fresh quadrille for each season, and it was 
usually in close connexion with the event of the 
day. The ' Allied Armies Quadrille ' during the 
Crimean war, 1854 ; the ' Indian Quadrille, and 
Havelock's March,' during the Mutiny, 1857 ; 
the 'English Quadrille'; the 'French ditto'; 
and so on. These were written by himself, 
and though then considered noisy were always 
rhythmical, melodious, and effective. In some 
of them as many as six military bands were 
added to the immense permanent orchestra. In 
front of this 'mass of executive ability,' 'the 
Mons ' — to adopt the name bestowed on him by 
Punch, whose cartoons have preserved his image 
with the greatest exactness — with coat thrown 
widely open, white waistcoat, elaborately em- 
broidered Bhirtfront, wristbands of extravagant 
length turned back over his cuffs, a wealth of 
black hair, and a black moustache — itself a 
startling novelty — wielded his baton, encouraged 
his forces, repressed the turbulence of his audience 
with indescribable gravity and magnificence, went 


through all the pantomime of the British Army 
or Navy Quadrille, seized a -violin or piccolo at 
the moment of climax, and at last sank exhausted 
into his gorgeous velvet chair. All pieces of 
Beethoven's were conducted with a jewelled 
baton, and in a pair of clean kid gloves, handed 
him at the moment on a silver salver. 

Not only did he obtain the best players for his 
band, but his solo artistes were all of the highest 
class. Ernst, Sivori, Bottesini, Wieniawski, Sain- 
ton ; Arabella Goddard, Marie Pleyel, Charles 
Halle, Vivier; Sims Reeves, Pischek, and many 
others, have all played or sung, some of them for 
the first time in England, under Jullien's baton. 
In fact he acted on the belief that if you give 
the public what is good, and give it with judg- 
ment, the public will be attracted and will pay. 
And there is no doubt that for many years his 
income from his Promenade Concerts was very 
large. His harvest was not confined to London, 
but after his month at Drury Lane, Covent Gar- 
den, or Her Majesty's, he carried off his whole 
company of players and singers through the pro- 
vinces, including Scotland and even Ireland, and 
moved about there for several weeks — a task at 
that time beset with impediments to locomotion 
which it is now difficult to realise. If he had but 
confined himself to the one enterprise, and exer- 
cised a proper economy and control over that! 
But this was impossible. He had started a shop 
Boon after his arrival, first in Maddox Street and 
then in Regent Street, for the sale of his music. 
In 1847 he took Drury Lane theatre on lease, 
with the view of playing English operas. Mr. Gye 
was engaged as manager, and M. Berlioz as 'con- 
ductor, with a host of other officials, including 
Sir Henry Bishop as ' inspector-superintendent at 
rehearsals,' and a splendid band and chorus. The 
house opened on Dec. 6, with a version of ' Lucia,' 
in which Sims Reeves made his de"but, and which 
was followed by Balfe's 'Maid of Honour,' 'Linda,' 
and 'Figaro.' 'All departments,' says a contem- 
porary 2 article by one who knew him well, ' were 
managed on the most lavish scale; orchestra, 
chorus, principal singers, officers before and be- 
hind the curtain, vying with each other in effi- 
ciency and also in expensiveness. The result 
might have been anticipated. The speculation 
was a failure, and though his shop was sold for 
£8000 to meet the emergency, M. Jullien was 
bankrupt' (April 21, 1848). He left the court 
however with honour, and, nothing daunted, soon 
afterwards essayed another and still more hazard- 
ous enterprise. In May 1849 he announced a 
'Concert monstre and Congres musical,' 'six 
grand musical fetes,' with '400 instrumentalists, 
3 distinct choruses, and 3 distinct military bands.' 
The first two took place at Exeter Hall on June 
1 and 15, and a third at the Surrey Zoological 
Gardens on July 20. The programme of the first 
deserves quotation. It was in 3 parts :— I. Da- 
vid's ode-sinfonie 'Le Desert' — Sims Reeves solo 
tenor. 2. Mendelssohn's Scotch Symphony. 3. A 

1 An amusing account of Berlioz's early enthusiasm, and Its gradual 
evaporation, will be found In his ' Correspondance Inedite' (1879), 
letters xxxv to jcliv. 

» ' Musical World/ March 24, 186a 



miscellaneous concert, with Anna Thillon, Jetty 
Treffz, Miss Dolby, Braham, Pischek, Dreyschoeck, 
Molique, etc., etc. This project too, if we may judge 
from its sudden abandonment, ended disastrously. 
In 1852 he wrote the opera of 'Pietro il Grande,' 
and brought it out on the most magnificent scale 
at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, on 
Aug. 17, at his own cost. The piece was an 
entire failure, and after five performances was 
withdrawn, leaving Jullien a loser of some thou- 
sands of pounds. Shortly after this he visited 
America and remained there till June 28, 1854. 
On his return he resumed the regular routine of 
his metropolitan and provincial concerts. But 
misfortunes pursued him. On March 5, 1856, 
Covent Garden theatre was burnt to the ground, 
and the whole of his music — in other words, his 
entire stock in trade — was destroyed ; an irrepar- 
able loss, since his quadrilles and other original 
pieces were in MS. In 1857 he became involved 
in the Royal Surrey Gardens Company, and lost 
between £5000 and £6000. This enabled him 
to add to his achievements by conducting ora- 
torios, but the loss, the protracted worry and 
excitement attending the winding up of the Com- 
pany, and the involved state of his own affairs, 
which had been notoriously in disorder for some 
years and were approaching a crisis, must have 
told severely on him. The next season was 
his last in this country. He gave a series of 
Farewell Concerts at the usual date — this time 
at the Lyceum, with a band reduced to 60— 
made a Farewell provincial tour, and then, pro- 
bably forced thither by pecuniary reasons, went 
to Paris. There on the 2nd of May, 1859, he was 
arrested for debt and put in prison at Clichy, 
but on the 22nd of the following month was 
brought up before the court, heard, and liberated 
with temporary protection. Early in March fol- 
lowing an advertisement appeared in the papers 
headed ' Jullien Fund,' stating that he was in a 
lunatic asylum near Paris, and appealing to the 
public on his behalf. Scarcely however was the 
advertisement in type when the news arrived of 
his death on March 14, i860. 

No one at all in the same category with Jullien, 
at least in our time, has occupied anything like 
the same high position in public favour. 'His 
name was a household word and his face and 
figure household shapes, during a period of nearly 
20 years.' Whatever the changes in his fortune his 
popularity never waned or varied. ' Your house,' 
says Lord Beaconsfield in 3 Tancred, describing the 
most favourable conditions for ball -giving conceiv- 
able in 1846, — 'your house might be decorated 
like a Russian palace, you might have Jullien pre- 
siding over your orchestra, and a banquet worthy 
of the Romans.' And similar allusions were made 
every day in the periodicals. And why so ? Be- 
cause, with much obvious charlatanism, what J ul- 
lien aimed at was good, and what he aimed at he 
did thoroughly well. He was a public amuser, but 
he was also a public reformer. ' By his frequent 
performances of the music of Mozart, Beethoven, 
Mendelssohn, and other great masters, and by the 

* Book t, chap. 7. 



constant engagement of the most eminent per- 
formers, he elicited at first the unconscious atten- 
tion, and then the enthusiastic appreciation, of the 
vast multitudes that besieged his concerts, and 
that not merely in London but all over the pro- 
vinces of Great Britain and Ireland. This will 
probably tend to preserve his memory among us 
even more than his unrivalled energy and talent, 
or his unprecedented zeal and liberality as a public 
entertainer. To Jullien moreover is attributable in 
a large measure the immense improvement which 
our orchestras have made during the last 20 years, 
he having been the means not only of bringing 
over some of the greatest foreign instrumentalists, 
but of discovering and nurturing the promise of 
many English performers, who through the pub- 
licity he placed at their disposal, no less than 
through their own industry and ability, have 
since attained acknowledged ' eminence.' [G.] 
periodical repertoire of music arranged for a mili- 
tary band, consisting of dances, marches, selections 
from operas, oratorios, symphonies, etc. It was 
started by Jullien in the year 1847, but in 1857 
came into the hands of Messrs. Boosey & Co., by 
whom it is published every alternate month as 
'Boost's Supplementary Journal,' to distinguish 
it from * Boost's Military Journal,' a monthly 
repertoire of a similar kind started by Charles 


Boose" the eminent bandmaster in 1846, and 
published by Messrs. Boosey since 1850. [See 

Judgment. Spohr's first oratorio. Written for 
and produced at the Festival at Erfurt Aug. 1 5, 
18 1 2, in honour of Napoleon I. It was not suc- 
cessful ; but Spohr's naif account of the per- 
formance, and of his own predilection for it, 3 is 
highly amusing. It is an entirely different work 
from ' Die letzten Dinge,' known in England as 
The Last Judgment. [G.] 

JUPITER. A sobriquet bestowed — whether 
by J. B. Cramer or not is uncertain — on Mozart's 
49th and last Symphony in C major (Kbchel, 
551), and now to some extent classical, since 
even the conservative Mendelssohn uses it in 
his letter of March 7, 1845. The symphony is 
quoted in Mozart's autograph catalogue, with 
the date Aug. 10, 1788. The autograph is on 
oblong paper, 91 pages of 12 staves each, and 
belongs to Julius Andre", Frankfort. Mendels- 
sohn was the first to notice the fact that a 
favourite passage near the close of the Andante 
was an afterthought. (See the letter above 
quoted.) The symphony was published as a 
P. F. duet by Breitkopf & Hartel, with the 
Finale of the Quintet in C (composed 1787) 
substituted for its own last movement. [G.] 


KALKBRENNER, Friedrich Wilhelm 
Michael, pianist and prolific composer for 
his instrument, was born 1788 near Berlin. 
His father, Christian Kalkbrenner, of Hebrew 
extraction and a 2 musician of great ability, be- 
gan his training early. In 1 798 he entered the 
Conservatoire at Paris, and left it, after four 
years of assiduous study, with a prize for piano- 
forte playing and composition. In 1 8 1 3 he played 
in public at Berlin and Vienna, heard Clementi, 
made Hummel's acquaintance, and was intro- 
duced by Haydn to Albrechtsberger, from whom 
he had lessons in counterpoint. From 18 14 to 
1 823 he resided in London, much sought after as 
a player and fashionable teacher. In 1824 he 
settled in Paris as a member of the pianoforte- 
making firm of Pleyel & Co. In Paris too his 
success as a performer and teacher was very great ; 
he was a shrewd man of business and managed 
to amass quite a fortune. Madame Canaille 
Pleyel was his best pupil. When Chopin came 
10 Paris in 1 831, Kalkbrenner's reputation was 
at its height : his compositions, mostly written 
for the market and now forgotten, were upon the 

1 "The Musical World.' March 24. 1860. 

* Beethoven includes 'Kalkbrenner (Vat er)' with Sterkel and others 
of the 'old, dead composers of the Empire' in his denunciation of 
Gottfried Weber's mistakes in regard to Mozart's liequiem. 'Ite- 
quiescat in pace,' sajs he (Letter, Feb. 6, 1826). He would hardly 
have been content with so mild a sneer If he had known that Kalk- 
brenner had ' arranged ' Son Giovanni (that is, had altered the musio 
and Interpolated fresh pieces) for its appearance on the Paris stags, 
Sept 17, 1*00 (.see Lajarte, ii. 38). [See Lachmtu.] 

desks of all dilletanti, and his playing was up- 
held as a model. Chopin, who was then only 
twenty-two years of age but had already written 
his two Concertos, the Etudes, op. 10, the first 
Scherzo and Ballade, etc., called on him and 
played his Concerto in E minor, whereupon Kalk- 
brenner came forward with the astounding pro- 
posal that Chopin should bind himself to be his 
pupil for three years and thus under his guidance 
become a good artist ! Chopin took no lessons, 
but soothed Kalkbrenner by dedicating the Con- 
certo to him. In a letter dated Dec. 16, 1831, 
Chopin speaks in high terms of Kalkbrenner's 
technique, praises his charming equable touch 
and quiet self-possession, and says that Herz was 
a zero compared with him. Still Chopin seems 
from the first to have been of Mendelssohn's 
opinion, who said to him soon after, 'You had 
nothing to learn from Kalkbrenner; you play 
better than he does.' 

Kalkbrenner was a man of great vanity, and 
far from scrupulous as to the means by which 
he strove to enhance his reputation. The late 
Professor Marx used to tell a story how Kalk- 
brenner called on him in 1834 at Berlin, anxious 
to make a good impression, as the Professor was 
then editor of the new 'Berliner Musikzeitung * 
and an influential personage. The visitor in 
moving terms deplored the decay of the good old 
art of improvisation, saying that since Hummel 
> Selbstbiographle, 1 169. 


had retired he was the only one who still 
cultivated it in the true classical spirit. He 
opens the piano and improvises for a quarter 
of an hour with fluent fancy and great neatness, 
interweaving all manner of themes, even a little 
fugue, much to the Professor's edification. Next 
day a parcel of music just printed at Paris arrives 
for review. The Professor, greatly interested, 
opens the topmost piece — ' Effusio Musica, par 
Fred. Kalkbrenner ' : when lo and behold ! he has 
yesterday's improvisation before him, fugue and 
all, note for note ! 

An instruction-book with Etudes belonging to 
it is the best thing Kalkbrenner left. His 
attainments as a musician are shown in four 
pianoforte concertos, one for two pianos, a septet, 
sextet and quintet, and various sonatas ; all cor- 
rectly and well written for the instrument, but 
dull and trite, spite of the glitter of what was 
called a ' brilliant ' style. 

Kalkbrenner died of cholera at Enghien near 
Paris on June 10, 1849. [E.D.] 

KALLIWODA, Johann Wenzeslaus, a violin 
player and popular composer, was born at Prague 
March 21, 1800. From 18 11 to 181 7 he was 
a pupil of the Conservatorium, and from 181 7 to 
1823 a member of the orchestra of that town. 
During a visit to Munich he was introduced to 
Prince Furstenberg, who took a lively interest 
in his talent and appointed him conductor of his 
private band at Donaueschingen, which post 
Kalliwoda retained, in spite of various offers from 
more important places, for the rest of his pro- 
fessional life, till he retired on a pension in 1853. 
He died at Carlsruhe Dec. 3, 1866. 

Kalliwoda, as a violinist, is regarded as one of 
the best representatives of the Prague school 
under F. W. Pixis. Without possessing very 
startling qualities of execution or style, his per- 
formances showed a well-finished technique, a 
sympathetic but not large tone, and were alto- 
gether more remarkable for elegance and a certain 
pleasantness than for vigour or depth of feeling. 

As he travelled but little, his reputation 
mainly rests on his compositions. They consist 
of seven Symphonies — F minor (1826); Eb; D 
minor ; C ; B minor (op. 106) ; G minor ; and 
F — Overtures, Concertinos and other Solo-pieces 
for the violin and other orchestral instruments, 
especially the Clarinet, Quartets for stringed 
instruments, Violin-Duets, Pianoforte-pieces, and 
a number of songs. Many of his works have 
enjoyed for some time, and chiefly in amateur- 
circles, a considerable popularity, and the Index 
of the Leipzig Allg. Mus. Zeitung shows a long 
list of performances. The works are certainly 
not of much importance in an artistic sense, and 
show little originality; but on the other hand, 
they are free from laboured efforts and ambitious 
striving after startling effects, are written in 
a thoroughly musicianly, unpretentious, and un- 
affected style, easy to understand, pleasing and 
effective. Their day is now over, but Schumann 
(in his * Gesamm. Schriften,' iii. 2 78) speaks of 
Kalliwoda's 5th Symphony with enthusiasm, and 
mentions the interesting fact that only a few 



years previously Kalliwoda had put himself under 
Tomaschek of Prague for improvement in some 
branches of counterpoint in which he felt himself 
weak. Schumann further testified his esteem by 
dedicating his Intermezzi (op. 4) ' al Sign. Kalli- 
woda.' In the history of the music of the last 
50 years, Kalliwoda occupies as an orchestral 
composer a position somewhat analogous to On- 
slow's as a composer of chamber-music. 

His son Wilhelm, born at Donaueschingen 
July 19, 1827, was thoroughly well brought up 
by his father, and was for a short time a pupil of 
Mendelssohn's at Leipzig in 1847, and of Haupt- 
mann's in 1848. He held various posts at 
Carlsruhe with credit to himself, but was com- 
pelled by ill health to forsake work. [P. D.] 

KANDLER, Franz Sales, a musical his- 
torian, to whom we owe an admirable condensa- 
tion of Baini's Palestrina ; born Aug. 23, 1792, 
at Kloster-Neuburg in Lower Austria. He 
belonged to the War Office, and went as in- 
terpreter with the army to Venice and Naples 
in 181 7 and 1821. He died of cholera at Baden 
(Beethoven's Baden) Sept. 26, 1831. His two 
works are ' Cenni storico-critici alia vita ed opere 
del . . . G. Ad. Hasse' (Venice, 1820; 2nd ed., 
Naples, 1820), and that above mentioned, 'TJeber 
das Leben und die Werke des . . . Palestrina,' 
etc. This was published after Kandler's death 
by Kiesewetter (Leipzig, B. & H. 1834). [G.] 

KAPELLE, a musical establishment, usually 
orchestral. The word was formerly applied to 
the private band of a prince or other magnifico, 
but is now used to denote any band. Thus at 
Berlin, the Kaiserliche konigliche Kapelle (97 
musicians, called Kammermusiker) forms the 
regular orchestra of the Grand Opera, with two 
Kapellmeisters (Conductors), a Concertmeister 
(Leader or 1st Violin), and a Balletdirigent 
(Balletmaster). The orchestra of the Crj'stal 
Palace would in Germany be called the Kapelle, 
and Mr. Manns the Kapellmeister. 

The smallest Kapelle existing is probably that 
of the Duke of Sigmaringen, which consists of a 
pianoforte player and a sextet of strings. [G.] 

KARAJAN, Theodob Geobg, Ritteb von, 
Dr. juris, philologist and historian, born at Vienna 
Jan. 22, 1810 ; clerk (1841) and custos (1854) in 
the court library, appointed vice-president (1851) 
and president (1859) of the Akademie der Wis- 
senschaften ; received the order of Leopold in 
1870, and died April 28, 1873. His philological 
works are numerous and important ; but his title 
to admission here is his pamphlet, ' J. Hadyn in 
London, 1791 and 1792 ' (Vienna, Gerold, 1861). 
In addition to matter from the well-known pam- 
phlets of Dies and Griesinger, it contains a num- 
ber of Hadyn's letters, chiefly from London and 
Estoras, to his friend Maria Anna von Genzinger, 
the wife of Leopold Peter, Edler von Genzinger, 
an esteemed physician, with four from the lady 
herself. She played the piano well, and even 
composed. Haydn wrote several sonatas for her, 
and whenever he was in Vienna spent much of 
his time at her house, where a pleasant musical 



society was generally to be found. Karajan also 
furnished his friend Otto Jahn with valuable 
material for his book on Mozart. [C.F.P.] 

KAUKA, Johann VON, Dr. juris, born at 
Prague Nov. 10, 1772, is named here not for his 
music, though he published a Pianoforte Concerto, 
a Cantata, and compositions to Collin's War 
Songs, but for his warm attachment to Beethoven 
and for the eminent service he rendered him, 
since it was chiefly through his means that the 
dispute with the Kinsky family was abandoned 
and an advantageous compromise effected. Kau- 
ka's father was, like himself, at once an eminent 
lawyer and a thorough musician, and his grand- 
father had been equally eminent as an architect. 
The family lived in Prague, and Beethoven was 
intimate with them in the early days of his 
residence in Austria. Kauka the younger wrote 
and edited books on Austrian and Bohemian law, 
which were much esteemed by his profession 
(Thayer, ii. 9; iii. 299). He was Dean (1815I 
and Rector (1829) ot the University, and died 
full of years and honours, April 15, 1865. [G.] 

KEEBLE, John, was born at Chichester in 
171 1 and was brought up as a chorister in the 
cathedral under Thomas Kelway. He after- 
wards became a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and was I 
in 1737 appointed successor to Thomas Rosein- I 
grave as organist of St. George's, Hanover Square, | 
allowing Roseingrave one half of the salary until 
his death in 1750. Keeble was also organist at 
Ranelagh Gardens. In 1784 he published 'The 
Theory of Harmonics, or, an Illustration of the 
Grecian Harmonica,' a work which attracted ! 
attention. He published five books of organ j 
pieces, and, jointly with Kirkman, '40 Interludes J 
to be played between the verses of the Psalms.' I 
He was an excellent organist and able teacher. I 
He died Dec. 24, 1 786. [W. H. H.] | 

KEISER, Reinhard, an eminent German 
opera-composer, born 1673 nearWeissenfels, Leip- 
zig. He was grounded in music by his father, 1 
a sound church composer, and afterwards at- I 
tended the Thomas-schule and the University of 
Leipzig, at the same time coming frequently be- 
fore the public at the many concerts renowned 
even then for their excellence. In 1692 he was 
commissioned to set a pastoral, ' Ismene,' for the 
court of Brunswick, and its success procured him 
the libretto of 'Basilius.' In 1694 he removed 
to Hamburg, and there remained for 40 years a 
favourite with the public. ' Irene ' (1697) was 
the first of a series of 116 operas composed for 
the Hamburg theatre, each containing from 40 to 
50 airs, besides operas in collaboration with others, 
and sacred music. Keiser was luxurious and 
self-indulgent, and led an adventurous life, but 
without sacrificing his love of art or his taste 
for intellectual enjoyments. In 1700 he opened 
a series of winter-concerts, which formed a re- 
markable combination of intellectual and sensual 
gratification ; the most accomplished virtuosi, the 
finest and best-looking singers, a good orchestra, 
and carefully selected programmes, furnishing the 
former, and a banquet of choice viands and wines 


the latter. In 1 703 he assumed the direction of 
the opera in conjunction with Driisicke, but his 
partner absconded, and the whole burden fell 
upon the shoulders of Keiser. He proved equal 
to the emergency, for in one year (1709) he com- 
posed 8 operas, married the daughter of a Ham- 
burg patrician, and musician to the municipality 
'Oldenburg,' and having completely reinstated 
his affairs, plunged into all his former extra- 
vagant indulgence. In 1 716 he resumed his con- 
certs; in 1722 visited Copenhagen and was 
appointed Capellmeister to the King of Denmark ; 
in 1728 was made Cantor and Canon of the 
cathedral, and again turned his attention to 
sacred music. He composed his last opera, ' Circe,' 
in 1 734, and died in 1 7 39. His wife and daughter 
are said to have been accomplished singers. 

Keiser exercised an important though not a 
permanent influence on German opera. The 
perfection to which at first he raised the opera 
at Hamburg, speedily degenerated into mere 
outward show a*d trivial if not vulgar farce, 
but the sensation he produced at first is described 
by his contemporaries as extraordinary. Mathe- 
son, who was not likely to exaggerate the suc- 
cesses of a rival, in his life-like picture of the 
musical condition of Hamburg, calls Keiser the 
first dramatic composer in the world, and says 
that no other music than that of ' dieser galante 
Componist ' was either sung or listened to. His 
melodies were smooth and graceful, and fell upon 
the ear 'bike charmed accents after the dull 
pedantries of the contrapuntists of the day.' 
That his melody was spontaneous his facility 
itself proves, and he was the first who en- 
deavoured to convey the sentiment of the cha- 
racter in the music. This was the secret of his 
success, and it was by this that he enabled 
German opera to hold its own against the de- 
clamation of the French, and the melody and 
fine singing of the Italians. In sacred music he 
shines chiefly in oratorio, which he treated dra- 
matically, but with an earnestness and dignity 
surprising in a man of his character. In judging 
Keiser in this department we must not forget 
that Bach's Passions, and Handel's Oratorios 
were then not known, scarcely even composed ; 
yet notwithstanding his want of models, his 
works compare favourably with the insipid sacred 
music of the latter half of the 18th century, 
produced under far greater advantages than were 
open to him. His sacred compositions include 
' Der fur die Siinde der Welt gemarterte und 
sterbende Jesus' ; ' Der verurtheilte und gekreu- 
zigte Jesus' (poem by Brock es of Hamburg) ; a 
Passion according to St. Mark, said to be fine ; 
and other historical oratorios, motets, cantatas, 
and psalms. He published extracts from the two 
first named works, viz. 'Auserlesene Soliloquia' 
(1 714), and 'Selige Erlbsungs-Gedanken' (17 15) ; 
airs from various operas, cantatas for a single 
voice, and several vocal collections with various 
titles, such as 'Divertimenti serenissimi,' 'Kaiser- 
liche Friedenspost,' ' Musikalische Landlust,' etc. 
Important portions of his operas and sacred 
works have been published by Lindner, in his 


'Erste stehende Deutsche Oper,' ii. 3-15 ; Reiss- 
mann, in his 'Allg. Geschichte der Musik,' iii. 
54-73 and App. Nos. 7 and 8 ; and von Winter- 
feld in his ' Evangelische Kirchengesang,' vol. iii. 
Adam Hiller included an unaccompanied motet 
— 'Kindlich gross' — in his ' Vierstimmige Mo- 
tetten,' etc. vol. ii, and there is a fugue for 4 
voices, 'Gott ist offenbaret,' in the 'Auswahl 
vorziiglicher musikwerke.' [A. M.] 

KELER BELA, whose real name is Albert 
von Keler, was born at Bartfeld in Hungary, 
Feb. 13, 1820. After attempting both the law and 
farming he settled himself to music, and in 1845 
began regular study at Vienna under Schlesinger 
and Sechter, playing the fiddle in the band of the 
Theater-an-der-Wien at the same time. May 7, 
1854 he took the command of Gung'l's band in 
Berlin, and began his career as conductor, solo- 
player, and composer. After a few months in 
Berlin he returned to Vienna, and succeeded to 
Banner's position at the head of that celebrated 
band. This again he left before long for an infantry 
regiment. As bandmaster to the latter he was 
called to Wiesbaden in 1863, and in 70 became 
Kapellmeister of the Kur orchestra there, a post 
which he resigned from ill health in 1872. He 
still resides in Wiesbaden, and celebrated his silver 
anniversary on May 7, 79. His works, which have 
reached op. 130, consist of overtures, dance music, 
and pieces for solo violin, all distinguished for 
showy brilliant style and clever orchestration. 
Among the most popular are his Hofnungssterne 
waltz, Hurrah-Sturm galop, and Friedrich-Karl 
march. [G.] 

KELLOGG, Clara Louise, though born in 
Sumterville, South Carolina, in July 1842, is of 
northern extraction. Her mother had consider- 
able talent as a musician, and Clara was her only 
child. In 1856 they removed to New York, 
where she received the whole of her musical 
education. She made her first appearance there, 
at the Academy of Music (Opera), as Gilda in 
Kigoletto, in 1861, and sang that season 10 or 12 
times. In 1867 (Nov. 2) she made her de"but in 
London at Her Majesty's as Margherita, sang 
constantly, and was re-engaged for the next year. 
From 1868 to 1872 she was touring in the United 
States. On May 11, 1872, she re-appeared in 
London at Drury Lane, Her Majesty's Opera, as 
Linda, and sang during that season also as Gilda. 
On her return to the United States she continued 
to sing in Italian opera till 1874, when she 
organised an English troupe, herself superintend- 
ing the translation of the words, the mise en 
scene, the training of the singers, and the re- 
hearsals of the chorus. Such was her devotion 
to the project, that in the winter of 74-75 she 
sang no fewer than 125 nights. It is satisfactory 
to hear that the scheme was successful. Miss 
Kellogg's musical gifts are great. She is said to 
be familiar with thirty-five operas. She has great 

I conscientiousness as an artist, ardent enthusiasm, 
and a voice of great compass and purity. In 
addition to which she has a remarkable talent for 
business and is never so happy as when she is 
doing a good or benevolent action. [G.] 

VOL. u. 



KELLY, Michael, was born in Dublin about 
1764, was taught singing by Passerini, Peretti, 
and St. Giorgio, and ultimately by Rauzzini, on 
whose advice his father sent him to Naples to 
Btudy. Before quitting Dublin, however, a 
fortuitous circumstance led to his appearance on 
the stage as the Count in Piccinni's 'Buona 
Figliuola,' and that again to his performing the 
hero in Michael Arne's ' Cymon,' and Lionel in 
'Lionel and Clarissa.' On May 1, 1779, he 
quitted Dublin, and arrived in Naples May 30. 
He placed himself under the tuition of Finaroli, 
head of the Conservatorio of La Madonna di 
Loreto. He subsequently studied under Aprile, 
with whom he visited Palermo, and then went 
successively to Leghorn, Florence, Bologna, and 
Venice, ultimately reaching Vienna, where he 
was engaged at the Court theatre. There he 
remained four years, enjoying the intimate 
friendship of Mozart, who on the production of 
his 'Nozze di Figaro' allotted to Kelly (whose 
name he spells ' Occhely ' in his MS. catalogue) 
the parts of Basilio and Don Curzio. Being 
anxious to visit England Kelly obtained leave 
of absence from the Emperor, and in Feb. 1787 
quitted Vienna in company with Stephen Storace, 
his mother and sister — Signora Storace — and 
Attwood. He appeared at Drury Lane on April 
20, in his old part of Lionel, and continued 
there as first tenor until he quitted the stage. 
He also sang at the Concert of Ancient Music, 
the Handel performances in Westminster Abbey, 
and in the provinces. In 1789 he made his 
first appearance as a composer by the produc- 
tion of the music to two pieces called 'False 
Appearances' and 'Fashionable Friends,' and 
from that date till 1820 furnished the music 
for 62 dramatic pieces, besides writing a con- 
siderable number of English, Italian and French 
single songs, etc. In 1793 he was engaged at the 
King's Theatre, of which he was for many years 
acting manager. On Jan. 1, 1802, he opened a 
music shop in Pall Mall adjoining the Opera 
House, but this promising speculation failed 
owing to his inattention, and in 181 1 he was 
made a bankrupt. He also engaged in the wine 
trade, and this circumstance, combined with 
the suspicion that some of Kelly's compositions 
were derived from foreign sources, led Sheridan 
to propose that he should inscribe over his shop, 
'Michael Kelly, Composer of Wines and Im- 
porter of Music' On Sept. 5, 181 1, at Dublin, 
Kelly made his last appearance on the stage. 
In 1826 he published his 'Reminiscences' in 
2 vols. 8vo. This entertaining work, which 
reached a second edition in the same year, was 
written by Theodore Hook from materials fur- 
nished by Kelly. Its personal notices of Mozart 
are both interesting and important, and have 
been done justice to by Otto Jahn (2nd ed. ii. 
242, etc.) Kelly died at Margate, Oct. 9, 1826. 
The following is a list of the pieces for which he 
composed the music : — 

'Falsa Appearances' and 'Fash- .Castle Spectre. 'HOT; 'Blue Beard.' 
lonable Friends.' 1789 ; 'A Friend |'Tbe Outlaws.' "The Captive of 
In need.' ' The Last of the Family,' Spielberg ' (with Dussek), and ' Au- 
' The Chimney Corner,' and 'The rello and Miranda,' 1798; 'Feudal 




try,' ' The Wood Demon (with M. 
T. King), ' The Bouse of Morville,' 
' AdelKitha," and 'Time's a tell- 
tale," 1807 ; ' The Jew of Mogadore," 
* The Africans," and ' Venoni," 1808 ; 
' The Foundling of the Forest ' and 
'The Jubilee," 1809; 'Gustavus 
Vasa' and a Ballet, 1810; 'The 
Peasant Boy,' 'The Royal Oak," 
and 'One o'clock,' 1811; ' The Ab- 
sent Apothecary,' ' The Bussians,' 
'Polly,' 'The Bluslon,' and 'Har- 
lequin Harper,' 1813; 'The Re- 
morse,' 1814; 'The Unknown 
Guest,' 1815 : ' The Fall of Taranto,' 
1817 ; ' The Bride of Abydos," 1818 j 
'Abudah,' 1819; and 'The Lady 
and the Devil,' 1820. 

Times' and 'Pizarro,' 1799; 'Of 
age to-morrow,' ' De Montfort,' 
aud 'The Indians.' 1800: 'Deaf 
and Dumb,' 'Adelmorn the Out- 
law,' and ' The Gipsy Prince,' 1801 ; 
'Urania.' 'Algonah.' and 'A 
House to be sold." 1802 ; • The Hero 
of the North,' ' The Marriage Pro- 
mise,' and 'Love laughs at lock- 
smiths." 1803; 'Cinderella,' 'The 
Counterfeit,' 'The Hunter of the 
Alps,' ' The Gay Deceivers,' ' The 
Blind Bargain,' and 'The land we 
live in,' 1804; 'The Honey Moon,' 
'A Prior Claim,' and 'Youth, 
Love, and Folly," 1805; ' We fly by 
night.' 'The Forty Thieves,' and 
' Adrian and OrHla,' 1806 ; • The 
Young Hussar,' ' Town and Coun- 1 [ W, H. H."l 

KELWAY, Joseph, a pupil of Geminiani, 
was organist of St. Michael's, Cornhill, which he 
resigned in 1736 on being appointed organist of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields vice Weldon deceased. 
Upon the arrival of Queen Charlotte in England 
Kelway was appointed her instructor on the 
harpsichord. As a harpsichord player he was 
remarkable for neatness of touch and rapidity of 
execution, and for his ability in performing Scar- 
latti's pieces. As an organist he excelled in extem- 
poraneous performance, of which he was such a 
master as to attract the most eminent musicians 
in London (amongst them Handel) to the 
church in order to hear him. Burney (iv. 665) 
characterises his playing as full of a 'masterly 
wildness . . . bold, rapid, and fanciful.' His pub- 
lished harpsichord sonatas are very inferior to 
his extemporaneous effusions. He died in 1782. 

His elder brother, Thomas, was educated as a 
chorister in Chichester Cathedral, and succeeded 
John Reading as organist there in 1720. Seven 
services and nine anthems by him are contained 
in a MS. volume in the library of Chichester 
Cathedral. His Evening Service in B minor is 
printed in Rimbault's 'Cathedral Music,' and 
two others in A minor and G minor are published 
by Novello. He died May 21, 1749. [W.H.H.] 

KEMBLE, Adelaide, younger daughter of 
Charles Kemble, the eminent actor, was born in 
1 8 14 and educated for a concert singer. She 
appeared first in London and afterwards at the 
York Festival in 1835, but with little success. 
She then went to Paris for improvement, and 
from thence in 1836 to Germany, and early in 
1839 to Italy. In that year she made her ap- 
pearance at La Fenice, Venice, as Norma with 
decided success. In 1840 she sang at Trieste, 
Milan, Padua, Bologna, and Mantua with in- 
creasing reputation. In 1841 she returned to 
England and appeared in an English version of 
'Norma' with marked success. In 1842 she 
sang in English versions of ' Le Nozze di Figaro,' 
' La Sonnambula,' ' Semiramide,' and ' 11 Matri- 
monio Segreto.' In 1843 she was married to 
Mr. Frederick U. Sartoris and retired from the 
profession. In 1867 she published 'A Week in 
a French Country House.' [W. H. H.] 

KEMP, Joseph, Mus. Doc., was born in 
Exeter in 1778, and was placed as a chorister 
in the cathedral under William Jackson, with 
whom he continued as a pupil after quitting the 
choir. In 1802 he removed to Bristol on being 


appointed organist of the cathedral. In 1 809 he 
resigned his appointment and settled in London. 
In 1808 he took the degree of Mus. Bac. at Cam- 
bridge, his exercise being a ' War Anthem, A 
sound of battle is in the land.' In 1 809 he was by 
special dispensation permitted to proceed Doctor 
of Music ; his exercise being an anthem entitled 
•The Crucifixion.' On Oct. 25, 1809, 'The 
Jubilee,' an occasional piece by him, was pro- 
duced at the Haymarket Theatre. In 1810 a 
melodrama called ' The Siege of Isca [Exeter], or, 
The Battles in the West,' written by Dr. Kemp, 
with music by himself and Domenico Corri, was 
produced at the theatre in Tottenham Street. 
In the same year he lectured on his ' New 
System of Musical Education,' probably the first 
method propounded in England for teaching 
music to numbers simultaneously. In 1814 he 
returned to Exeter, resided there till 181 8, then 
went to France, remained until 1821, and again 
returned to Exeter. He died in London, May 
22, 1824. Dr. Kemp published an anthem, 
'I am Alpha and Omega' ; 'Twelve Psalmodical 
Melodies'; 'Twelve Songs'; 'Twenty Double 
Chants ' ; ' Musical Illustrations of the Beauties 
of Shakspeare ' ; ' Musical Illustrations of The 
Lady of the Lake ' ; ' The Vocal Magazine ' ; 
' The New System of Musical Education, Part 
I.' ; and numerous single glees, songs, duets, and 
trios. [W.H.H.] 

KENDALL, John, organist of the church of 
St. Marylebone, published in 1780 a book of 
organ pieces. [W. H. H.] 

KENT, James, born at Winchester, March 
13, 1700, became a chorister of the cathedral 
there under Vaughan Richardson, but was 
shortly afterwards removed to London and en- 
tered as a chorister of the Chapel Royal under 
Dr. Croft. There he attracted the attention of 
the sub-dean, Rev. John Dolben, through whose 
influence he obtained, on leaving the choir, the 
post of organist of the parish church of Finedon, 
Northamptonshire, the seat of the Dolbens. 
He resigned his office at Finedon on obtaining 
the organistship of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
which he held till 1737, when he succeeded John 
Bishop as organist of the Cathedral and College 
of Winchester. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Freeman, a singer at the theatre in the 
time of Purcell, afterwards a member of the 
choirs of the Chapel Royal, St. Paul's and West- 
minster, and who died Dec. io, 1736. It was 
not until the decline of life that Kent could be 
induced to publish ; he then printed a volume 
containing 12 anthems. In 1774 ^ e resigned 
his appointments in favour of Peter Fussell, 
and died at Winchester, May 6, 1776. After 
his death a volume containing a Morning and 
Evening Service and 8 Anthems by him was 
published under the editorship of Joseph Corfe. 
Kent assisted Dr. Boyce in the compilation of 
his ' Cathedral Music' His anthems have been 
extravagantly extolled by some, and decried by 
others ; in both cases unjustly. They are 
smooth and even productions, generally pleas- 


log, but rarely rising above mediocrity. His 
'Hear my Prayer' was at one time a great 
favourite, but it is a poor composition. He bor- 
rowed freely from Italian composers, without 
acknowledgment, as is shown by a volume full of 
his notes in the possession of Sir F. A. G. Ouseley. 
[See Bassani.] [W.H.H.] 

KENT BUGLE, or Koyal Kent bugle, an 
improvement of the Key bugle, said to have been 
named in consequence of a performance upon it 
before H.R.H. the Duke of Kent by Halliday in 
Dublin, shortly after its invention. It had a 
complete chromatic scale from Bb below the 
treble stave to C above, — but is now superseded 
by valve instruments. [G.] 

KEOLANTHE, or, thk unearthly bride. 
Grand opera in 2 acts ; words by Fitzball, music 
by Balfe. Produced at English Opera House 
March 9, 1841. [G.] 

KEPER, John, of Hart Hall, Oxford, who 
graduated as M.A. Feb. 11, 1569, produced in 
1574 ' Select Psalms in four parts.' [W.H.H.] 

KERAULOPHON (from KtpavKrjt, a horn- 
blower, and <puv?j, a voice). An 8-feet Organ 
Manual Stop, of a reedy and pleasant quality of 
tone. It was invented by Messrs. Gray & 
Davison, and used by them for the first time in 
1843 in the organ they made for St. Paul's 
Church, Wilton Place. An example was intro- 
duced by the French firm of Ducroquet into 
their organ at St. Eustache, Paris, erected in 
1854. [E.J.H.] 

KERL, Johann Caspar 1 , celebrated organist, 
born in 1628, as is to be concluded from the Mor- 
tuarium of the old Augustine church of Munich. 
Mattheson's ' Ehrenpforte ' contains the only de- 
tails known of his life. He came early to Vienna, 
and learnt the organ from Valentini, then organist, 
afterwards Capellmeister to the Court, on whose 
recommendation Ferdinand III. sent him to Rome 
to study under Carissimi. In all probability he 
also learnt from Frescobaldi, possibly at the same 
time as his countryman Froberger. Having re- 
turned to Germany he entered the service of 
the Bavarian Elector on Feb. 22, 1656, and in 
that capacity was present at the coronation of 
Leopold I. at Frankfurt (July 22, 1658), where 
he is said to have been presented by Schmelzer 
vice-Court-Capellmeister to the Emperor, and 
invited to improvise on a given theme in presence 
of the court. Some doubt is thrown on this by 
the fact that Schmelzer did not become vice- 
Capellmeister till the 1st of Jan. 1671 ; but 
he may well have been in attendance on the 
Emperor at Frankfort, and at any rate Kerl's 
reputation as an organist dates from the coro- 
nation. Kerl remained at Munich for 15 years. 
For the Italian singers there he composed a 
'Missa nigra' entirely written in black notes, 
and a duet for two castrati ' O bone Jesu,' 
the only accompaniment of which is a ground 
bass passing through all the keys. Besides 
other church works, sonatas for 2 violins and 
« viol di gamba, and a 'Modulatio organica 

1 Sot tod Kerl, as all dictionaries say. 



super Magnificat' (Munich, 1686), Mattheson 
mentions toccatas, canzonas, ricercars, and ba- 
tailles of his composition for the organ. In 1673 
he threw up his post and went to Vienna, where 
he subsisted by giving lessons at what was then 
a high scale of remuneration. When he re- 
turned to Munich is not known, but he died 
there on the 13th of Feb. 1693. His tomb, 
showing this date, was formerly in the Augustine 
church, but that is now the custom-house, and 
the tomb is no longer discoverable. His style is 
remarkable for the frequent introduction of dis- 
cords resolved in a new and unexpected manner, 
in which respect he is deservedly considered a 
predecessor of Sebastian Bach. He wrote the 
music of the operas 'Oronte,' 1657; 'Erinto,' 
1 66 1 ; and of the serenata in honour of the birth- 
day of the wife of the Elector (Nov. 6, 1661), 
'H pretensione del Sole.' One of his canzonas 
has been preserved to the world in a singular 
but most efficient way — owing to its insertion by 
Handel in 'Israel in Egypt ' to the words ' Egypt 
was glad when they departed.' The only change 
made is that of the key, from D minor to E minor. 
Hawkins gives the canzona in its original form in 
his History, chap. 1 24. A toccata in C is given 
in Pauer's ' Alte Clavier musik ' vol. 3. [F. G.] 

KETTLE-DRUMS are copper or brass basins, 
with a skin or head that can be tuned to a true 
musical note. Used by cavalry and in orchestras. 
[Drum, 2, vol. i. p. 463 &.] [V. de P.] 

KEY. A word of manifold signification. It 
means the scale or system in which modern 
music is written; the front ends of the levers by 
which the piano, organ or harmonium are 
played ; the levers which cover or uncover the 
holes in such instruments as the flute and oboe ; 
lastly, an instruction book or 'Tutor.' English 
is the only language in which the one term has 
all these meanings. 

I. The systems of music which preceded the 
modern system, and were developed by degrees 
into it, were characterised by scales which not 
only differed from one another in pitch but also 
in the order of succession of the various inter- 
vals of which they were composed. In modern 
music the number of notes from which a scale 
can commence is increased by the more minute 
subdivision of each octave ; but each of these 
notes is capable of being taken as the starting 
point of the same scale, that is to say of either 
the major or minor mode, which are the only two 
distinct scales recognised in modern music. This 
forms a strong point of contrast between the 
ancient and modern styles. The old was a sys- 
tem of scales, which differed intrinsically, and 
thereby afforded facilities for varying qualities 
of melodic expression ; the modern is essentially 
a system of keys, or relative transposition of 
identical scales, by which a totally distinct order 
of effects from the old style is obtained. 

The standard scale called the major mode is a 
series in which semitones occur between the third 
and fourth and between the seventh and eighth 
degrees counting from the lowest note, all the 
other intervals being tones. It is obvious from 




the irregularity of this distribution that it is not 
possible for more than one key to be constructed 
of the same set of notes. In order to distinguish 
practically between one and another, one series is 
taken as the normal key and all the others are 
severally indicated by expressing the amount of 
difference between them and it. The normal key, 
which happens more by accident than design to 
begin on C, is constructed of what are called 
Naturals, and all such notes in the entire system 
as do not occur in this series are called Accidentals, 
In order to assimilate a series which starts from 
some other note to the series starting from C, it 
is necessary to indicate the notes alien to the 
scale of C, which will have to be substituted 
for such notes in that scale as could not occur 
in the new series — in other words, to indicate the 
accidentals which will serve that purpose ; and 
from their number the musician at once recog- 
nises the note from which his series must start. 
This note therefore is called the Key-note, and 
the artificial series of notes resulting from the 
arrangement is called the Key. Thus to make a 
series of notes starting from G relatively the same 
as those starting from C, the F immediately 
below G will have to be supplemented by an 
accidental which will give the necessary semi- 
tone between the seventh and eighth degrees of 
the scale. Similarly, D being relatively the same 
distance from G that G is from C, the same pro- 
cess will have to be gone through again to assimi- 
late the scale starting from D to that starting 
from C. So that each time a fifth higher is 
chosen for a key-note a fresh accidental or sharp 
has to be added immediately below that note, 
and the number of sharps can always be told by 
counting the number of fifths which it is necessary 
to go through to arrive at that note, beginning 
from the normal C. Thus C— G, G— D, D— A, 
A — E is the series of four fifths necessary to be 
gone through in passing from C to E, and the 
number of sharps in the key of E is therefore 

Conversely, if notes be chosen in a descending 
series of fifths, to present new key-notes it will be 
necessary to flatten the fourth note of the new 
key to bring the semitone between the third and 
fourth degrees ; and by adopting a similar process 
to that given above, the number of flats necessary 
to assimilate the series for any new key-note can 
be told by the number of fifths passed through in 
a descending series from the normal C. 

In the Minor Mode the most important and 
universal characteristic is the occurrence of the 
semitone between the second and third instead of 
between the third and fourth degrees of the scale, 
thereby making the interval between the key- 
note and the third a minor third instead of a 
major one, from which peculiarity the term 
' minor' arises. In former days it was customary 
to distinguish the modes from one another by 
speaking of the key-note as having a greater or 
lesser third, as in Boyce's Collection of Cathedral 
Music, where the Services are described as in 
' the key of Bb with the greater third ' or in ' the 
key of D with the lesser third,' and so forth. 


The modifications of the upper part of the scale 
which accompany this are so variable that no 
rule for the distribution of the intervals can be 
given. The opposite requirements of harmony 
and melody in relation to voices and instruments 
will not admit of any definite form being taken as 
the absolute standard of the minor mode ; hence 
the Signatures, or representative groups of acci- 
dentals, which are given for the minor modes are 
really of the nature of a compromise, and are in 
each case the same as that of the major scale of 
the note a minor third above the key-note of the 
minor scale. Such scales are called relatives — 
relative major and relative minor — because they 
contain the greatest number of notes in common. 
Thus A, the minor third below C, is taken as the 
normal key of the minor mode, and has no 
signature ; and similarly to the distribution of the 
major mode into keys, each new key-note which 
is taken a fifth higher will require a new sharp, 
and each new key-note a fifth lower will require 
a new flat. Thus E, the fifth above A, will have 
the signature of one sharp, corresponding to the 
key of the major scale of G ; and D, the fifth 
below A, will have one flat, corresponding to the 
key of the major scale of F, and so on. The new 
sharp in the former case falls on the supertonic 
of the new key so as to bring the semitone 
between the second and third degrees of the 
scale, and the new flat in the latter case falls on 
the submediant of the new key so as to bring a 
semitone between the fifth and sixth degrees. 
The fact that these signatures for the minor 
mode are only approximations is however ren- 
dered obvious by their failing to provide for the 
leading note, which is a necessity in modern 
music, and requires to be expressly marked wher- 
ever it occurs, in contradiction to the signature. 

There is a very common opinion that the tone 
and effect of different keys is characteristic, and 
Beethoven himself has given some confirmation 
to it by several utterances to the point. Thus in 
one l place he writes ' H moll schwarze Tonart,' i.e. 
B minor, a black key ; and, in speaking about 
2 Klopstock, says that he is 'always Maestoso! 
Db major!' In a letter to Thomson 3 of Edin- 
burgh (Feb. 19, 1813), speaking of two national 
songs sent him to arrange, he says, ' You have 

ten them in \ ^ n , but as that key 


seemed to me unnatural, and so little consistent 
with the direction Amoroso that on the contrary it 
would change it into Barbaresco (qu'au contraire il 
le changerait en Barbaresco), I have set the song 
in the suitable key.' This is singular, consider- 
ing his own compositions in the key of four flats, 
neither of which can justly be entitled barbaresco. 
Composers certainly seem to have had predilections 
for particular keys, and to have cast movements 
in particular styles in special keys. If the system 
of equal temperament were perfectly carried 
out, the difference would be less apparent than 

1 In a sketch for Cello Sonata, op. 102, No. 2, quoted by Xottebohm. 
> In a conversation with Eoculitz (For Freunde der Tonkuust, 
It. 366). 
» Given by Thayer, HL 45. 


it is; but with unequal temperament, or when 
the tuner does not distribute the tempering 
of the fifths with absolute equality in instru- 
ments of fixed intonation, there is necessarily 
a considerable difference between one key and 
another. With stringed instruments the sonority 
of the key is considerably affected by the number 
of open strings which occur in it, and their posi- 
tion as important notes of the scale. Berlioz has 
given a complete scheme of his views of the 
qualities of the keys for violins in his Traite" 
^'Instrumentation. With keyed instruments a 
good deal of the difference results from the posi- 
tion of the hands and technical considerations 
resulting therefrom. A real difference also is 
obvious in keys which are a good deal removed 
from one another in pitch, though inasmuch as 
pitch is not constant this cannot apply to keys 
which are near. 1 [C. H.H. P.] 

II. KEY (Fr. Touche; Ital. Tasto; Ger. Taste) 
and KEYBOAED of keyed stringed instruments 
(Fr. Clavier ; Ital. Tastatura ; Ger. Claviatur, 
Tastatur.) A 'key' of a pianoforte or other 
musical instrument with a keyboard, is a lever, 
balanced see-saw fashion near its centre, upon 
a metal pin. It is usually of lime-tree, because 
that wood is little liable to warp. Besides the 
metal pin upon the balance rail of the keyframe, 
modern instruments have another metal pin for 
each key upon the front rail, to prevent too much 
lateral motion. A key is long or short according 
to its employment as a 'natural' or 'sharp,' 
and will be referred to here accordingly, although 
in practice a sharp is also a flat, and the written 
sharp or flat occasionally occurs upon a long key. 
Each natural is covered as far as it is visible 
with ivory : and each sharp or raised key bears a 
block of ebony or other hard black wood. In old 
instruments the practice in this respect varied, 
as we shall show presently. In English alone 2 
the name 'key' refere to the Latin Clavis, and 
possibly to the idea of unlocking sound transferred 
to the lever from the early use of the word to 
express the written note. The Romance and 
German names are derived from 'touch.' 

A frame or, technically, a 'set ' of keys is a key- 
board, or clavier according to the French appel- 
lation. In German Klavier usually means the 
keyed stringed instrument itself, of any kind. 
The influence of the keyboard upon the develop- 
ment of modern music is as conspicuous as it has 
been important. To this day C major is ' natural ' 
on the keys, as it is in the corresponding notation. 
Other scales are formed by substituting accidental 
sharps or flats for naturals both in notation and 
on the keyed instrument, a fact which is evidence 
of the common origin and early growth together 
of the two. But the notation soon outgrew the 
keyboard. It has been remarked by Professor 
Huxley that the ingenuity of human inventions 
has been paralleled by the tenacity with which 
original forms have been preserved. Although 

1 See a piper by Schumann, ' Charakteristlk der Tonarten.' In tall 
' Gesammelte Schrlften,' i. 18a 

* In French, however, the keys of a flute or other wood wind instru- 
ment are called d</'j. 



the number of keys within an octave of the key- 
board are quite inadequate to render the written 
notation of the four and twenty major and minor 
modes, or even of the semitones allied to the one 
that it was first mainly contrived for, no attempts 
to augment the number of keys in the octave or 
to change their familiar disposition have yet suc- 
ceeded. The permanence of the width of the 
octave again has been determined by the average 
span of the hand, and a Ruckers harpsichord of 
1614 measures but a small fraction of an inch 
less in the eight keys, than a Broadwood or 
Erard concert-grand piano of 1879. W e have 
stated under Clavichord that we are with- 
out definite information as to the origin of the 
keyboard. We do not exactly know where it was 
introduced or when. What evidence we possess 
would place the date in the 1 4th century, and the 
locality — though much more doubtfully — in or near 
Venice. The date nearly synchronises with the 
invention of the clavichord and clavicembalo, and 
it is possible that it was introduced nearly simul- 
taneously into the organ, although which was 
first we cannot discover. There is reason to 
believe that the little portable organ or regal 
may at first have had a keyboard derived from 
the T-shaped keys of the Hurdy Gurdt. The 
first keyboard would be Diatonic, with fluctu- 
ating or simultaneous use of the Bb and B^j in 
the doubtful territory between the A and C of 
the natural scale. But when the row of sharps 
was introduced, and whether at once or by de- 
grees, we do not know. They are doubtless 
due to the frequent necessity for transposition, 
and we find them complete in trustworthy 
pictorial representations of the 15th century. 
There is a painting by Memling in the Hospital 
of St. John at Bruges, from whence it has never 
been removed, dated 1479, wherein the keyboard 
of a regal is depicted exactly as we have it in 
the arrangement of the upper keys in twos and 
threes, though the upper keys are of the same 
light colour as the lower, and are placed farther 

The oldest keyed instrument we have seen 
with an undoubtedly original keyboard is a 
Spinet 3 in the museum of the Conservatoire at 
Paris, bearing the inscription ' Francisci de 
Portalupis Veronen. opus, MDXXIII.' The 
compass is 4 octaves and a half tone (from E 
to F) and the natural notes are black with the 
sharps white. The oldest known in England is 
a similar instrument of the same compass in 
South Kensington Museum, the work of Anni- 
bale Rosso of Milan, dated 1555. As usual in 
Italy, the naturals are white and the sharps 
black. The Flemings, especially the Ruckers, 
oscillated between black and ivory naturals. 
(We here correct the statement as to their prac- 
tice in Clavichord, 367 a.) The clavichords of 
Germany and the clavecins of France which we 
have seen have had black naturals, as, according 
to Dr. Burney, had those of Spain. Loosemore and 
the Haywards, in England, in the time of Charles 
II, used boxwood for naturals ; a clavichord of 

* No. 215 of Chouquet's Catalogue (1875). 



4^ octaves existing near Hanover in 1875 had 
the same — a clue perhaps to its date. Keen and 
Slade in the time of Queen Anne, used ebony. 
Dr. Burney writes that the Hitchcocks also had 
ivory naturals in their spinets, and two of Thomas 
Hitchcock's still existing have them. But one of 
John Hitchcock's, dated 1630, said to have be- 
longed to the Princess Amelia, and now owned 
by Mr. W. Dale, has ebony naturals. All three 
have a strip of the colour of the naturals inserted 
in the ivory sharps, and have 5 octaves compass — 
from G to G, 61 keys ! This wide compass for 
that time — undoubtedly authentic — may be com- 
pared with the widest Buckers to be mentioned 
further on. 

Under Clavichord we have collected what 
information is trustworthy of the earliest com- 
pass of the keyboards of that instrument. The 
Italian spinets of the 16th century were nearly 
always of 4 octaves and a semitone, but divided 
into F and C instruments with the semitone E or 
Bi as the lowest note. But this apparent E or B 
may from analogy with ' short octave ' organs — 
at that time frequently made — have been tuned 
C or G, the fourth below the next lowest note. 1 
Another question arises whether the F or C thus 
obtained were not actually of the same absolute 
pitch (as near as pitch can be practically said to 
be absolute). We know from Arnold Schlick 
('Spiegel der Orgelmacher, ' 151 1; reprinted in 
'MonatshiftefurMusik-Geschichte,' Berlin, 1869, 
p. 103) that F and C organs were made on one 
measurement or pitch for the lowest pipe, and 
this may have been carried on in spinets, which 
would account for the old tradition of their being 
tuned ' in the fifth or the octave,' meaning that 
difference in the pitch which would arise from 
such a system. 

The Antwerp (Ruckers) harpsichords appear 
to have varied arbitrarily in the compass of their 
keyboards. We have observed E — C 45 notes, 
C— C 49, B— D 52, C— E 53, C— F 54, G— D or 
A— E 56, G— E or G— F (without the lowest 
Gj) 58, F — F 61, and in two of Hans Ruckers (the 
eldest) F — G 63 notes. In some instances however 
these keyboards have been extended, even, as has 
been proved, by the makers themselves. 

The English seem to have early preferred a 
wide compass, as with the Hitchcocks, already 
referred to. Kirkman and Shudi in the next 
century, however, in their large harpsichords 
never went higher than F (q), although the 
latter, towards the end of his career, about 
1770, increased his scale downwards to the C (g). 
Here Kirkman did not follow him. Zumpe 
began making square pianos in London, about 
1766, with the G — F compass (omitting the 
lowest GJ) — nearly 5 octaves — but soon adopted 
the 5 octaves, F — F (r), in which John Broad- 
wood, who reconstructed the square piano, fol- 
lowed him. The advances in compass of Messrs. 
Broadwood and Sons' pianofortes are as follows. 
In 1793, to 5| octaves, F to C (s). In 1796, 6 

1 Vet Praetorlus distinctly describes the Halberstadt organ, built 
1S39, re-constructed 1494, as having the lowest note BtJ — the scale 
proceeding by semitones upwards, and we know the sentiment for the 
leading note had not then been evolved. 


octaves, C to C (t) : this was the compass of 
Beethoven's Broadwood Grand, 1817. In 1804, 
6 octaves F to F (u). In 181 1, 6£ octaves, C to 
F (»). In 1844 the treble G was attained, and in 
1852 the treble A. But before this the A — A 
7 -octave compass had been introduced by other 
makers, and soon after became general. Even 
C appears in recent concert grands, and com- 
posers have written up to it ; also the deepest G, 
which was, by the way, in Broadwoods' Exhibi- 
tion grands of 1851. (See w, x, y, z). Many 
however find a difficulty in distinguishing the 
highest notes, and at least as many in dis- 
tinguishing the lowest, so that this extreme com- 
pass is beyond accurate perception except to a 
very few. 



The invention of a ' symmetrical' keyboard, by 
which a uniform fingering for all scales, and a 
more perfect tuning, may be attained, is due to 
Mr. Bosanquet, of St. John's College, Oxford, who 
has had constructed an enharmonic harmonium 
with one. In 'An Elementary Treatise on Mu- 
sical Intervals and Temperament' (Macmillan, 
1876), he has described this instrument — with 
passing reference to other new keyboards inde- 
pendently invented by Mr. Poole, and more 
recently by Mr. Colin Brown. The fingering re- 
quired for Mr. Bosanquet's keyboard agrees with 
that usual for the A major scale, and (Tb. p. 20) 
' any passage, chord, or combination of any kind, 
has exactly the same form under the fingers, 
in whatever key it is played.' Here we have the 
simplicity of the Double Action harp and un- 
doubtedly a great saving in study. In Mr. 
Bosanquet's harmonium the number of keys in 
an octave available for a system proceeding by 
perfect fifths is 53. But in the seven tiers of his 
keyboard he has 84, for the purpose of facilitating 
the playing of a 'round ' of keys. It is however 
pretty well agreed, even by acousticians, that the 
piano had best remain with thirteen keys in the 
octave, and with tuning according to ' equal tem- 

In Germany a recent theory of the keyboard 
has sought not to disturb either the number of 
keys or the equal temperament. But an arrange- 
ment is proposed, almost identical with the 
'sequential keyboard' invented and practically 
tried in England by Mr. William A. B. Lunn 
under the name of Arthur Wallbridge in 1843. 
in which six lower and six upper keys are grouped 
instead of the historical and customary seven and 
five in the octave. This gives all the major scales 


in two fingerings, according aa a lower or upper 
key may be the keynote. The note C becomes a 
black key, and the thumb is more frequently used 
on the black keys than has been usually per- 
mitted with the old keyboard. The latest school 
of pianists, however, regard the black and white 
keys as on a level (see Preface to Dr. Hans von 
Billow's Selection from Cramers Studies, 1868) 
and this has tended to modify opinions on the point. 
In 1876-7 the partisans of the new German 
keyboard formed themselves into a society, with 
the view of settling the still more difficult and 
vexed question of the reconstruction of musical 
notation. Thus, discarding all signs for sharps 
and flats, the five lines of the stave and one 
ledger line below, correspond to six black finger- 
keys for C, D, E, Fjf, G$, Af, and the four 
spaces, including the two blanks one above and 
one below the stave, correspond to six white 
finger-keys, Cj, DjJ, F, G, A, B. Each octave 
requires a repetition of the stave, and the parti- 
cular octave is indicated by a number. The 
keyboard and the stave consequently correspond 
exactly, black for black and white for white, 
while the one ledger line shews the break of the 
octave. And further the pitch for each note, 
and the exact interval between two notes, for 
equal temperament, is shewn by the notation as 
well as on the keyboard. The name of the 
association is ' Chroma- Verein des gleichstufigen 
Tonsystems.' It has published a journal, 'Die 
Tonkunst' (Berlin, Stilke), edited by Albert 
Hahn, whose pamphlet, 'Zur neuen Klaviatur' 
(Kcinigsberg, 1875), with those of Vincent, 
'Die Neuklaviatur ' (Malchin, 1875) and of 
Otto Quanz, ' Zur Geschichte der neuen chroma- 
tischen Klaviatur' (Berlin, 1877), are impor- 
tant contributions to the literature of the sub- 
ject. The inventor appears to have been K. B. 
Schumann, a physician at Rhinow in Branden- 
burg, who died in 1865, after great personal 
sacrifices for the promotion of his idea. The 
pianoforte maker of the society is Preuss of 
Berlin, who constructs the keyboard with C on a 
black key; width of octave 14 centimetres, 1 (5^ 
inches nearly), and with radiating keys by which 
a tenth becomes as easy to span as an octave 
is at present. About sixteen other pianoforte 
makers are named, and public demonstrations 
have been given all over Germany. In this 
system much stress is laid upon C being no longer 
the privileged key. It will henceforth be no 
more 'natural' than its neighbours. Whether 
our old keyboard be destined to yield to such a 
successor or not, there is very much beautiful 
piano music of our own time, naturally contrived 
to fit the form of the hand to it, which it might 
be very difficult to graft upon another system 
even if it were more logically simple. 

The fact that the fingering of the right hand 
upwards is frequently that of the left hand down- 
wards has led to the construction of a ' Piano a 
double claviers reverse's,' shown in the Paris 
Exhibition of 1878 by MM. Mangeot freres of 
that city. It is in fact two grand pianos, one 

> The width of 6 of the present keys. 



placed upon the other, with keyboards reversed, 
as the name indicates, the lower commencing 
as usual with the lowest bass note at the left 
hand ; the higher having the highest treble note 
in the same position, so that an ascending scale 
played upon it proceeds from right to left; the 
notes running the contrary way to what has 
always been the normal one. By this somewhat 
cumbersome contrivance an analogous fingering 
of similar passages in each hand is secured, with 
other advantages, in playing extensions and avoid- 
ing the crossing of the hands, etc. [A.J.H.] 

III. KEYS (Fr. Clefs; Ger. Elappe; Ital. 
Chiave). The name given to the levers on wind- 
instruments which serve the purpose of opening 
and closing certain of the sound-holes. They are 
divided into Open and Closed keys, according to 
the function which they perform. In the former 
case they stand normally above their respective 
holes, and are closed by the pressure of the 
finger ; whereas in the latter they close the hole 
until lifted by muscular action. The closed keys 
are levers of the first, the open keys usually of 
the third mechanical order. They serve the 
purpose of bringing distant orifices within the 
reach of the hand, and of covering apertures 
which are too large for the last phalanx of the 
finger. They are inferior to the finger in lacking 
the delicate sense of touch to which musical 
expression is in a great measure due. In the 
Bassoon therefore the sound-holes are bored 
obliquely in the substance of the wood so as to 
diminish the divergence of the fingers. Keys 
are applied to instruments of the Flute family, 
to Reeds, such as the Oboe and Clarinet, and 
to instruments with cupped mouthpieces, such 
as the Key Bugle and the Ophicleide, the name 
of which is a compound of the Greek words for 
Snake and Key. [Ophicleide.] In the original 
Serpent the holes themselves were closed by the 
pad of the finger, the tube being so curved as 
to bring them within reach. [Serpent.] 

The artistic arrangement of Keys on all classes 
of wind instruments is a recent development. 
Flutes, Oboes, Bassoons, and Clarinets, up to the 
beginning of the present century or even later, 
were almost devoid of them. The Bassoon how- 
ever early possessed several in its bass joint for 
the production of the six lowest notes on its 
register, which far exceed the reach of the hand. 
In some earlier specimens, as stated in the article 
referred to, this mechanism was rudely preceded 
by plugs, requiring to be drawn out before per- 
formance and not easily replaced with the neces- 
sary rapidity. [See Bassoon.] 

The older Flutes, Clarinets, and Oboes only 
possess three or four keys at most, cut out of sheet 
metal, and closely resembling mustard-spoons. 
The intermediate tones, in this deficiency of 
keys, were produced by what are termed ' cross- 
fingerings,' which consist essentially in closing 
one or two lower holes with the fingers, while 
leaving one intermediate «pen. A rude approxi- 
mation to a semitone was thus attained, but the 
note is usually of a dull and muffled character. 
Boehm, in the flute named after him, entirely 




discarded the use of these ' cross-fingered ' notes. 
[See Flute.] 

Keys are now fashioned in a far more artistic 
and convenient form, a distinction in shape being 
made between those which are open, and those 
normally closed ; so that the player may be 
assisted in performance by his instinctive sense 
of touch. [See Contrafagotto.] Besides the 
Bassoon, the Corno di Bassetto affords a good 
example of this contrivance, the scale being 
carried down through four semitones by inter- 
locking keys, worked by the thumb of the right 
hand alone. [W.H.S.] 

KEY-BUGLE. An improvement of the ori- 
ginal bugle, which had no keys, and therefore 
could only yield certain restricted notes [see 
p. 280] by the addition of keys. It is said to 
have been made by Logier. The Kent bugle 
is either a further improvement, or only another 
name for the same thing. [G.] 

KEY-NOTE. The note by which the key is 
named, and from which the scale commences : 
the Tonic. [See Key ; Tonic] 

KIEL, Friedrich, born Oct. 7, i8ai, at 
Puderbach on the Lahn ; son of a schoolmaster, 
who taught him the pianoforte. At 14 he began 
the violin under Schulz, Concertmeister to Prince 
Carl von Wittgenstein-Berleberg, and soon en- 
tered the band of the reigning Prince, who sent 
him first to Rummer at Coburg, and in 1843 to 
Dehn at Berlin. While there he received a 
salary from King Frederic William IV. His 
first compositions were for the pianoforte, 'Canons 
und Fugen' op. 1 and 2; variations and fugue, 
op. 1 7 ; and several pieces for P. F. and cello, of 
which the ' Beisebilder ' are specially interesting. 
In 62 his Requiem (op. 20), a very remarkable 
work, was performed by Stern's Choral Society — 
also by the University Musical Society of Cam- 
bridge, May a 1, 1878. In 66 he composed a 
' Missa Solemnis,' and in 74 an oratorio 'Christus.' 
He has been a member of the council of the 
Berlin Academie der Kiinste since 1869, and is 
professor of composition in the Hochschule fur 
Musik, in which capacity he is much esteemed. 
Kiel is one of the most distinguished living 
masters of counterpoint and fugue, and as such 
forms one of the race of musicians of whom the 
late Moritz Hauptmann may be considered the 
chief. His compositions are of the sound classi- 
cal school, tempered with a due regard for the 
best modern tendencies. [F.G.] 

KIESEWETTER, Raphael Geoeg, Edler 
von Wiesenbrdnn (uncle to Ambros the histo- 
rian of music), Imperial councillor, and learned 
author on musical subjects, born at Holleschau 
in Moravia, Aug. 29, 1773 ; settled in Vienna in 
1 794. In 1 8 1 6 he began to form a collection of 
scores of the old masters, and made his house a 
rendezvous for the first musicians of Vienna. 
There also during Advent, Lent, and Holy Week, 
a first-rate amateur choir performed the principal 
works of the old Italian composers, and of Bach, 
Handel, etc. He died Jan. 1, 1850, at Baden 
(Beethoven's Baden) near Vienna, but was buried 

in the cemetery at Vienna, ' vor der Wahringer 
Linie.' He was ennobled for his services as an 
official in the Kriegsrath, taking his title from 
his estate. Innumerable societies elected him 
a member in acknowledgement of his services 
as a musician. He left his musical MSS. and 
his correspondence with musical men of letters 
to Alois Fuchs, and to the court library his in- 
valuable collection of scores, with the condition 
that they should be kept together as the ' Fond 
Kiese wetter.' 

That he was a most prolific writer the follow- 
ing list of his printed works will show. 

1. 'Die Verdienste der Nleder- ' sources (ibid. 1842\ 7. 'Ueberdat 
lander urn die Tonkunst ' (received Laben . und dieWerke Palestrina's,' 
the gold prize-medal, Amsterdam < a condensation of Bainl's work left 
1828). 2. ' Gescbichte der euro- unpublished by Kandler ; edited 
paisch-abendlandUchen,das 1st; un- 1 with preface and remarks (Ibid, 
serer heutigen Musik' (Breltkopf j 18S4). 8. 'Der neuen Arlstoxenes 
* Hartel, 1834, 2nd ed. 1846). 3. 
' Ueberdie Musik der Neugrlechen," 
with remarks on ancient Egyptian 
and ancient Greek music; 3 trea- 
tises (ibid. 1828). 4. 'Guido von 
Arezzo,' life and works (ibid. 1840). 
6. ' Schicksale und Beschaffenheit 
des Welt lichen Gesanges,' from the 
early Middle Ages down to the dis- 
covery of the dramatic style and 

zerstreute Aufs&tze' (ibid. 1846). 
9. ' Deber die Octave des Pythago- 
ras,' supplement to the preceding 
(Vienna 1848). 10. ' Catalog ueber 
die Sammlung der Partituren alter 
Musik,' etc.i (Vienna 1847), with 
preface and appendix ' Gallerie der 
alten Contrapunctlsten,' a selec- 
tion from then- works, chronologi- 
cally arranged. Also about 50 
rise of opera (ibid. 184H. 6. 'Die 'scattered articles In different pe- 
Muslk der Araber,' from original ' riodicals, reviews, etc 

KIND, Johann Friedrich, author of the 
words of Der Freischiitz ; born at Leipsic March 
4, 1 768 ; brought up to the law, but frequented 
the Thomas School of his own accord. He began 
to practise literature as early as 1800, and after 
much success with novels and tales, settled in 
1814 at Dresden, became a Hofrath, and defi- 
nitely renounced the law for a literary life. 
Here Weber met him, at the house of von 
Nordstern. About Feb. 15, 181 7, Kind read 
to him his ' Vandyck's Landleben,' which 
so pleased the composer that he at once con- 
sulted him as to an opera -book. The choice of 
a source fell on Apel's ' Gespensterbuch ' (Ghost 
Stories). Weber had several years before been 
attached to the story of the Freischiitz, and so 
entirely did his enthusiasm communicate itself 
to Kind, that by the evening of Feb. 23, 
he had completed the first act of the opera. 
Freischiitz was the only important joint composi- 
tion of the two, but Jahns's catalogue contains 
11 other pieces the words of which were sup- 
plied by Kind. The chief of these is the ' Jubel 
Cantata,' another cantata called 'Natur und 
Liebe,' 5 songs, a part-songs, and a chorus. 
Some of these were taken from operas of Kind's 
— ' Der Weinberg an der Elbe,' ' Der Abend am 
Waldbrunnen,' and ' Das Nachtlager in Granada.' 
The last of these was set to music by Con- 
radin Kreutzer. Kind seems to have supplied 
Spanish materials for Preciosa, and Weber had 
two librettos by him — Alcindor, 1819, and 
Der Cid, 182 1 — under consideration, but Frei- 
schiitz is the one which Weber adopted in full. 
Kind's 'Holzdieb' (Wood-thief) was composed by 
Marschner in 1824. He died at Dresden June 
25, 1843, having for many years quite forsaken 
literature. He is described by Weber's son as 

1 The scores left to the court library. 




a small person, with a great opinion of himself 
and a harsh voice. 2 vols of his works were 
published, Leipzig, 182 1. [G.] 

KING, Charles, Mus. Baa, born at Bury 
St. Edmunds in 1687, became a chorister of St. 
Paul's under Dr. Blow and Jeremiah Clark. 
He was next a supernumerary singer in the 
choir at the small annual stipend of £14. On 
July 12, 1707, he graduated as Mus. Bac. at 
Oxford. On the death of Clark, whose sister 
he had married, he was appointed almoner and 
master of the choristers of St. Paul's. In 1 708 
he became also organist of St. Benet Fink, Royal 
Exchange. On Oct. 31, 1730, he was admitted 
a vicar choral of St. Paul's. King composed 
several services and anthems, some of which are 
printed in Arnold's 'Cathedral Music,' and 
others in Page's ' Harmonia Sacra ' ; and there 
are some in the Tudway Collection (Harl. MSS. 
7341 and 7342). Although his compositions 
evince no originality they are vocal and not 
without spirit, they long continued in frequent 
use in choirs, and some of them, particularly his 
services in F and C, are still performed. They 
have justified the joke of Dr. Greene, that King 
was a serviceable man. Six of them in all are 
published by Novello, besides five anthems. 
Hawkins intimates that his inferiority was the 
result rather of indolence than want of ability. 
He died March 1 7, 1 748. [W. H. H.] 

KING, Matthew Peteb, born in 1773, 
studied composition under Charles Frederick 
Horn. His first productions were ' Three Sona- 
tas for the Pianoforte,' 'Eight Songs and a 
Cantata,' and other Pianoforte Sonatas. In 
1796 he published 'Thorough Bass made easy 
to every capacity,' and in 1800 'A General 
Treatise on Music,' etc., a work of repute, with 
2nd edition 1809. Between 1804 and 1819 he 
composed several dramatic pieces, chiefly for the 
English Opera House, Lyceum. In 181 7 his 
oratorio, 'The Intercession,' was produced at 
Covent Garden. One of the songs in it 'Must 
I leave thee, Paradise ? ' (known as ' Eve's Lam- 
entation ') became very popular, and long found 
a frequent place in programmes of sacred music. 
King was also the composer of several glees and 
of numerous pianoforte pieces. His dramatic 
pieces were 'Matrimony,' 1804; 'The Invisible 
Girl,' 1806; 'False Alarms' (with Brahain) ; 
'One o'clock, or The Wood Demon' (with 
Kelly); and 'Ella Rosenberg,' 1807; 'Up all 
night,' 1809; 'Plots' and 'Oh this Love,' 
1810; "The Americans' (with Braham), and 
'Timour the Tartar,' 181 1 ; and 'The Fisher- 
man's Hut' (with Davy), 18 19. He died in 
Jan. 1823. 

His son, C. M. King, published in 1826 some 
6ongs which were favourably received. [ W. H. H.] 

KING, Robebt, Mus. Bac., was one of the 
band of music to William and Mary and Queen 
Anne. He graduated at Cambridge in 1696. 
He was the composer of. many songs pub- 
lished in ' Choice Ayres, Songs and Dia- 
logues,' 1684; 'Comes Amoris,' 1687-93; 'The 

Banquet of Musick,' 1688-92; 'The Gentle- 
man's Journal,' 1692-94; and 'Thesaurus Mu- 
sicus,' 1695-96. He composed the songs in 
Crowne's comedy, ' Sir Courtly Nice,' which 
were printed in 'The Theater of Music,' Book 
ii, 1685. In 1690 he set Shad well's Ode on 
St. Cecilia's day, '0 Sacred Harmony.' In 
1693 he set an Ode 'on the Rt. Hon. John 
Cecil, Earl of Exeter, his birthday, being the 
21 of Sept.' commencing 'Once more 'tis born, 
the happy day,' the words by Peter Motteux. 
A collection of 24 songs by him entitled ' Songs 
for One, Two, and Three voices, composed to a 
Thorough Basse for y° Organ or Harpsicord,' 
engraven on copper, was published by the elder 
Walsh. The date of his death has not been 
ascertained. He was living in 1711. [W.H.H.] 

KING, William, born 1624, son of George 
King, organist of Winchester Cathedral, was ad- 
mitted a clerk of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
Oct. 18, 1648. He graduated as B.A. June 5, 
1649, and in 1650 was promoted to a chaplaincy 
at Magdalen College, which he held until Aug. 
25, 1654, when he became a probationer-fellow 
of All Souls' College. On Dec. 10, 1664, he was 
appointed successor to Pickover as organist of 
New College. He composed a service in Bb and 
some anthems, and in 1668 published at Oxford 
' Poems of Mr. Cowley [The Mistress] and others, 
composed into Songs and Ayres, with a Thorough 
Basse to the Theorbo, Harpsicon, or Basse Violl.' 
He died Nov. 1 7, 1 680. [W. H. H.] 

opera in 2 acts ; words adapted by Desmond 
Ryan from a comedy of Howard Payne's; 
music by G. A. Macfarren. Produced at the 
Princess's Theatre, Oct. 27, 1849. Payne's 
comedy had before been turned into a ballet- 
pantomime, ' Betty,' music by Ambroise Thomas, 
and produced at the Grand Opera, Paris, July 10, 
1846. [G.j 

custom of the kings of England to retain as part 
of their household a band of musicians, more or 
less numerous, is very ancient. We learn that 
Edward IV. had 13 minstrels, 'whereof some be 
trompets, some with shalmes and smalle pypes.' 
Henry VIII.'s band in 1526 consisted of 15 trum- 
pets, 3 lutes, 3 rebecks, 3 taborets, a harp, 2 
viols, 10 sackbuts, a fife, and 4 drumslades. In 
1530 his band was composed of 16 trumpets, 4 
lutes, 3 rebecks, 3 taborets, a harp, 2 viols, 9 
sackbuts, 2 drumslades, 3 minstrels, and a player 
on the virginals. Edward VI. in 1548 retained 
8 minstrels, a player on the virginals, 2 lutes, a 
harper, a bagpiper, a drumslade, a rebeck, 7 viols, 
4 sackbuts, a Welsh minstrel, and a flute player. 
Elizabeth's band in 1 581 included trumpets, 
violins, flutes, and sackbuts, besides musicians 
whose instruments are not specified ; and 6 years 
later it consisted of 16 trumpets, lutes, harps, a 
bagpipe, 9 minstrels, 2 rebecks, 6 sackbuts, 8 
viols, and 3 players on the virginals. Charles I. 
in 1625 had in his pay 8 performers on the 
hautboys and sackbuts, 6 flutes, 6 recorders, 1 1 



violins, 6 lutes, 4 viols, 1 harp, and 1 5 • musicians 
for the lute and voice,' exclusive of trumpeters, 
drummers, and tifers, Nicholas Laniere being 
master of the band; and in 1641 his band in- 
cluded 14 violins, 19 wind instruments, and 25 
'musicians for the waytes,' besides a serjeant 
trumpeter and 18 trumpeters. Charles II. in 
1660 established, in imitation of Louis XIV. a 
band of 24 performers on violins, tenors and 
basses, popularly known as the ' four and twenty 
fiddlers.' This band not only played while the 
king was at meals, but was even introduced into 
the royal chapel, anthems being composed with 
symphonies and ritornels between the vocal 
movements expressly for them. After the death 
of Charles the band was kept up, but somewhat 
changed in its composition ; it no longer con- 
sisted exclusively of stringed instruments, but 
some of its members performed on wind instru- 
ments. It is now constituted so as to meet 
the requirements of modern music, and con- 
sists of thirty members. Formerly, besides 
its ordinary duties it was employed, together 
with the gentlemen and children of the Chapel 
Royal, in the performance of the odes annually 
composed for the king's birth -day and New 
Year's day ; but since the discontinuance of the 
production of such odes, its duties have been 
reduced to attendance on royal weddings and 
baptisms, and other state occasions. The fol- 
lowing is the succession of the ' Masters of the 
Musick': — Davis Mell and George Hudson, 1660; 
Thomas Baltzar, 1661 (?) ; John Banister, 1663 ; 
Thomas Purcell, 1672 ; Dr. Nicholas Staggins, 
1682 ; John Eccles, 1705; Dr. Maurice Greene, 
1735 (?) ; Dr. William Boyce, 1755 ; John Stan- 
ley, 1779; Sir William Parsons, 1786; William 
Shield, 1817; Christian Kramer, 1829; Francois 
Cramer, 1834; George Frederick Anderson, 1848; 
William George Cusins, 1870. Robert Cambert 
and Louis Grabut are sometimes said to have 
held the office of Master of the Musick, but this 
is doubtful. [W.H.H.] 

KING'S THEATRE, THE. In the early part 
of the 1 8th century, Sir John Vanbrugh, the ar- 
chitect and dramatist, proposed to the performers 
at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre to build them 
a new and splendid theatre in the Haymarket, 
and, his offer being accepted, he raised a sub- 
scription of £30,000 in sums of £100 each, in 
return for which every subscriber was to have 
a free admission for life. The undertaking was 
greatly promoted by the Kit-Cat Club, and the 
first stone of the building, which was wholly 
from the designs of Vanbrugh, was laid in 1 704 
with great solemnity by the beautiful Countess 
of Sunderland (daughter of the great Duke of 
Marlborough), known as "The little Whig.' 
Congreve, the dramatist, was associated with 
Vanbrugh in the management, and the theatre 
was opened on April 9, 1 705, under the name of 
' The Queen's Theatre,' which name was changed 
on the accession of George I. in 1 714 to ' King's 
Theatre,' by which it continued to be called 
until the death of William IV. in 1837, since 
which it has been styled ' Her Majesty's Theatre,' 


the reason for not resuming the name ' Queen's 
Theatre' being that the theatre in Tottenham 
Street at the time bore that appellation. Van- 
brugh's erection, although internally a splendid 
and imposing structure, was totally unfitted for 
its purpose, owing to the reverberations being so 
great as to make the spoken dialogue almost un- 
intelligible, and to necessitate extensive alterations 
in order to prevent them. In the course of a few 
years the house became the established home of 
Italian opera. In it the greater part of Handel's 
operas and nearly all his early oratorios were 
first performed. On the evening of June 17, 
1789, the building was burned to the ground. 
It was rebuilt in 1 790 from designs by Michael 
Novosielski, the lyre-shaped plan being then first 
adopted in England. When completed it was 
refused a licence for dramatic representations, 
but a magistrates' licence being obtained it was 
opened with a concert and ballet on March 26, 
1 79 1 . [See p. 7 1 o a.] A regular licence was how- 
ever soon afterwards granted. The interior of the 
theatre was the largest in England ; there were 
five tiers of boxes, exclusive of slips, and it was 
capable of containing nearly 3300 persons. It 
was admirably adapted for conveying sound. 
On the east side was a large and handsome 
concert-room, 95 feet long, 46 feet broad, and 35 
feet high, on a level with the principal tier of 
boxes. About 181 7 an important alteration 
was made in the exterior of the theatre by 
the erection of the colonnades on the north, 
south, and east sides, and the formation of the 
western arcade. The northern colonnade has 
since been removed. (There is a good descrip- 
tion of the pit, including the famous 'Fops' 
alley' in Lumley's 'Reminiscences,' chap, vii.) 
The theatre was again destroyed by fire on 
Friday night, Dec. 6, 1867. It was rebuilt by 
April 1869, but not opened until 1875, and then 
not for operatic performances, but for the exhi- 
bition of the preaching and singing of Messrs. 
Moody and Sankey, who occupied it for about 
three months, after which it remained closed 
until April 28, 1877, when it was re-opened aa 
an opera house. No theatre, perhaps, has been 
under the management of so many different 
persons — Swiney, Collier, Aaron Hill, Heidegger, 
Handel, the Earl of Middlesex, Signora Venisci, 
Crawford, Yates, Gordon, Hon. J. Hobart, 
Brookes, O'Reilly, Le Texier, Sir John Gallini, 
Tranchard, Taylor, Goold, Waters, Ebers, Benelli, 
Laporte, Monck Mason, Lumley, E. T. Smith, 
and Mapleson, have by turns directed its affairs. 
To attempt only to name the compositions pro- 
duced there, and the eminent artists who have 
been their exponents, would extend this notice 
to an unreasonable length ; it would be, in fact, 
almost to write a history of the Italian opera in 
England. [W.H.H.] 

KINSKY, Prince Ferdinand Johann Ne- 
pomuk Joseph, of Wchinitz and Tettau in 
Bohemia, was born in the palace belonging to 
the family at Vienna, December 4, 1781, and 
was a boy of eleven when Beethoven came 
thither. His father, Prince Joseph, was one 


of the great nobles who at that date gave 
musical entertainments in their palaces with full 
orchestra, at which the greatest singers and 
instrumental performers, as well as rising com- 
posers, displayed their powers. Young Kinsky 
had therefore the best possible opportunity to 
cultivate his musical taste, and a few years 
later formed one in the circle of young nobles 
who admired and appreciated Beethoven's music. 
By the death of his father, August 1 1, 1 798, he 
succeeded to the estates, and, June 8, 1S01, 
married Caroline Maria, Baroness von Kerpen. 

His claim to a place in this Dictionary is that 
he was the principal subscriber to Beethoven's 
annuity (see ante, p. 1896). This matter was 
hardly settled when he was called to his estates 
to prepare for the second invasion of Bonaparte. 
He raised a battalion of soldiers, officered it 
from his own officials and dependents, and led 
it — under the title of the 'Archduke Charles 
Legion' — in the battles of Ratisbon, Aspern, 
and Wagram. One of the first checks which 
Bonaparte ever received was at Aspern. Kinsky 
and his legion held a very critical position there, 
and, by their steadiness and disregard of danger, 
contributed materially to the success of the 
day. Archduke Charles happened to be witness 
of Kinsky 's conduct on that occasion, and gave 
him on the battle-field the Maria Theresa Cross. 
In the spring of 181 1 Kinsky accompanied the 
Emperor Francis to Dresden, on a visit to his 
daughter Marie Louise and her husband Napo- 
leon. The Saxon General von Vieth related, 
that on the presentation of Francis's suite 
Napoleon stepped up to Kinsky, took hold of 
the cross on the breast of his coat, and asked 
insultingly : • Est-ce au Prince Kinsky 9a ? ' 
' Non, Sire, c'est a la bataille d' Aspern,' was the 
reply. Napoleon moved on without a word. 
On November 2, 181 2, Prince Ferdinand, while 
riding at Wetrus near Prague, by the bursting 
of his saddle girths was thrown to the ground, 
and died on the 3rd, 1 not having quite completed 
his 31st year. 

The paragraph in p. 1890 of this work, on 
the effect of the Austrian finance-patent of 181 1 
upon Beethoven's annuity, and his suit against 
the Kinsky estate, accords perfectly with all 
the authorities known at the time it was 
written. But these authorities, from Schindler 
down, are in error. It is true that from and 
after March 181 1, the bank notes (Bancozettel) 
then in circulation were reduced in value to the 
rate of five for one in silver ; and notes of 
redemption (Einlosungsscheine), equal to silver, 
were issued in their place at that rate ; but the 
payment of contracts previously made, Bee- 
thoven's annuity included, was regulated by the 
depreciation at the date of the contract. The 
date of the document conferring the annuity is 
March 1, 1 809, when the depreciation (decimally) 
was 2*48 for one, and it follows that his income 
under the finance patent was reduced — not to one 
fifth, or 800 florins, as Schindler and his copyists 

1 Not the 13th, as glreo In toL L p. 1896. 



unanimously state, but to 1612-90 florins. That 
is to say 

Kinsky, instead of 1800, paid 725-80 fl. 
Rudolph, „ „ 1500, „ 604-84 
Lobkowitz, „ „ 700, „ 282-26 
The subscribers however continued to pay the 
annuity in full, regardless of the patent, and 
Rudolph gave the necessary instruction to his 
agents in writing. Kinsky unfortunately neg- 
lected to do this, and thus, upon his untimely 
death, unwittingly deprived Beethoven of all 
legal claim to more than the above-named 725-80 
florins ; for the trustees of the estates had no 
power to add to that sum, being responsible to the 
Landrecht or high tribunal at Prague for their 
action. Beethoven, trusting to the equity of his 
claim, seems to have been so foolish as to instruct 
his advocate in Prague, Dr. Wolf, to enter a suit 
— which could have had no favourable issue. 
It was fortunate for him that the legal agent 
of the Kinsky estates (Verlassenschaftscurator), 
Dr. Johann Kauka, was a musician of consider- 
able attainments, a great admirer of his music 
and on intimate terms with him during his first 
years in Vienna. On a visit to the capital, Kauka 
discussed the matter with him ; the suit was 
abandoned, and a compromise at last effected — 
confirmed by the Landrecht, January 18, 18 15 — 
by which 1 200 florins a year were secured to him, 
and arrears to the amount of 2479 florins, paid 
in cash, on March 26th, to his representative, 
Baron Joseph von Pasqualati. 

Beethoven's letters to Kauka (Life of Bee- 
thoven, iii. App. viii) and his dedication of op. 
94, * An die Hoffnung,' to the widowed Princess 
Kinsky, prove how well satisfied he was with 
the result. [A.W.T.] 

KIRBYE, George, was one of the ten com- 
posers who harmonised the tunes for 'The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes,' published by Thomas Este in 
1592. In 1597 he put forth 'The First Set of 
Madrigals to 4, 5, and 6 Voyces,' dedicated to 
the two daughters of Sir Robert Jermin, Knt., 
whom the composer terms his 'very good maister,' 
and containing 24 madrigals. Several other 
madrigals by Kirbye are extant in a nearly con- 
temporary MS. collection, formed by a William 
Firmage, and now in the library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, but unfortunately wanting the 
quintus and sextus parts. He contributed to ' The 
Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, the six-part madrigal 
* Bright Phoebus greetes most cleerely . ' [W. H. H. ] 

taten of the German Lutheran Church corre- 
sponded to a great extent with the Anglican 
anthems, but they were for the most part on a 
larger scale and had a band accompaniment as 
well as the organ, which is rarely the case with 
anthems. They were used on the great festivals of 
the Church and on festal occasions, such as wed- 
dings of great people. They flourished especially 
in the time immediately before and with Sebastian 
Bach, and it is with his name that they are chiefly 
associated, both for the prodigious number and 



the great beauty of many of the examples of this 
form of composition which he produced. 

Among his predecessors, his uncles Michael and 
J oli aim Christoph, and the great organist Buxte- 
hude, were composers of Cantatas of this kind, 
and Bach certainly adopted the form of his own 
from them at first, both as regards the distribution 
of the numbers and the words. With them as 
with him the words were sometimes complete 
religious songs, but they were also frequently 
taken from promiscuous sources, passages from 
the Bible and verses from hymns and religious 
songs being strung together, with an underlying 
fixed idea to keep them bound into a complete 
whole. In some cases they are mystical, in others 
they are of a prayerful character, and of course 
many are hymns of praise. In many there is a 
clear dramatic element, and in this form the 
dialogue between Christ and the soul is not un- 
common, as in the well-known 'Ich hatte viel 
Bekummerniss,' and in 'Gottes Zeit' and 'Selig 
ist der Mann,' of J. S. Bach. The treatment of 
the subject is often very beautiful apart from the 
diction, and expresses a tender touching kind of 
poetry of religion which is of the purest and most 
affecting character, and found in Bach's hands 
the most perfect possible expression in music. 

The dramatic element points to the relation- 
ship of the Kirchencantaten to the Italian Cantate 
di Camera, which formed an important section of 
the operatic department of music which had begun 
to be cultivated in Italy from the beginning of the 
1 7th century. In composing the earlier Cantatas, 
Buxtehude and Bach's uncles do not Beem to 
have had this connection very clearly in view, 
neither does it appear obviously in the earlier 
examples of John Sebastian. But from the year 
1 71 2 Bach began writing music to Cantatas by a 
theologian and poet named Neumeister, a man of 
some importance in relation to church music ; 
who wrote poems which he called Cantatas for all 
the great Festivals and Sundays of the year, 
following avowedly the dramatic manner of the 
Italians. Of Bach's contemporaries, Telemann 
preceded him slightly in setting these Cantatas, 
as a collection with his music was published in 
Gotha in 1 7 1 1 . This part of the history of Can- 
tatas, which divides them into two periods in 
matter of form, is too elaborate to be treated here, 
but a very full account will be found in Spitta's 
Life of Bach, Part i, chap, iv, and Part iii, 
chap. iv. 

As regards the music, the form was extremely 
variable. In a great number of cases the work 
opened with a chorus, which in Bach's hands 
assumed gigantic proportions. This was followed 
by a series of recitatives, airs, ariosos, duets or 
other kinds of solo music, and in the greatest number 
of instances ended with a simple chorale. In 
some cases the work opens with an aria or duet, 
and at others there are several choruses inter- 
spersed in the work, and occasionally they form 
the bulk of the whole. In one somewhat singu- 
lar instance (viz. ' Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne 
tragen ') the Cantata consists of two long arias, 
and two recitatives, and an adagio, all for a bass 


voice, and ends with a chorale. It is evident that 
the works were constructed with reference to the 
particular resources at the disposal of the composer 
for performance; and in this respect the band 
varied as much as the musical form of the work. 
Sometimes the organ was accompanied by strings 
alone, at others by a considerable orchestra of 
strings, wood and brass. With developed re- 
sources the Cantata occasionally began both in 
the older and the later forms with an instrumental 
introduction which was called irrespectively a 
symphony or a sonata or sonatina, and evidently 
had some relationship to the instrumental Sonate 
di Chiesa which were common in Italy in the 
Roman Catholic Churches. This practice appears 
to have been more universal before Bach's time 
than appears from his works, as instrumental in- 
troductions to Cantatas with him are the excep- 
tion. In such an astonishing number of examples 
as Bach produced it is inevitable that there 
should be some disparity in value. A considerable 
number are of the highest possible beauty and 
grandeur, and a few may not be in his happiest 
vein. But assuredly the wealth stored up in them 
which has yet to become known to the musical 
public is incalculable. Their uncompromising 
loftiness, and generally austere purity of style 
has hindered their universal popularity hitherto ; 
but as people learn to feel, as they ultimately must, 
how deeply expressive and healthily true that 
style is, the greater will be the earnest delight 
they will find in music, and the greater will be the 
fame of these imperishable monuments of Bach's 
genius. [C.H.H.P.] 

We take the opportunity to add the contents 
of the two volumes of Kirchencantaten pub- 
lished by the Bachgesellschaft since the issue of 
p. 1 20 of this work. 

1874. Twenty-fourth year. 
(Issued Dec. 1878.) 

111. Was roeln Gott wllL 

112. DerHerrlstmeingetreuerHIrt. 

113. Hen- Jesu Christ, du hochster 

114. Ach. lieben Christen. 

115. Jlache dich mein Gelst bereit. 

116. Du Friedefurst Herr Jesu 

117. Sei Lob und Ehr. 

118. OJesu Christ mein's Leben'j 

119. Preise Jerusalem, dem tlerro. 

120. Gott, man lobet dich. 

KIRCHER, Athanasius, learned Jesuit, born 
May 2, 1602 (Mendel, with less probability, gives 
1601), at Geisa near Fulda ; early became a 
Jesuit, and taught mathematics and natural 
philosophy in the Jesuit College at Wiirzburg. 
About 1635 he was driven from Germany by 
the Thirty Years' War, and went first to the 
house of his Order at Avignon, and thence to 
Rome, where he remained till his death Nov. 28, 
1680. He acquired a mass of information in all 
departments of knowledge, and wrote books on 
every conceivable subject. His great work 
' Musurgia universalis sive ars magna consoni et 
dissoni,' 2 vols. (Rome, 1650), translated into 
German by Andreas Hirsch (Hall in Swabia, 
1662) contains among much rubbish valuable 

1873. Twenty-third year. 
(Issued Aug. 1876.) 

101. Nimra yon tins Herr. 

102. Herr, deine Augen sehen. 

103. Ihr werdet welnen und heu- 


104. Du Hlrte Israel. 

10R. Herr, gehe nicht ins ericht. 

106. Gottes Zeit 1st die allerbeste 


107. Was willst du dich betra- 


108. Es Ist euch gut 

109. Ich glaube lleber Herr. 

110. Unser Mund sei voll Lachens. 


matter on the nature of sound and the theory 
of composition, with interesting examples from 
the instrumental music of Frescobaldi, Froberger, 
and other composers of the 17th century. The 
second vol., on the music of the Greeks, is far 
from trustworthy; indeed Meibomius (' Musici 
antiqui') accuses Kircher of having written it 
without consulting a single ancient Greek author- 
ity. Hia 'Phonurgia' (Kempten 1673), trans- 
lated into German by Agathon Cario (apparently 
a nom de plume) with the title ' Neue Hall- und 
Thon-kunst* (Nordlingen 1684), is an amplifica- 
tion of part of the ' Musurgia,' and deals chiefly 
with acoustical instruments. In his ' Ars mag- 
netica' (Rome 1641) he gives all the songs and 
airs then in use to cure the bite of the tarantula. 
His 'GMipus aegyptiacus' (Rome 1652-54) 
treats of the music contained in Egyptian 
hieroglyphics. [E.G.] 

KIRCHGESSNER, Marianna, performer on 
the glass harmonica, born 1770 at Waghausel 
near Rastatt, Baden. An illness in her fourth 
year left her blind for life, but this misfortune 
was compensated by a delicate organisation for 
music. She learned the harmonica from Schinitt- 
bauer of Carlsruhe, and made numerous success- 
ful concert-tours. Mozart heard her in Vienna 
(1 79 1), and composed a quintet for her (Kbchel 
61 7). In London Froschel made her a new in- 
strument, which in future she always used. Here 
also she recovered a glimmering of sight under 
medical treatment. Much as they admired her 
playing, musicians regretted that she failed to 
bring out the true qualities of the harmonica 
through a wrong method of execution. After 
living in retirement at Gohlis near Leipzig, she 
undertook another concert-tour, but fell ill and 
died at Schaffhausen, Dec. 9, 1808. [C.F.P.] 

KIRCHNER, Theodoe, one of the most gifted 
of the living disciples of Schumann, a composer 
of 'genre pieces' for the pianoforte, was born 
1824 at Neukirchen near Chemnitz in Saxony, 
and got his musical training at the Conserva- 
torium of Leipsic. Having completed his school- 
ing he took the post of organist at Winterthur in 
Switzerland, which town in 1862 he left for 
Zurich, where he acted as conductor and teacher. 
In 1875 he became director of the ' Musikschule' 
at Wiirzburg, but after a few months' experience 
he threw up that appointment and settled at 

Kirchner's works extend to op. 42. Except a 
string quartet, op. 20, a ' Gedenkblatt,' a ' Sere- 

»nade ' for piano, violin and violoncello, and a 
number of Lieder, they are all written for piano- 
forte solo or a 4 mains, are mostly of small di- 
mensions, and put forth under suggestive titles 
such as Schumann was wont to give to his lesser 
pieces. The stamp of Schumann's original mind 
has marked Kirchner's work from the first ; yet 
though sheltered under Schumann's cloak, many 
minor points of style and diction are Kirchner's 
own, and decidedly clever. At best, his pieces 
are delicate and tender, frequently vigorous, now 
and then humorous and fantastic ; at worst, they 
droop under a taint of lachrymose sentimentality. 



They are always carefully finished and well 
shapen, never redundant, rarely commonplace. 
Among his early publications, ' Albumblatter,' 
op. 9, became popular as played by Madame 
Schumann ; and among his later, ' Still und be- 
wegt,' op. 24, and particularly ' Nachtstiicke,' op. 
25, deserve attention. [E.D.] 

KIRKMAN. The name borne by a family of 
eminent harpsichord, and subsequently pianoforte 
makers. Jacob Kirchmann (afterwards Kirkman) 
a German, came to England early in the last cen- 
tury, and worked for Tabel, a Flemish harpsichord 
maker, who had brought to London the traditions 
oftheRuckers of Antwerp. [See Ruckebs.] An- 
other apprentice of Tabel's was Shudi, properly 
Tschudi, who became Kirkman's rival, and 
founded the house of Broadwood. Tabel would 
have been quite forgotten, but for these dis- 
tinguished pupils, and for the droll anecdote 
narrated by Dr. Burney, of Kirkman's rapid 
courtship of Tabel's widow and securing with 
her the business and stock in trade. He pro- 
posed at breakfast-time, and married her (the 
marriage act being not then passed) before twelve 
o'clock, the same day, just one month after Tabel's 
demise. Jacob Kirkman carried on business at 
the sign of the King's Arms in Broad Street, 
Carnaby Market, now No. 19 Broad Street, Soho; 
still owned by the present Kirkman firm. Dr. 
Burney places the arrival of Jacob Kirkman in 
England in 1740, but that is manifestly too 
late, Shudi being then already established in 
business in Great Pulteney Street. There is no 
reason, however, to doubt the same generally ex- 
cellent authority that his death took place about 
1778, and that he left nearly £200,000. 

Burney, in Rees's Cyclopaedia, gives Jacob 
Kirkman's harpsichords high praise, regarding 
them as more full in tone and durable than 
those of Shudi. These instruments retained 
certain features of the Antwerp model, as late 
as 1768, preserving Andre* Ruckers's key- 
board of G-F (nearly 5 octaves) with lowest 
GJt wanting. This, as well as the retention of 
the rosette in the soundboard may be seen in 
Mr. Salaman's Kirkman harpsichord of that year, 
in which we find King David playing upon the 
harp, between the letters I and K. Dr. Burney 
met with no harpsichords on the continent that 
could at all compare with those made in England 
by Jacob Kirkman, and his almost life-long com- 
petitor, Shudi. 

Jacob Kirkman having no children by hi» 
marriage, was succeeded by his nephew Abraham, 
whose son Joseph, the first Joseph Kirkman, 
followed him, and introduced the manufacture of 
the pianoforte into his workshop. His son, 
the second Joseph, died at the advanced age of 
87 in 1877, his second son Henry, to whom the 
business owes its present extension, having died 
some years before. The ware-rooms have long 
been in Soho Square. The business is carried on 
(1879) * n trust for the present Mr. Joseph Kirk- 
man, the third in order of succession so named. 
A recent invention of this house is noticed under 
the head of Melopiano. [A. J.HJ 



KIRNBERGER, Johann Philipp, composer 
and writer on the theory of music, born April 
24, 1 72 1, at Saalfeld in Thuringia; learnt the 
rudiments of music at home, the organ from 
Kellner of Grafenrode, and the violin from Meil 
of Sondershausen. Gerber, court-organist there, 
taught him to play Bach's fugues, and recom- 
mended him to Bach, who received him as his pupil. 
Several years were passed at Leipsic, in Poland, 
and at Lemberg. On his return to Germany he 
resumed the study of the violin under Zickler of 
Dresden, and in 1751 entered the capelle of 
Frederic the Great at Berlin as violinist. In 
1758 he became Capellmeister to Princess 
Amalie, and remained with her till his death 
After a long and painful illness July 27, 1783. 
During these 25 years he formed such pupils as 
Schulz, Fasch, and Zelter, and devoted his 
leisure to researches on the theory of music. 
Of his many books on the subject 'Die Kunst 
des reinen Satzes,' 2 vols. (Berlin 1774-76) 
alone is of permanent value. He also wrote all 
the articles on music in Sulzer's 'Theorie der 
echonen Kiinste ' in which he warmly criticises 
Marpurg's 'Kritische Briefe.' He prided him- 
self on the discovery that all music could be 
reduced to two fundamental chords, the triad 
and the chord of the seventh — which is obviously 
wrong ; and invented a new interval bearing the 
relation of 4 : 7 to the key-note and which he 
called I : — but neither of these have stood the 
test of time. Indeed in his own day the theory 
of the even temperament steadily gained ground. 
As a composer he had more fluency than genius ; 
his most interesting works are his fugues, remark- 
able for their correctness. In 1773-74 ne edited 
a large collection of vocal compositions by Graun, 
who was a kind friend to him, and 'Psalmen 
und Gesange ' by Leo (Leonhard) Hassler. The 
autograph scores of several motets and cantatas, 
and a quantity of fugues, clavier-sonatas, .and 
similar works, are preserved in the Imperial 
library at Berlin. Kirnberger was of a quarrel- 
some temper, and fond of laying down the law, 
which made him no favourite with his fellow 
musicians. [F. G.] 

KISTNER. One of the great music pub- 
lishing firms of Leipzig. The business was 
founded in 1823 by Probst, who was succeeded 
in 1 83 1 by Karl Friedrich Kistner, a man of 
some gifts for music and great business powers. 
The new name was not assumed till 1836. 
Kistner greatly improved the business and 
secured important works of Mendelssohn, Schu- 
mann, Chopin, Moscbeles, Sterndale Bennett, 
«tc. He died greatly esteemed, in 1844, and 
was succeeded by his son Julius, who followed in 
his father's steps with equal success. He added 
the names of Hiller, Taubert, and Rubinstein to 
the catalogue of the house, and will long be 
remembered by those who had to do with him 
for his kindness and liberality. He withdrew 
from the business in 1866 in favour of Karl 
Friedrich Ludwig Gurckhaus — by whom the 
establishment is still carried on in its old style— 
and died May 13, 1868. 


Among the principal publications of the firm 
are found — Mendelssohn, Psalms 95 and 98 ; 
the Walpurgisnight ; Antigone ; Overture Ruy 
Bias; 2 Sonatas P. F. and Cello, and 8 other 
numbers. Schumann, Overture, Scherzo, and 
Finale ; Rose Pilgerfahrt ; Myrthen ; Sonata for 
P. F. in Fg ; Bilder aus Osten ; Spanisches 
Liederspiel and 11 more, including op. 1 and 2. 
Chopin, P. F. Concerto E minor ; Trio G minor ; 
1 2 Grandes Etudes and others. Gade's Erlkings 
daughter. Kretschmer's Operas ' Die Folkunger* 
and 'Henry the Lion.' Goetz's Symphony, 
' Francesca di Rimini,' ' Taming of the Shrew,' 
and 137th Psalm. [G.] 

KIT, a tiny violin, which, before the general 
introduction of pianofortes, was carried by danc- 
ing masters in their pockets. Hence the French 
and German names for it were 'pochette' and 
' Taschengeige,' though pochette is also applied 
to an instrument of long and narrow form resem- 
bling a sourdine. It was usually about 16 inches 
long over all: the 
woodcut shows 
its size relatively 
to that of the vio- 
lin. Sometimes, 
however, as in 
Nos. 61 A and 66 
of the Special Ex- 
hibition of An- 
cient Musical In- 
struments, S. K. 
Mus. 1872, the 
neck was longer 
and broader, for 
convenience of 
fingering, which 
gave the Kit a 
look. The instru- 
ment is now prac- 
tically obsolete. 

The origin of 
the name has 
not yet been dis- 
covered. 1 In Florio (1598 and 161 1), Beaumont 
and Fletcher, Ben Jonson, and Drayton, it seems 
evident that it is used without reference to size, 
as a synonym for Crowd, Rebeck, or Pandora. 
Cotgrave (161 1) defines it as 'a small Gitterne.' 
Grew, in 1681, speaks of 'a dancing master's 
Kit,' and as dancing-master's Kits would natur- 
ally be smaller than other Kits, the name gra- 
dually adhered to them, as that of viol or violin 
did to the larger sizes. [G.] 

KITCHENER, William, M.D., the son of a 
coal merchant, from whom he inherited an ample 
fortune, was an accomplished amateur musician. 
He composed an operetta entitled ' Love among 
the Roses, or, The Master Key,' and was author 
of 'Observations on Vocal Music,' 1821, and 
editor of ' The Loyal and National Songs of Eng- 
land,' 1823 ; 'The Sea Songs of England,' 1823 ; 

1 If PochttU were an Italian word the origin of Kit would not be bf 
to seek. 


and 'A Collection of the Vocal Music in Shak- 
spere's Plays.' He was also author of some 
eccentrically -written but useful books, including 
•The Cook's Oracle,' 'The Traveller's Oracle/ 
' The Art of Invigorating and Prolonging Life,' 
'The Housekeepers Ledger,' and 'The Economy 
of the Eyes.' Though an epicure, he was regular 
and even abstemious in his habits ; but while 
practising the precepts he gave to others, he was 
unable to prolong his own life beyond the age of 
50, and died suddenly Feb. 26, 1827. [W.H.H.] 
KITTEL, Johann Christian, born at Erfurt, 
Feb. 18, 1732, one of the last pupils of J. S. 
Bach, who himself died July 28, 1 750. His first 
post was that of organist at Langelsalza, which he 
left in 1756 for that of the Predigerkirche at his 
native place. His pay was wretched, and had to 
be eked out by incessant and laborious giving of 
lessons. Even when nearly 70 he was forced to 
make a tour to Gottingen, Hanover, Hamburg, 
and Altona. In the latter place he staid for 
some time, to the delight of the musicians there, 
and published a book of tunes for the Schleswig- 
Holstein Church (Neues Choralbuch, Altona 
1 803). Thence he crept home to Erfurt, where 
he died, May 9, 1809, in great poverty, but 
saved from actual starvation by a small pension 
allowed him by Prince Primas of Dalberg. The 
fame of his playing was very great, but is hardly 
maintained by his works, which are not very 
important. The best are grand preludes for the 
organ in 2 books (Peters) ; six sonatas and a 
fantasia for the clavecin (Breitkopfs) ; and an 
organ school (Der angehende praktische Organist, 
in 3 books, 1 801-8 (Erfurt, Beyer; 3rd edition 
1831). His papers were inherited by his great 
pupil, C. H. Rinck, one of many famous organists 
who perfected themselves under him. Fe"tis tells 
us — and we may accept the story as true, since 
he was intimate with Rinck — that Kittel had 
inherited a full-sized portrait of Bach, and that 
when satisfied with his pupils he drew the 
curtain, and allowed them a sight of the pic- 
ture, as the best reward he could afford them. 
It is a story quite in accordance with the devo- 
tion which Bach is known to have inspired in 
those who had to do with him. [G.] 

two collections of P. F. music. I. Edited by E. 
Pauer, and published by Senff, Leipzig : — 

PL «. Dumont, Allemande In D 
Courante, Sarabande, 
and La Loureuse. 
Couperin, La Favorite, La 
tendre Nanette, La Tene- 



1st Series. 

1. Frescobaldl and Corrente, 

Lully, Sonata In E minor, 
Forpora, 2 Fugues. 

2. GaluppI, Sonata In D. 
Fad re Martini, Gavotte 

and Ballet. 
Paradies, Sonata In A. 
8. Kerl, Toccata in C. 

Frohberger, Toccata in A 

Kuhnau, Suite in E minor. 
4. Mattheson, Suite In A. 
SI una t, Courante and 2 

Basse, Sonata In D. 
6. .1. L. Krebs, Fugue In F. 
Marpurg, Freludium and 


Courante, and Allegro for 

a musical clock. 

Penda, Sonata In G minor. 
J. E. Bach, Fantasia and 
Fugue in F. 
Ft. 4. J. C. F. Bach, Bondeau 
J. Ch. Bach, Sonata In B k>. 
5. Bameau, Deux Gigues en | 
Bondeau, Le Bappel des j 
Oiseaox, Les tenures I 

riaintes, Deux Menuets, 
L'Egyptlenne, La Fonle. 
PL 6. Byrd, Praludium and Car- 
man's Whistle. 

Bull, The King's Bunting 

O. Gibbons, Pneludium and 

Arne, Sonata Mo. 3, In G. 

J. Ernst Bach, Fantaisle and Fugue 

Klrnberger, Prelude and Fugue In 

C 8 minor. 

C. P. E. Bach, Solfeggio In C mln. 
Do., Sonata in F minor. 

Couperin, March in A b. 

Do., Le Reveille-Matin in F. 
Bameau, Tambourin in E minor. 

D. Scarlatti, Allegro in G minor. 

2nd Series. 
PL L A. Scarlatti, Fugue in F 
P. Scarlatti, S Studies. 
Durante, Study In A. 
2. Munchhauser, Aria pastor* 
alls variata, 
W. Fr. Bach, Capriccio In 

D minor. 
I: berl i n ,1'rel ude and Fugue 
in A minor. 
S. N'ichelmann, La Gaillarde 
et La Tendre (Sarabande 
and Glgue) in G. 

II. Edited by F. Roitzsch, published by Peters :— - 

D. Scarlatti. Sonata in A. 
Do., The Cat's Fugue, In G minor. 
Clement!, Toccata in Bb. 
Field, Bondo in E. 
Cherubinl, Fugue In C. 
W. F. Bach, Sonata In D. 
Eberlin, Prelude and Fugue in 

E minor. 
Hassler, Fanta-ie in C minor. 
J. B. Cramer, Toccatina in Ab. 


KLEIN", Bernhard, a German composer, 
born at Cologne, where his father was a bass 
player, March 6, 1793. His early life was 
passed in the disturbances of the French occupa- 
tion of the Rhine, but in 181 2 he found means 
to get to Paris, where Cherubini's advice, the 
hearing of fine performers, and the study of the 
library of the Conservatoire, advanced him 
greatly. On his return to the Rhine he con- 
ducted the performances in Cologne Cathedral, 
and profited by an acquaintance with Thibaut 
and his fine library at Heidelberg. His first 
important works were a Mass (18 16) and a 
Cantata on Schiller's ' Worte des Glaubens ' 
(181 7). In 1819 he was sent officially to Berlin 
to make acquaintance with Zelter'B system of 
teaching and to apply it in Cologne Cathedral. 
He however found it more profitable to remain 
in Berlin, where he became connected with the 
recently established School for Organists, and 
was made director of music in the University, 
and teacher of singing in the Hochschule. 
These occupations in no wise checked his pro- 
ductivity. He composed a mass of sonatas and 
songs, an oratorio 'Job' (Leipzig, 1820), and a 
grand opera, 'Dido,' to Rellstab's text (1823). 
In 1823 he married, and went to Rome, where 
he passed a fine time in intercourse with Baini, 
and in copying from the ancient treasures of 
music there. On his return to Berlin he com- 
posed an oratorio, ' Jephthah,' for the Cologne 
Festival, 1828, and another, ' David,' for Halle, 
1830. l In 1832, Sept. 9, he suddenly died. 
Besides the compositions already mentioned 
he left a Mass in D, a Paternoster for 
8 voices, a Magnificat and Responsoria for 6 do., 
an opera and an oratorio, both nearly finished, 
8 books of psalms, hymns, and motets for men's 
voices, and other pieces both sacred and secular. 
His vocal music was much used by singing 
societies after his death. Mr. Hullah has re- 
printed one of the 4-part psalms, 'Like as the 
hart,' in his excellent collection called 'Vocal 
Scores.' It is sweet, dignified, religious, music, 
very vocal in its phrases. [G.] 

KLEMM. This well-known Leipzig music- 
publishing firm, and circulating library, was 
founded in 182 1 by Carl August Klemm in the 

1 These tiro oratorios are in the Library of the Sacred liarmonie 



house which it now occupies, known as the ' Hohe 
Lilie,' 14 in the Neumarkt. Klemm succeeded 
Wieck, the father of Madame Schumann, who 
had for some time carried on a musical lending 
library on the premises. In 1847 the house 
opened a branch at Chemnitz, and in 56 at Dres- 
den. The present proprietor is Christian Bern- 
hard Klemm, Among the original publications 
of the house are to be found the names of J. S. 
Bach, Dotzauer, F. Abt, Dreyschock, Mendels- 
sohn, Schumann (op. 34, 35), Lachner, F. Schnei- 
der, Julius Rietz, Marschner, etc. etc. [G.] 

KLENGEL, August Alexander, born Jan. 
29, 1784 at Dresden, son of a well-known 
portrait and landscape painter, first studied 
music with Milchmeyer, inventor of a piano 
which could produce 50 different qualities of 
tone (see Cramer's ' Magazin der Musik,' i. 10). 
In 1803 Clementi visited Dresden, and on his 
departure Klengel went with him as his pupil. 
The two separated on dementi's marriage in 
Berlin, but the young wife dying shortly after, 
they went together to Russia, where Klengel 
remained till 181 1. He then spent two years 
studying in Paris, returned to Dresden in 181 4, 
went to London in 181 5, and in the following 
year was appointed Court-organist at Dresden, 
which remained his home till his death on Nov. 
32, 1852. During a visit to Paris in 1828 he 
formed a close friendship with Fe"tis, who with 
other musicians was much interested in his 
pianoforte canons. Of these he published only 
* Les Avant-coureurs ' (Paul, Dresden, 1841). 
After his death Hauptmann edited the * Canons 
und Fugen' (Breitkopf & Hartel, 1854), with 
a preface, in which he says, ' Klengel was brought 
up on Sebastian Bach, and knew his works 
thoroughly. It must not be supposed however 
that he was a mere imitator of Bach's manner ; it 
is truer to say that he expressed his own thoughts 
in the way in which Bach would have done it 
had he lived at the present day.' He left several 
concertos, and many other works. His visit to 
London was commemorated by the composition 
of a Quintet for Piano and Strings for the Phil- 
harmonic Society, which was performed Feb. 26, 
1816, he himself taking the pianoforte. There 
is a pleasant little sketch of him in a letter of 
Mendelssohn's to Eckert, Jan. 26, 1842. [F.G.] 

KLINDWORTH, Karl, one of the best 
of living musicians and pianists, whose reputa- 
tion is sure to last though it was slow to rise, 
was born at Hanover on Sept. 25, 1830. In 
early youth he was an accomplished performer 
on the violin. From his 17th to his 19th year 
he acted as conductor to a travelling opera 
troupe ; then he settled in Hanover and took to 
playing the piano and composing. In 1850 he 
went to Weimar to study pianoforte-playing 
under Liszt, and had Hans von Biilow, \V. 
Mason, and Dyonis Pruckner as his fellow pupils. 
In 1854 Qe came to London, where he remained 
fourteen years, appearing in public at intervals 
as a pianist and conductor of orchestral concerts, 
but in the main living the quiet life of a student 
and teacher. He organised two series of three 


chamber concerts in the spring of 1861 and 62, 
and a series of three orchestral and vocal concerts 
in the summer of 1861. The most remarkable 
compositions brought forward at the latter were 
Rubinstein's 'Ocean' Symphony; Gade's 'Erl 
King's Daughter' ; Cherubini's Requiem, No. 1 ; 
Schumann's P. F. Concerto. They were well 
carried out, but met with the usual fate of such 
enterprises in London, and were discontinued for 
want of capital. Since 1868 Klindworth has 
occupied the post of professor of the pianoforte 
at the Conservatorium of Moscow. 

Foremost among the mass of good work done 
by Klindworth stand his pianoforte scores of 
Wagner's 'Der Ring des Nibelungen,' and his 
critical edition of Chopin ; the latter beyond all 
praise for rare insight into the text and minute 
care bestowed on the presentation of it ; the for- 
mer quite wonderful for the fidelity with which 
the transcript is contrived to reflect Wagner's 
complicated orchestration. His arrangement of 
Schubert's Symphony in C major for two piano- 
fortes, and the four-hand arrangement of Tschai- 
kowsky's 'Poeme symphonique Francesca da 
Rimini,' as also, amongst his original composi- 
tions, a very difficult and effective Polonaise- 
fantaisie for pianoforte, should be particularly 
mentioned. The manuscripts of a masterly re- 
scoring of Chopin's Concerto in F minor, and a 
condensation and orchestration of C. V. Alkan's 
Concerto in G$ minor (Etudes, op. 39), are well 
known to his friends. [E. D.] 

KLINGEMANN, Carl, born at Limmer, 
Hanover, Dec. 2, 1798, was Secretary to the 
Hanoverian Legation in Berlin till 1828, when 
he was transferred to a similar position in 
London. He married, Aug. 10, 1845, the sister 
of Dr. Rosen the eminent Sanscrit scholar and 
Professor at University College, and was a man 
of great cultivation, considerable literary power, 
and a very rare judgment in music. Klingemann 
had been intimate with the Mendelssohns during 
his residence in Berlin, and when Felix came 
to London the friendship was warmly renewed. 
The famous tour in Scotland — the origin of the 
Hebrides Overture, the Scotch Symphony, and so 
much else — was taken in company with Klinge- 
mann, and the journals, letters, and sketches were 
joint productions. (See Die Familie Mendels- 
sohn, i. 214-294). Klingemann wrote the words 
for the Singspiel or Operetta so well known in 
England as 'The Son and Stranger,' excepting 
in the case of the song no. 1 2, ' Die Blumen- 
glocken,' of which Mendelssohn wrote the words 
and Klingemann the music. The title 'Sym- 
phonie-Cantate' for the Lobgesang was his. The 
Three Caprices (op. 33) are dedicated to him. 

The following of Mendelssohn's songs are set 
to Klingemann's words — op. 9, no. 5 ; op. 34, 
nos. 3 and 5 ; op. 47, nos. 5 and 6 ; op. 63, no. 4 ; 
op. 71, no. 2 ; op. 84, no. 2 ; op. 86, no. 1. He 
also supplied a translation of Handel's Solomon 
for the occasion of the performance at Diisseldorf 
in 1835, when Mendelssohn wrote an organ part 
to the Oratorio. Six of his songs were published 
by Breitkopfs. Klingemann's house was at 


4, Hobart Place, Eaton Square. Mendelssohn 
often staid there, and it was for long the resort 
of the German artists and literary men. He died 
in London, Sept. 25, 1862. For an affectionate 
notice of him see Holler's ' Tonleben,' ii. 95. [G.] 

KLOTZ, the name of a numerous family of 
violin-makers, who lived at the little town of 
Mittenwald, in the Bavarian Alps, and founded 
a manufacture of stringed instruments which 
makes Mittenwald to this day only less famous 
than Markneukirchen in Saxony, and Mirecourt 
in the Vosges. A variety of the pine, locally 
known as the 'Hasel-fichte' (Bechstein calls it 
the ■ harte oder spate Roth-tanne '), of delicate 
but strong and highly resonant fibre, flourishes 
in the Bavarian Alps. The abundance of this 
material, which the ingenious peasants of the 
neighbouring Ammer-thal use for wood-carving, 
led to the rise of the Mittenwald violin manu- 
facture. For about two centuries there was held 
in the town a famous fair, greatly frequented 
by Venetian and other traders. In 1679 this 
fair was removed to Botzen, and the Mitten- 
walders attribute the rise of the violin industry 
to the distress which thereupon ensued. One 
Egidius Klotz had already made violins at 
Mittenwald. Tradition says that he learned 
the craft from Stainer at Absam. He is more 
likely to have learned it from seeing Stainer's 
violins, which he imitated with success. His 
son, Matthias or Matthew Klotz, followed in 
the same path. He travelled, however, into 
Italy, sojourning both at Florence and Cremona. 
Tradition reports him to have returned to Mit- 
tenwald about 1683, and to have at once begun 
to instruct many of the impoverished Mitten- 
walders in the mystery of fiddle-making. The 
instruments found a ready sale. They were 
hawked about by the makers at the churches, 
castles, and monasteries of South Germany ; and 
Mittenwald began to recover its prosperity. 
Most of the instruments of Matthias Klotz date 
from 1670 to 1696. They are well built, on 
the model of Stainer, but poorly varnished. 
His son, Sebastian, surpassed him as a maker. 
His instruments, though Stainer-like in appear- 
ance, are larger in size, of flatter model, and 
better designed : and his varnish is often of a 
good Italian quality. Another son of Matthias, 
named Joseph, still has a good reputation among 
the connoisseurs of German violins. 

Until about the middle of the last century, a 
distinctive German style prevailed in violins, of 
which the above-mentioned makers are the best 
exponents. In several towns of Italy there were 
Germans working in their own style side by side 
with Italian makers. Tecchler worked thus in 
Rome, Mann in Naples, and the three Gofrillers 
(Gottfriedl) in Venice. Odd as it seems, it is cer- 
tain that there was a demand for German violins in 
Cremona itself. Two Germans, named Pfretschner 
and Fricker, who made violins of their own ugly 
pattern, gained a subsistence there in the golden 
days of Stradivarius : and the famous Veracini 
always used a German violin. But this compe- 
tition could not long endure. The superiority of 
vol. u. 



the Italian violin was established in the earlier 
half of the century : and wherever stringed in- 
struments were made, a conscious imitation of 
the Italian models began. It penetrated to 
Mittenwald, as it did to London and Paris. This 
stage of the art is represented by Geoeg Klotz, 
whose fiddles date from 1750 to 1770. They 
have lost their distinctive Tyrolese cut, without 
gaining the true Italian style, and are covered 
with a thin brittle spirit varnish, laid upon a 
coat of size, which keeps the varnish from pene- 
trating the wood, and renders it opaque and 
perishable. Besides George, we hear of Michael, 
Chakles, and a second Egidius. Nine-tenths of 
the violins which pass in the world as 'Stainers' 
were made by the Klotz family and their fol- 
lowers. Dealers soon destroyed their tickets, 
and substituted spurious ones bearing the name 
of Stainer : a process which the makers at 
length adopted on their own account. 

The Klotz violins are not without merit as 
regards sonority. Spohr recommends them, and 
an extraordinary story is told in Parke's ' Musical 
Memoirs' of the value set upon one belonging 
to Mr. Hay, the leader of the King's band. M. 
Miremont, of the Rue du Faubourg Poissonniere, 
one of the best living violin-makers, scandalised 
the Parisian connoisseurs a few years ago by 
exhibiting several instruments built by him on 
the Klotz model. Strange to relate, their tone 
was of undeniable excellence. [E. J. P.] 

KNAPP, William, deserves mention as the 
author of a L.M. psalm tune called ' Wareham,' 
which was long a favourite in churches. He 
was born 1698, was parish clerk of Poole, and 
died 1 768. He published ' New Church Melody' 
and 'A Set of New Psalms and Anthems.' 
'Wareham' is in both — in the former called 
' Blandford,' and in common time, in the latter 
in triple time. Another tune by him is given 
by Parr, 'Church of England Psalmody,' from 
whom and the present clerk of Poole the above 
facts are derived. [G.] 

KNAPTON, Philip, was born at York in 
1788, and received his musical education at 
Cambridge from Dr. Hague. He then returned 
to York and followed his profession. He com- 
posed several overtures, pianoforte concertos, and 
other orchestral works, besides arranging nume- 
rous pieces for the pianoforte and harp. His 
song, ' There be none of Beauty's daughters,' was 
long in favour. He acted as one of the assistant 
conductors at the York Festivals of 1823, 1825, 
and 1828. He died June 20, 1833. [W.H.H.] 

KNECHT, Justin Heinbioh, a musician of 
the last century, who, though now forgotten, was 
a considerable person in his day. He was born 
Sept. 30, 1752, at Biberach in Suabia, received 
a good education, both musical and general 
(Boeckh was one of his masters), and filled for 
some time the post of professor of literature in 
his native town. By degrees he gravitated to 
music, and in 1807 became director of the opera 
and of the court concerts at Stuttgart; but 
ambition or ability failed him, and in a couple of 




years he resigned the post and returned to Bibe- 
rach, where he died Dec. n, 1817, with a great 
reputation as organist, composer, and theoretician. 
In the last-named department he was an adherent 
of Vogler. The list of his productions as given 
by F£tis embraces 27 numbers of compositions, 
and 1 9 theoretical and didactic works. Two of 
these only have any interest for us, and that from 
an accidental cause. The first (Bossier, Spire) is a 
* Musical 1 portrait of Nature, a grand symphony 
for 2 violins, viola, and bass, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 
bassoons, horns, trumpets, and drums ad lib., in 
which is expressed : — 1. A beautiful country, the 
sun shining, gentle airs, and murmuring brooks ; 
birds twitter, a waterfall tumbles from the moun- 
tain, the shepherd plays his pipe, the shepherdess 
sings, and the lambs gambol around. 2. Sud- 
denly the sky darkens, an oppressive closeness 
pervades the air, black clouds gather, the wind 
rises, distant thunder is heard, and the storm 
approaches. 3. The tempest bursts in all its 
fury, the wind howls and the rain beats, the 
trees groan, and the streams rush furiously. 
4. The storm gradually goes off", the clouds dis- 
perse, and the sky clears. 5. Nature raises its 
joyful voice to heaven in songs of gratitude to 
the Creator' (a hymn with variations). The 
second (if it be not an arrangement of a portion 
of the preceding) is another attempt of the same 
kind — ' The Shepherds' pleasure interrupted by 
the storm, a musical picture for the organ.' 
These are precisely the subjects which Beethoven 
has treated, and Fetis would have us believe 
that Knecht actually anticipated not only the 
general scheme of the Pastoral Symphony but 
some of its figures and passages. But this is not 
the case. The writer purchased the score and 
parts of Knecht's work at Otto Jahn's sale, and is 
able to say that beyond the titles the resemblances 
between the two works are obviously casual. 
Knecht's being in addition commonplace, entirely 
wanting in that ' expression of emotions ' which 
Beethoven enforces, and endeavouring to depict 
the actual sights and sounds, which he depre- 
cates. [See Pastobal Symphony.] [G.] 
KNELL, the Passing Bell (Fr. La Cloche des 
Agonisants ; Germ. Die Todtenglocke). A solemn 
cadence, tolled on the great Bell of a Parish 
Church, to announce the death of a parishioner ; 
or, in accordance with old custom, to give 
warning of his approaching dissolution. To 
indicate the decease of a Man, or Boy, the Knell 
begins with three triple tolls, followed by a 
number of moderately quick single strokes corre- 
sponding to the age of the Departed. The Bell 
is then tolled, very slowly, for the accustomed 
time : and the Knell concludes, as it began, with 
three triple tolls, sometimes, but not always, 
preceded by a repetition of the single strokes 
denoting the age of the deceased person. 

1 Fetls gives the title Incorrectly. It U • Le Portrait musical de la 
Nature," etc, not ' Tableau musical.' He also gives Its date as ■ Leip- 
zig, 17R4.' It Is really published at Spire by Bossier, with no year- 
but the date may very well be 1784. since the list on the back con- 
tains the three early sonatas of Beethoven, which were published by 
Bossier In 1783. But the coincidence Is curious. Beethoven must have 
heen familiar with Bossier's advertisement page, on which his own first 
sonatas were announced, and which contains aU the above particulars. 


For a Woman, the Knell begins, and ends, 
with three double, instead of three triple tolls. 
In other respects, the formula is the same as 
that used for a Man. 

Minute tolls denote the death of the Sovereign, 
or Heir Apparent to the Crown. [W.S.R.] 

KNELLER HALL, near Hounslow, Middle- 
sex, the ' Military School of Music,' for the edu- 
cation of bandsmen and bandmasters for the 
regiments of the British army. Until recently 
bandmasters in the British army were mostly 
civilians, with no guarantee for their competence 
for the post, and bandsmen were instructed and 
practised in a casual and often imperfect manner 
by each regiment for itself. A bandmaster formed 
no integral part of the corps, and could not 
be compelled to accompany it in case of war or 
foreign service ; and the status of bandsmen is 
even now so far anomalous that in action their 
duty is to rescue the wounded under fire and 
take charge of them in hospital. Each band was 
formed on its own model, and played what kind 
of instruments, and at what pitch, it liked. In 
the Crimean war the evils of this state of things 
and the want of united systematic action were 
painfully apparent, and shortly afterwards, by 
command of H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, 
Commander-in-Chief, a plan was drawn up and 
submitted to the officers of the army, to which 
they readily gave their assent and subscription. 
In pursuance of this plan Kneller Hall, a building 
on the site of the house of Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
the painter (formerly the Government establish- 
ment for training schoolmasters), was taken, and 
opened as a school on March 3, 1857, and a 
systematic course of instruction, with a staff of 
professors, begun, under the modest title of the 
'Military Music Class,' Major (now Colonel) 
F. L. Whitmore, long known for a philanthropic 
interest and zeal in matters of music, being 
appointed Commandant, and reporting annually 
to the Adjutant General of the Forces. The 
advantages of the plan proved so great that in 
1875 the institution was adopted by Government. 
Bandmasters are now first-class staff-sergeants 
of the regiments to which they belong, and the 
musical department in each regiment consists of 
a bandmaster, a sergeant, a corporal, and 19 men 
(cavalry 14), besides boys as drummers and fifers. 

The educational staff at Kneller Hall now 
(1879) comprises professors of the following 
subjects — Theory, 2 Clarinet (3), Oboe, Flute, 
Bassoon, Tenor Brass (2), Bass "ditto, French 
Horn — and a schoolmaster from the Government 
Normal School for general education. The first- 
class students act as assistants to the professors. 
The length of term is 2 years, the hours of 
musical instruction are 7 in summer, and 6 in 
winter daily. The number of pupils of all ages 
varies with circumstances. The average strength 
is about 50 non-commissioned officers, training 
for bandmasters, and forming the first class ; 
and no privates, boys and adults, training for 

7 Mr. Lazarus Is one of these three. 

» This post was formerly held by Mr. Sullivan, father of the com- 


bandsmen, the second class — 160 in all. Lads 
are admitted at 15. Adults are either outsiders 
or formerpupils, who, after having been bandsmen, 
develope qualities fitting them for farther edu- 
cation as bandmasters. Both lads and men are 
taken into the school as vacancies occur, on the 
recommendation of the commanding officers of the 
regiments. A supply of the former is obtained from 
the Chelsea Hospital, the Royal Hibernian Mili- 
tary School, Dublin, the Metropolitan Poor Law 
Schools, etc. General instruction is given by 
the Normal schoolmaster, and there is a noble 
chapel in which service is regularly performed. 

England is as yet the only country which has 
adopted a systematic method of educating bands- 
men and bandmasters, and the great improvement 
both in the moral conduct and the efficiency of 
the men which has taken place since the founda- 
tion of Kneller Hall cannot be too warmly wel- 
comed. By Colonel Whitmore's efforts, and the 
enlightened sanction of H.R.H. the Commander- 
in-Chief, uniformity in instruments and in l pitch 
has been obtained, and a general consolidation of 
the military music of the country brought about 
which is highly desirable. A bandmaster has now a 
recognised position in the army, and a fixed salary 
of £100 a year in addition to his regimental pay. 
The cost of this salary is still borne by the private 
purses of the officers, which is the only important 
anomaly remaining to be rectified [G.] 

KNIGHT, Joseph Philip, youngest son of 
the Rev. Francis Knight, D.D., was born at the 
Vicarage, Bradford-on-Avon, July 26, 18 12. 
His love for music began early, and at 16 he 
studied harmony and thorough bass under Mr. 
Corfe, then organist of Bristol Cathedral. When 
about 20 Mr. Knight composed his first six songs, 
under the name of ' Philip Mortimer.' Among 
these were ' Old Times,' sung by Henry Phillips, 
and 'Go, forget me,' which was much sung both 
here and in Germany. After this he used his 
own name, and in company with Haynes Bayly 
produced a number of highly popular songs, 
among which the most famous were ' Of what is 
the old man thinking?' 'The Veteran,' 'The 
Grecian Daughter,' and 'She wore a wreath of 
roses.' He subsequently composed a song and 
a duet to words written for him by Thomas 
Moore — 'The parting,' and 'Let's take this 
world as some wide scene.' In 1839 Mr. Knight 
visited the United States, where he remained 
two years. To this time are due among other 
popular songs the once well-known 'Rocked in the 
cradle of the deep,' sung with immense success 
by Braham, and 'Why chime the bells so merrily.' 
On his return to England he produced ' Beautiful 
Venice,' 'Say what shall my song be to-night,' 
and ' The Dream,' words by the Hon. Mrs. Norton 
— all more or less the rage in their day. Some 
years afterwards Mr. Knight was ordained by 
the late Bp. of Exeter to the charge of St. Agnes 
in the Scilly Isles, where he resided two years. 
He then married and lived for some time abroad, 
doing very little in the way of composition, but 
on his return to England he again took up his 
• A=453 vibrations oer second. 



pen, and wrote among others 'Peace, it is I!' 
' The lost Rose,' ' The Watchman,' ' The Anchor,' 
and ' Queen of the silver bow,' all of which have 
enjoyed great popularity. His songs, duets, and 
trios, number in all not less than two hundred. 
He is a good organist, with an unusual gift for 
extemporising. [G,] 

KNYVETT, Chables, descended from an 
ancient Norfolk family, was one of the principal 
alto singers at the Commemoration of Handel in 
1784; he was also engaged at the Concert of 
Ancient Music. He was appointed a gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, Nov. 6, 1786. In 179 1 he, 
in conjunction with Samuel Harrison, established 
the Vocal Concerts, which they carried on 
until 1794. On July 25, 1796, he was appointed 
an organist of the Chapel Royal, and a few years 
later resigned his former post. He died in 1822. 

His elder son, Charles, was born 1773. He 
was placed for singing under Mr. (afterwards 
Sir) William Parsons, and for the organ and 
piano under Samuel Webbe. In 1 801 he joined 
his younger brother William, Greatorex, and 
Bartleman, in reviving the Vocal Concerts. In 
1802 he was chosen organist of St. George's, 
Hanover Square. Besides this he taught the 
pianoforte and thorough bass, and published a 
Selection of Psalm Tunes, 1823. He died, after 
many years of retirement, Nov. 2, 1852. 

William, the younger son of Charles the 
elder, was born April it, 1779. In 1788 he 
sang in the treble chorus at the Concert of 
Ancient Music, and in 1795 appeared there as 
principal alto. In 1797 he was appointed 
gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and soon after- 
wards a lay-vicar of Westminster. In 1 802 be 
succeeded Dr. Arnold as one of the composers of 
the Chapel Royal. For upwards of 40 years he 
was principal alto at the best London concerts 
and all the provincial festivals, being greatly 
admired for the beauty of his voice and his 
finished style of singing, particularly in part 
music. Callcott's glee ' With sighs, sweet rose,' 
was composed expressly for him. In 1832 he 
became conductor of the Concert of Ancient 
Music, which office he resigned in 1840. He 
conducted the Birmingham Festivals from 1834 
to 1843, and the York Festival of 1835. He was 
the composer of several pleasing glees — one of 
which, ' When the fair rose,' gained a prize at the 
Harmonic Society in 1800 — and some songs, and 
wrote anthems for the coronations of George IV. 
and Queen Victoria. He died Nov. 17,1 856. 

Deborah, second wife of William Knyvett, 
and niece of Mrs. Travis, one of the Lancashire 
chorus singers engaged at the Concert of Ancient 
Music, was born at Shaw, near Oldham, Lanca- 
shire. In 1813 she was placed in the chorus of 
the Concert of Ancient Music, the directors of 
which, finding her possessed of superior abilities, 
soon withdrew her from that position, took her 
as an articled pupil, and placed her under 
Greatorex. In 18 15 she appeared at the con- 
certs as a principal singer with success. In 1816 
she sang at the Derby Festival, in 18 18 at 
Worcester, and in 1820 at Birmingham. From 




that time she was constantly in request, particu- 
larly as an oratorio singer, until 1843, when she 
retired. She died in Feb. 1876. [W.H.H.] 

KOCHEL, Dr. Ludwig, Ritter von, learned 
musician and naturalist, born Jan. 14, 1800, at 
Stein, near Krems on the Danube ; tutor to the 
sons of the Archduke Karl (1828-42). From 
1850 to 1863 he lived at Salzburg, and from that 
time to his death, on June 3, 1877, at Vienna. 
His work as a botanist and mineralogist does not 
concern us : as a musician he has immortalised 
his name by his 'Chronologisch-thematisches Ver- 
zeichniss ' of all W. A. Mozart's works, with an 
appendix of lost, doubtful, and spurious composi- 
tions (Breitkopf & Hartel, Leipzig 1862). As a 
precursor of that precious work a small pamphlet 
should be named, ' Uber den Umfang der musik- 
alischen Productivity W. A. Mozarts' (Salzburg 
1862). The complete edition of Mozart's works 
which Breitkopf & Hartel are now publishing 
could scarcely have been made without his gener- 
ous cooperation. In 1832 von Kbchel was made 
an Imperial Councillor, and in 42 he received the 
order of Leopold. Among his intimate friends was 
Otto Jahn, in whose work on Mozart he took an 
active interest. See Jahn's Mozart, 2nd ed.,p.xxxi. 
His private character was most estimable. [C.F.P.] 

KOHLER. The name of an eminent family of 
military wind-instrument makers, at present esta- 
blished at 35, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 
The founder of the family was John KOhler, a 
native of Volkenrode, a hamlet near Cassel. He 
came to England, acted as bandmaster to the 
Lancashire Volunteers, and in 1780 established 
himself as a musical instrument maker at 87, St. 
James's Street. Having no children, he sent for 
his nephew, John Kohler, from Germany, who 
succeeded to his business in 1801. The latter 
was appointed musical instrument maker to the 
Duke of York, then commander-in-chief, and the 
Prince of Wales successively. He was succeeded 
by his only son, John Augustus, who removed 
the business to Henrietta Street, and died in 1 878. 
His inventions in brass instruments were many 
and successful. He first introduced the cornet-a- 

Siston or cornopean into this country, and, with 
lacfarlane, added the third valve to that instru- 
ment. His improved mute to the cornopean, 
with extra bell (1858), enabling the instrument 
to be played in a very low tone and perfectly in 
tune, is well known. His triple slide trombones 
and patent levers were very remarkable improve- 
ments in their day. He obtained prize medals at 
the Exhibitions of 1 85 1 and 6 2 , and was favourably 
mentioned in the Report of the latter. The busi- 
ness is now carried on by his eldest son, Augustus 
Charles, who entered the firm in 1863. [G.] 

KOMPEL, August, a distinguished violinist, 
born in 1831 at Briickenau. He is one of the 
best pupils of Spohr, and the quiet elegiac style 
of his master suits his talent precisely. His 
tone is not large but very pure and sympathetic, 
his execution faultless. He was for a time mem- 
ber of the bands at Cassel and Hanover, and has 
been since 1867 leader of that at Weimar. [P.D.] 


KOLLMANN, August Friedbich Christoph, 
of a musical family, his father an organist and 
schoolmaster, his brother, George Christoph, an 
organist of great renown at Hamburg ; was 
born at Engelbostel, Hannover, in 1756, and 
thoroughly educated in music. He was selected 
to be chapel-keeper and schoolmaster at the Ger- 
man Chapel, St. James's, London, and entered on 
his duties about 1782. In 1792 George III. 
presented a chamber organ to the chapel, which 
was played by Kolhnann under the title of ' clerk' 
till his death in Nov. 1824. He was a person of 
much energy, and in 1809 during a large fire in 
the palace is said to have saved the chapel by 
standing in the doorway and preventing the fire- 
men from entering it to destroy it. His works 
are numerous : — Essay on Practical Harmony, 
1796; do. on Practical Musical Composition, 
1799 ; Practical Guide to Thorough Bass, 1801 ; 
Vindication of a passage in ditto, 1802; New 
Theory of Musical Harmony, 1806; Second Prac- 
tical Guide to Thorough Bass, 1807 ; Quarterly 
Musical Register, 181 2 — two numbers only; Re- 
marks on Logier, 1824 — (some of these went 
through two editions); Analyzed Symphony, op. 3 ; 
First beginning on the P. F. op. 5, 1 796 ; Concerto 
for P.F. and Orchestra, op. 8 ; Melody of the 100th 
Psalm, with 100 harmonies, op. 9; Twelve ana- 
lyzed Fugues, op. 1 o ; Introduction to Modulation, 
op. 1 1 ; Rondo on the Chord of the Dim. 7th. 
He is also said to have published an orchestral 
symphony 'The Shipwreck, or the Loss of the 
East Indiaman Halsewelh'a piece of programme- 
music quite in the taste of the time ; songs, 
sonatas, and an edition of Bach's Well-tempered 
Clavier. His son George August was a good 
organ-player, and on his father's death succeeded 
to his post as organist. On his death, March 
19, 1845, his sister Johanna Sophia succeeded 
him; and on her death, in May 1849, the post 
was bestowed on Mr. F. Weber the present 
organist. [G.] 

KONTSKI, DE, a family of virtuosi, of which 
Charles, the eldest, born at Warsaw in 18 15, ap- 
peared as a pianist in public at the age of seven, 
but, like the majority of prodigies, did not fulfil 
the promises of childhood. He made his first 
studies in Warsaw and continued them at Paris, 
where he settled as teacher, and died 1867. 

Antoine, the second, born at Cracow Oct. 27, 
181 7, a clever pianist, with great delicacy of 
touch and brilliancy of execution, but a super- 
ficial musician, and composer of many ' pieces de 
salon,' of which the 'Re veil du Lion' (op. 115) 
is universally known. He has travelled a great 
deal and is now living in London. 

Stanislas, the third brother, born in 1820, 
pianist and pupil of Antoine, living at Peters- 

Apollinaiee, a violinist, the youngest of the 
four brothers, was born Oct. 23, 1826, at Warsaw. 
His first master was his elder brother Charles, 
himself a clever violinist and pupil of the Warsaw 
Conservatoire. He showed the same precocity of 
talent as the restof his family, performing in public 
concerts at an age of not much over four years. 


Later on he travelled a great deal, chiefly in 
Russia, but also in France and Germany, and 
made a certain sensation by his really excep- 
tional technical proficiency, not unaccompanied 
by a certain amount of charlatanism. In 1837 
he is said (see Mendel) to have attracted the 
attention of Paganini, then in Paris on his road 
back from England, and to have formed a friend- 
ship with the great virtuoso which resulted in 
his receiving some lessons 1 from him (an honour 
which he shared with Sivori) and ultimately be- 
coming heir to his violins and violin compositions. 
This however requires confirmation. In 1853 he 
was appointed solo-violinist to the Emperor of 
Russia, and in 1861 Director of the Warsaw Con- 
servatoire, which post he still retains. He played 
a solo at one of the Russian concerts given in 
connection with the Exhibition at Paris in 1878. 
His compositions (fantasias and the like) are 
musically unimportant. [P. D.] 

KOTZWARA, Fbanz, born at Prague, was 
in Ireland in 1790, when he was engaged as 
tenor player in Gallini's orchestra at the King's 
Theatre. On Sept. 2, 1791 he hanged himself, 
not in jest but in the greatest earnest, in a house 
of ill -fame in Vine Street, St. Martin's. He had 
been one of the band at the Handel Commemora- 
tion in the preceding May. Kotzwara was the 
author of the Battle of Prague, a piece for P. F. 
with violin and cello ad libitum, long a favourite in 
London. Also of sonatas, serenades, and other 
pieces, some of them bearing as high an opus 
number as 36, if Fe'tis may be believed. He was 
a clever, vagabond, dissipated creature. [G.] 

KOZELUCH (German Kotzeluoh), Johann 
Anton, Bohemian musician, born Dec. 13, 1738, 
at Wellwarn ; was Choirmaster first at Rakonitz 
and then at Wellwarn. Desirous of further in- 
struction he went to Prague and Vienna, where 
he was kindly received by Gluck and Gassmann, 
was appointed Choirmaster of the Kreuzherrn 
church, Prague ; and on March 13, 1784, Capell- 
meister to the Cathedral, which he retained till 
his death on March 3, 181 4. He composed 
church-music, operas, and oratorios, none of 
which have been published. Of much greater 
importance is his cousin and pupil, 

Leopold, born also in Wellwarn in 1754, or 
according to some 1748. In 1765 he went to 
Prague for his education, and there composed 
a ballet, performed at the national theatre in 
1771* with so much success that it was followed 
in the course of the next six years by 24 ballets 
and 3 pantomimes. In 1778 he went to Vienna, 
and became the pianoforte master of the Arch- 
duchess Elizabeth and favourite teacher of the 
aristocracy. When Mozart resigned his post at 
Salzburg (1781) the Archbishop at once offered 
it with a rise of salary to Kozeluch, who declined 
it on the ground that he was doing better in 
Vienna. To his friends however he held dif- 
ferent language — ' The Archbishop's conduct to- 
wards Mozart deterred me more than anything, 
for if he could let such a man as that leave him, 

* Thin Is corroborated by Hanslick, Aus dem Concert-saal, p. 429. 



what treatment should I have been likely to 
meet with?' The respect here expressed was 
sadly at variance with his subsequent spiteful 
behaviour towards Mozart, the original cause 
of which is said to have been Mozart's reply to 
his remark on a passage in a new quartet of 
Haydn's — 'I should not have written that so." 
' Neither should I : but do you know why ? 
because the idea would never have occurred to 
either of us.' This reproof Kozeluch never forgot. 
He used to say that the overture to 'Don 
Giovanni' was no doubt fine, but that it was 
full of faults ; and of that to ' Die Zauberflbte,' 
' Well ! for once our good Mozart has tried to 
write like a learned man.' At the coronation of 
the Emperor Leopold II. at Prague (1791) even 
his own countrymen the Bohemians were dis- 
gusted with his behaviour to Mozart, who was 
in attendance as court composer. He never- 
theless succeeded him in his office (1792) with a 
salary of 1 500 gulden, and retained the post till 
his death on May 7, 181 1 (not 1814). His 
numerous compositions include 2 grand operas, 
' Judith ' and ' Debora und Sisara ' ; an oratorio, 
'Moses in ^Egypten'; many ballets, cantatas, 
about 30 symphonies, and much pianoforte music, 
at one time well known in England, but all now 
forgotten. His chief interest for us lies in his 
association with Mozart and Haydn. [F. G.] 

KRAFT, Anton, distinguished cellist, born 
Dec. 30, 1752,* at Rokitzan near Pilsen in Bo- 
hemia, son of a brewer and amateur, who had 
his son early taught music, especially the cello. 
He studied law at Prague, where he had finish- 
ing lessons from Werner, and Vienna, where 
Haydn secured him for the chapel of Prince 
Esterhazy, which he entered on Jan. 1, 1778. 
On the Prince's death in 1 790 he became cham- 
ber-musician to Prince Grassalkowitsch, and in 
1 795 to Prince Lobkowitz, in whose service he 
died Aug. 28, 1820. On one of his concert-tours 
he was at Dresden in 1789, and with his son 
played before Duke Karl, and before the Elector 
the night after the court had been enchanted by 
Mozart. Both musicians were staying at the 
same hotel, so they arranged a quartet, the 
fourth part being taken by Teyber the organist.* 
Haydn valued Kraft for his power of expression, 
and for the purity of his intonation, and in all 
probability composed (1781) his cello concerto 
(Andre) for him. According to Schindler 1 the 
cello part in Beethoven's triple concerto was also 
intended for Kraft. As he showed a talent for 
composition, Haydn offered to instruct him, but 
Kraft taking up the new subject with such ardour 
as to neglect his instrument, Haydn would teach 
him no more, saying he already knew enough for 
his purpose. He published 3 sonatas with ac- 
companiment, op. 1 (Amsterdam, Hummel) ; 
3 sonatas, op. 2 (Andre - ) ; 3 grand duos concer- 
tantes for violin and cello, op. 3, and 1st concerto 

2 This Is tbe date In the baptismal register, but 1751, or 49, ara 
usually given. 

• Mozart also played with the Krafts his Trio In E (KKchel 642) ; sea 
Nohl'a • Mozart-Briefe,' No. 251. N.B. No. 246 la wrong. 

* Vol. 1. p. 147 ; see also Thayer's ' Beethoven," vol. ii. p. 299. 




in C, op. 4 (Breitkopf & Hiirtel) ; grand duos for 
2 cellos, op. 5 and 6 (Vienna, Steiner) ; and di- 
vertissement for cello with double bass (Peters). 
Kraft also played the baritone in Prince Ester- 
hazy's chamber music, 1 and composed several 
trios for 2 baritones and cello. His son and pupil 
Nioolads, born Dec. 14, 1778, at Esterhaz, 
early became proficient on the cello, accompanied 
his father on his concert-tours (see above), and 
settled with him in Vienna in 1 790. He played 
a concerto of his father's at a concert of the 
Tonkunstler-Societat in 1792, and was one of 
Prince Karl Lichnowsky's famous quartet party, 
who executed so many of Beethoven's works for 
the first time. The others were Schuppanzigh, 
Sina, and Franz Weiss, all young men. 4 In 1 796 
he became chamber-musician to Prince Lob-" 
kowitz, who sent him in 1801 to Berlin, for 
further study with Louis Duport. There he gave 
concerts, as well as at Leipzig, Dresden, Prague, 
and Vienna on his return journey. In 1809 he 
entered the orchestra of the court-opera, and the 
King of Wirtemberg hearing him in 1814, at 
once engaged him for his chapel at Stuttgart. 
He undertook several more concert-tours (Hum- 
mel accompanied him in 1818), but an accident 
to his hand obliged him to give up playing. He 
retired on a pension in 1834, and died on May 18, 
1853. Among his pupils were Count Wilhorsky, 
Merk, Birnbach, Wranitzky's sons, and his own 
son Fbiedrich, born in Vienna Feb. 12, 1807, 
entered the chapel at Stuttgart 1824. Among 
Nicolaus's excellent cello compositions may be 
specified — a fantasia with quartet, op. 1 (Andre") ; 
concertos, op. 3, 4 (Breitkopfs), and 5 (Peters) ; 
scene pastorale with orchestra, dedicated to the 
King of Wirtemberg, op. 9 (Peters) ; 8 diver- 
tissements progressives with 2nd cello, op. 14 
(Andre") ; 3 easy duos for 2 cellos, op. 15, and 3 
grand duos for ditto, op. 17 (Andre"). [C.F.P.] 

KRAKOVIAK, Cbacoviak, or Ceacoviennb. 
A Polish dance, belonging to the district of 
Cracow. ' There are usually,' says an eye-witness, 
' a great many couples — as many as in an English 
country dance. They shout while dancing, and 
occasionally the smart man of the party sings an 
impromptu couplet suited for the occasion — on 
birthdays, weddings, etc. The men also strike 
their heels together while dancing, which produces 
a metallic sound, as the heels are covered with iron.' 
The songs, which also share the name, are in- 
numerable and, as is natural, deeply tinged with 
melancholy. Under the name of Cracovienne 
the dance was brought into the theatre about 
the year 1840, and was made famous by Fanny 
Elssler's performance. The following is the tune 
to which she danced it ; but whether that is a 
real Krakoviak, or a mere imitation, the writer 
is unable to say : — 

1 For an anecdote on this point see ' Josef Haydn,' by 0. F. PohL 
irol. i. p. 252. 
* See Thayer's • Beethoven,' rol. It. p. 278. 

It has been varied by Chopin (op. 14), Herz, 
Wallace, and others. [G.] 

KREBS. A musical family of our own time. 
Kabl August, the head, was the son of A. and 
Charlotte Miedcke, belonging to the company of 
the theatre at Nuremberg, where he was born 
Jan. 16, 1804. The name of Krebs he obtained 
from the singer of that name at Stuttgart, who 
adopted him. His early studies were made under 
Schelble, and in 1825 under Seyfried at Vienna. 
In March 1827 he settled in Hamburg as head 
of the theatre, and there passed 23 active and 
useful years, till called to Dresden in 1850 as 
Kapellmeister to the court, a post which he filled 
with honour and advantage till 1871. Since 
that date he has conducted the orchestra in the 
Catholic chapel. His compositions are numerous 
and varied in kind — masses, operas ('Silva,' 
'Agnes'), a Te Deum, orchestral pieces, songs 
and pianoforte works, many of them much 
esteemed in Germany. In England, however, his 
name is known almost exclusively as the father 
of Miss Mabt Kbebs, the pianist, born Dec. 5, 
1851, at Dresden. On the side of both father 
and mother (Aloysia Michaelsi, an operatic 
singer of eminence, who married Krebs July 20, 
1850, and is still living) she inherited music, 
and like Mme. Schumann was happy in having 
a father who directed her studies with great 
judgment. Miss Krebs appealed in public at 
the early age of 11 (Meissen, 1862), and ha3 
since that date been almost continually before 
the world. Her tours have embraced not only 
the whole of Germany and England, but Italy, 
France, Holland, and America. She played at 
the Gewandhaus first, Nov. 30, 1865. To this 
country she came in the previous year, and made 
an engagement with Mr. Gye for four seasons, 
and her first appearance was at the Crystal Palace, 
April 30, 1 864 ; at the Philharmonic April 20, 
1874; and at the Monday Popular Concerts 
Jan. 13, 1875. At all these concerts Miss Krebs 
is often heard, though the • Populars' enjoy more 
of her presence than any other. Her repertoire 
is large, and embraces all the acknowledged 
classical, orchestral, chamber, and solo pieces, 
and others of such exceptional difficulty as Schu- 
mann's Toccata (op. 7), of which she has more 
than once given a very fine rendering. She is 
liked by all who know her, and we trust that she 
may long continue her visits to this country. [G.] 

KREBS, Johank Ludwig, distinguished or- 
ganist, born at Buttelstadt in Thuringia Oct. 10, 
1 713. His father, Johank Tobias, himself an 
excellent organist, for seven years walked every 


week from Buttelstiidt to Weimar, in order to 
take lessons from Walther, author of the Lexicon, 
who was organist there, and from Sebastian Bach, 
at that time concertmeister at Weimar. He was 
afterwards appointed organist at Buttelstadt, 
where he died. He so thoroughly grounded his 
son in music, that when in 1726 he went to the 
Thomas-Schule in Leipzig, he was already suf- 
ficiently advanced to be at once admitted by Bach 
into the number of his special pupils. He enjoyed 
Bach's instruction for nine years (to I735)> an< i 
rose to so high a place in his esteem, that he was 
appointed to play the clavier at the weekly prac- 
tices to which Bach gave the name of ' collegium 
musicum.' Bunning upon his pupil's name and 
his own, the old Cantor was accustomed to say 
that 'he was the best crab (Krebs) in all the 
brook (Bach).' At the close of his philosophical 
studies at Leipzig he was appointed organist 
successively at Zwickau, Zeitz, and Altenburg, 
where he remained from 1756 till his death in 
1 780. He was equally esteemed on the clavier 
and the organ, and in the latter capacity espe- 
cially deserves to be considered one of Bach's 
best pupils. His published compositions include 
' Klavier-Uebungen' (4 parts), containing chorales 
with variations, fugues, and suites ; sonatas for 
clavier, and for flute and clavier ; and trios for 
flute. Several of these have been reprinted in the 
collections of Korner and others. Among his 
unpublished works a Magnificat and 2 Sanc- 
tuses with orchestral accompaniments are highly 
spoken of. He left two sons, both sound musi- 
cians and composers, though not of the eminence 
of their father. The eldest, Ehrenfried Chris- 
tian Tbaugott, succeeded his father as Court- 
organist and Musik-director at Altenburg, and 
on his death was succeeded by his younger bro- 
ther, Johann Gottfried. [A.M.] 

KEEISLEEIANA, a set of 8 pieces for piano 
Bolo, dedicated to Chopin and forming op. 16 of 
Schumann's works. Kreisler was the Kapell- 
meister in Hoffmann's musical papers so much 
admired by Schumann. The pieces were written 
in 1838, after the Phantasie stiicke (op. 12) and 
Novelletten (op. 21), and before the Arasbeske 
(op. 18). 1 They are full of energy, variety and 
character, and like the Novelletten are cast in the 
so-called Lied and Eondo forms. Schumann has 
added to the title ' Phantasien fur das P. F.' The 
Kreisleriana were published by Haslinger of Vi- 
enna shortly after Schumann's visit (1838-9). [6.] 

Dr. juris, Imperial- finance-Secretary at Vienna, 
and Member of the Direction of the Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde, finds a place here for his Lives 
of Schubert, viz. ■ F. Schubert, eine biografische 
Skizze, von Heinrich von Kreissle' (small 8vo. 
Vienna, 1861), a preliminary sketch ; and ' Franz 
Schubert' (Svo. Vienna, Gerold, 1865), a com- 
plete and exhaustive biography, with a portrait. 
The latter has been translated in full by Mr. 
Arthur Duke Coleridge, 'The Life of Franz 
Schubert . . . with an Appendix by George Grove ' 

* Wissielewskjr, 181. 



(giving a thematic catalogue of the nine sym- 
phonies, and mentioning other works still in 
MS.), 2 vols., 8vo., London, Longmans, 1869. It 
has also been condensed by Mr. E. Wilberforce, 
8vo., London, Allen, 1866. 

Kreissle died April 6, 1869, aged 66, much be- 
loved for his amiability and modesty, and for his 
devotion to the subject of his biography. [C.F.P.] 

KEENN, Michael. Beethoven's body-ser- 
vant while he lived at his brother Johann's at 
Gneixendorf in the autumn of 1826. Krenn was 
one of the three sons of the vine-dresser on the 
farm. The old man died in 1861, but the son 
survived him, and his story — to all appearance 
a natural and credible account — was drawn from 
him by Dr. Lorenz, who communicated it to the 
1 Deutsche Musik-Zeitung' of Vienna for March 8, 
1862. It is a very curious and interesting account 
of the great master's habits and disposition a few 
months before his death (see vol. i. p. 1986 of this 
Dictionary). It has been made the subject of a 
lecture to the Schillerverein at Trieste by Mr. 
Thayer, 'Ein kritischer Beitrag,' etc. (Berlin, 
W. Weber, 1877). [G.] 

KEETSCHMEE, Edmund, organist and 
dramatic composer, born Aug. 31, 1830, at 
Ostritz in Saxony, where his father the Eector 
of the school, gave him his early musical edu- 
cation; studied composition under Julius Otto, 
and the organ under Johann Schneider at Dres- 
den, where he became organist of the Catholic 
church in 1 854 and to the court in 63. He founded 
several ' Gesangvereine,' and in 65 his composi- 
tion, 'Die Geisterschlacht,' gained the prize at 
the first German ' Sanger fest ' in Dresden. Three 
years later he took another prize in Brussels for 
a mass. His opera 'Die Folkunger,' in 5 acts, 
libretto by Mosenthal, was produced at Dresden 
June 1875. It was well received and had a 
considerable run, but has since disappeared ; nor 
does ' Heinrich der Loewe,' to his own libretto, ap- 
pear likely to meet with more permanent success. 
The musicis correct and shows both taste and talent, 
but no invention or dramatic power. His vocal 
part-writing has little life ; and his duets, terzets, 
finales, etc., are too much like part-songs. [F.G.] 

KEEUTZEE, Conradin, German composer, 
son of a miller, born Nov. 22, 1782, at Moss- 
kirch in Baden ; chorister first in his native town, 
then at the Abbey of Zwiefalten, and afterwards 
at Scheussenried. In 1 799 he went to Freiburg 
in Breisgau to study medicine, which he soon 
abandoned for music. The next 5 years-he passed 
chiefly in Switzerland, as pianist, singer, and com- 
poser ; and in 1 804 arrived in Vienna. And there 
he took lessons from Albrechtsberger, and worked 
hard at composition, especially operas. His first 
opera was * Conradin von Schwaben ' (Stuttgart 
181 2), and its success gained him the post of 
Capellmeister to the King of Wiirtemburg; 
thence he went to Prince von Furstenberg at 
Donaueschingen ; but in 1822 returned to Vienna 
and produced 'Libussa.' At the Karthnerthor 
theatre he was Capellmeister in 1825, 1829-32, 
and 1837-40. From 1S33 to 40 he was conductor 



at the Josephstadt theatre, where he produced 
his two best works, 'Das Nachtlager in Granada ' 
(1834) and a fairy opera 'Der Verschwender,' 
which have both kept the boards. At a later 
date he was appointed Capellmeister at Cologne, 
and in 1843 conducted the 43rd Festival of the 
Lower Rhine. Thence he went to Paris, and in 
1846 back to Vienna. He accompanied his 
daughter, whom he had trained as a singer, to 
Riga, and there died, Dec. 14, 1849. 

Kreutzer composed numerous operas ; inci- 
dental music to several plays and melodramas ; 
an oratorio, 'Die Sendung Mosis,' and other 
church- works ; chamber and pianoforte music; 
Lieder, and part-songs for men's voices. Of all 
these, a list is given by Fetis, who speaks of a 
one-act drama ' Cordelia ' as the most original of 
his works. The two operas already mentioned, 
and the part-songs alone have survived. In the 
latter, Kreutzer displays a flow of melody and 
good construction ; they are still standard works 
with all the German Liedertafeln, and have taken 
the place of much weak sentimental rubbish. 
' Der Tag desHerrn,' ' Die Kapelle,' ' Marznacht' 
and others are universal favourites, and models 
of that style of piece. Some of them are given in 
' Orpheus.' As a dramatic composer, his airs are 
better than his ensemble pieces, graceful but 
wanting in passion and force. His Lieder for a 
single voice, though vocal and full of melody, have 
disappeared before the more lyrical and expressive 
songs of Schubert and Schumann. [A. M.] 

KREUTZER, 1 Rodolphe, violinist and com- 
poser, born at Versailles, Nov. 16, 1766. He 
studied first under his father, a musician, and 
according to Fe"tis had lessons on the violin from 
Staniitz, but he owed more to natural gifts than 
to instruction. He began to compose before he 
had learnt harmony, and was so good a player 
at 16, when his father died, that through the in- 
tervention of Marie Antoinette, he was appointed 
first violin in the Chapelle du Roi. Here he had 
opportunities of hearing Mestrino and Viotti, 
and his execution improved rapidly. The further 
appointment of solo-violinist at the Theatre Italien 
gave him the opportunity of producing an opera. 
'Jeanne d'Arc, 3 acts (May 10, 1790), was suc- 
cessful, and paved the way for 'Paul et Virginie' 
(Jan. 15, 1 791), which was still more so. 

The melodies were simple and fresh, and the 
musical world went into raptures over the new 
effects of local colour, poor as they seem to us. 
The music of 'Lodo'iska,' 3 acts (Aug. 1, 1791), 
is not sufficiently interesting to counterbalance 
its tedious libretto, but the overture and the 
Tartar's March were for long favourites. During 
the Revolution Kreutzer was often suddenly 
called upon to compose optrat de circomtance, 
a task he executed with great facility. In 1 796 
he produced ' Imogene, ou la Gageure indiscrete,' 
a 3-act comedy founded on a story of Boccaccio 
little fitted for music. At the same time he was 
composing the concertos for the violin, on which 
his fame now rests. After the peace of Campo 

1 His name has been often transmuted Into Kretsche by Frenchmen 
who thought they were pronouncing like Germans. 


Formio (Oct, 17, 1797) he started on a concert- 
tour through Italy, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands ; the fire and individuality of his playing, 
especially in his own compositions, exciting every- 
where the greatest enthusiasm. 

In 1 798 Kreutzer was in Vienna in the suite 
of Bernadotte (Thayer's 'Beethoven,' ii. 21), 
and we must presume that it was at this time 
that he acquired that friendship with Beethoven 
which resulted, 8 years later, in the dedication 
to him of the Sonata (op. 47) which will now 
be always known by his name — though he is 
2 said never to have played it — and that he 
became ' first violin of the Academy of Arts and 
of the Imperial chamber-music' — titles which 
are attributed to him in the same dedication. He 
had been professor of the violin at the Conserva- 
toire from its foundation, and on his return to 
Paris he and Baillot drew up the famous 'Me"thode 
de Violon' for the use of the students. He fre- 
quently played at concerts, his duos concertanles 
with Rode being a special attraction. On Rode'a 
departure to Russia in 1801, Kreutzer suc- 
ceeded him as first violin solo at the Opera, 
a post which again opened to him the career of 
a dramatic composer. ' Astyanax,' 3 acts (April 
12, 1801) ; ' Aristippe' (May 24, 1808;, the suc- 
cess of which was mainly due to Lays ; and ' La 
Mort d'Abel' (March 23, 18 10), in 3 poor acts, 
reduced to two on its revival in 1823, were the 
best of a series of operas now forgotten. He also 
composed many highly successful ballets, such as 
'Paul et Virginie' (June 24, 1806), revived in 
1826; 'Le Carnaval de Venise' (Feb. 22, 1816), 
with Persuis ; and 'Clari' (June 19, 1820), the 
principal part in which was sustained by Bi- 
gottini. He was appointed 1st violin in the 
chapelle of the First Consul in 1802, violin-solo 
to the Emperor in 1806, maitre de la chapelle to 
Louis XVIII. in 181 5, and Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour in 1824, He became vice- 
conductor of the Academic in 18 16, and con- 
ductor in chief from 1817 to 1824. A broken 
arm compelled him to give up playing, and he 
retired from the Conservatoire with the year 1825. 
His last years were embittered by the decline of his 
influence and the impossibility of gaining a hear- 
ing for his last opera, ' Mathilde.' An apoplectic 
seizure affected his mind, but he lingered till 
June 6, 1 83 1, when he died at Geneva. 

Besides his 39 operas and ballets, all produced 
in Paris, he published 19 violin-concertos ; duos, 
and 2 symphonies concertantes, for 2 violins ; 
e*tudes and caprices for violin solo ; sonatas for 
violin and cello ; 15 trios, and a symphonic 
concertante for 2 violins and cello ; 15 string 
quartets ; and several airs with variations. 

Kreutzer's brother Auguste, born at Versailles 
1 781, was a member of the Chapelle de rEmpereur, 
and of the Chapelle du Roi (1804-30) ; and 
succeeded his brother at the Conservatoire, Jan. 
1, 1826, retaining the post till his death, at Paris 
Aug. 31, 1832. His son Leon, born in Paris 181 7, 

3 See Berlioz, ' Voyage,' 1. 264, for this and for an amusing account 
of Kreutzer's difficult ies oyer Beethoyen's Second Symphony. 


died at Vichy Oct. 6, 1868, was musical critic 
to ' La Quotidienne,' feuilletoniste to the 'Union,' 
and contributed a number of interesting articles 
to the 'Revue contemporaine,' the 'Revue et 
Gazette musicale,' and other periodicals. [G.C.] 
Rodolphe Kreutzer is the third, in order of de- 
velopment, of the four great representative masters 
of the classical Violin-School of Paris ; the other 
three being Viotti, Rode, andBAiLLOT. His style, 
such as we know it from his concertos, is on the 
whole more brilliant than Rode's, but less modern 
than Baillot's. Kreutzer did not require Beetho- 
ven's dedication to make his name immortal. 
His fame will always rest on his unsurpassed 
work of studies — • 40 Etudes ou Caprices pour le 
Violon'; a work which has an almost unique 
position in the literature of violin-studies. It 
has been recognised and adopted as the basis of 
all solid execution on the violin by the masters 
of all schools — French, German, or any other 
nationality — and has been published in number- 
less editions. In point of difficulty it ranks just 
below Rode's 24 Caprices, and is generally con- 
sidered as leading up to this second standard 
work of studies. Kreutzer's concertos afford ex- 
cellent material for the student, but are less 
interesting than those of Viotti and Rode, and, 
with the exception of the 19th, in D minor, are 
now hardly ever played in public. [P.D.] 

KREUTZER SONATA. The popular title in 
England of Beethoven's Sonatafor piano and violin 
in A, op. 47, dedicated to ' his friend R. Kreutzer.' 
The work was first played by Beethoven and 
Bridgetower at the Augarten at 8 a.m. May 17 
or 24, 1803. The finale had originally belonged 
to op. 30, no. I, but the first movement and the 
variations were only finished just in time, and 
the latter had to be played from the autograph 
without rehearsal. In the opening Presto, at the 
pause in the 9th bar, Bridgetower introduced a 
Cadenza in imitation of that for the Piano in the 
1 8th bar, fortunately to Beethoven's satisfaction 
(see Thayer, ii. 230). He gives it as follows : — 
lma volta (it) 



The sonata was published in 1805, by Simrock 
and Traeg, before May 18. Bridgetower averred 
(Thayer, ii. 231) that it was originally dedicated 
to him, and that the change was the result of 
a quarrel. Why Kreutzer was chosen is as yet 
a mystery. He was in Vienna with Bernadotte 
in 1 798, but no trace of his relations with Bee- 
thoven remains, though we may assume them to 
have been good, for Beethoven to designate him as 
his 'friend.' It has been alleged as a reason 
that the second theme of the Presto is a phrase 
of Kreutzer's ; but this has not been substantiated. 
Certainly no such passage appears in Kreutzer's 
violin works. The dedication on the 1st ed. stands 
' Sonata per il Pianoforte ed un Violino obligato, 
scritta in uno stilo molto concertante, quasi come 
d'un Concerto. Composta e dedicata al suo 
amico R. Kreutzer, Membro del Conservatory di 
Musica in Parigi, Primo Violino dell ' Academia 
delle 1 Arti, e della Camera Imperiale, per L. 
van Beethoven. Opera 47. A Bonn chez K. Sim- 
rock. 422/ In a notebook of Beethoven's in the 
Imperial Library at Berlin, the second sentence 
appears ' in uno stilo molto brillante.' 

Some idea of its popularity in England may be 
formed from the fact that it was played 44 times 
at the Monday Popular Concerts between 1854 
and 1878, the next place being held by the Septet 
(33 times) and the Bb Trio (24 times). [G.] 

KROLL, Fbanz, born in 1820 at Bromberg; 
began with medicine, but finally devoted himself 
to music under the guidance of Liszt, whom he 
accompanied on some of his tours. He settled 
in Berlin, and was for some years a success- 
ful teacher. He edited the ' Wohltemperirte 
Clavier ' for the Bachgesellschaft (14th year, 
1864) — with a Preface containing a list of MSS. 
and Editions, and an Appendix of Variations, a 
highly creditable work as regards care and ac- 
curacy in collation, which Spitta has selected for 
honourable mention (J. S. Bach, i. 773, note). 
He has also published editions of Bach's chromatic 
fantasia, Mozart's pianoforte fantasias, and other 
important compositions. He was a thorough mu- 
sician, and his style as a pianist was clear and 
eminently suggestive. He was a great sufferer 
for some years before his death, which took place 
May 28, 1877. [F.G.] 

KROMMER, Fbanz, violinist and composer, 
born 1759 at Kamenitz in Moravia; learned 
music from an uncle, then Choirmaster at Turas. 
From 1 7 to 25 he acted as organist, and composed 
much church music, still unpublished. ■ He next 
entered the band of Count Styrum 2 at Simonthurn 
in Hungary as violinist, and in two years was 
promoted to the Capellmeistership. Here he 
became acquainted with the works of Haydn 
and Mozart ; and composed his pieces for wind- 
instruments, which are of lasting importance, 
and perceptibly influenced modern military music. 
After one or two more changes he at length 
became Capellmeister to Prince Grassalkowitz, 
after whose death he lived comfortably in 

1 The Tact of Kreutzer holding these two posts In Vienna seems to 
imply that he remained there some time. 
> Ft-tis and Mendel call him Ayrum by mistake. 



Vienna, enjoying a considerable reputation as 
a. teacher and composer. The sinecure post of 
doorkeeper to the Emperor was conferred upon 
him, and in 1818 he succeeded Kozeluch as 
Court Capellmeister and Composer, in which 
capacity he accompanied the Emperor Francis 
to France and Italy. He died suddenly Jan. 8, 
1S31, while composing a pastoral mass. As a 
composer he was remarkable for productiveness, 
and for a clear and agreeable style, most ob- 
servable perhaps in his string-quartets and quin- 
tets, published at Vienna, Offenbach, and Paris. 
This made him a great favourite in Vienna at 
the close of the century. Schubert however, who 
as a boy of eleven had to play his Symphonies 
in the band of the ' Convict,' used to laugh at 
them, and preferred those of Kozeluch. Both 
are alike forgotten. Krommer also composed a 
number of quartets and quintets for flutes, be- 
sides the pieces for wind-instruments already 
mentioned. The only one of his church works 
printed is a mass in 4 parts with orchestra and 
organ (Andre - , Offenbach). Had he not been the 
contemporary of Haydn and Mozart he might 
have enjoyed more enduring popularity. [F. G.] 

KRUMMHORN (i.e. crooked-horn), Cro- 
morne, Cremona, Clarionet, Corno-di-Bassetto. 
The various names given to an Organ Reed Stop 
of 8 feet size of tone. Modern English specimens, 
which are found under all the foregoing names 
except the first, are estimated in proportion as 
their sound resembles that of the orchestral Cla- 
rinet. The Cremonas in the organs built by 
Father Smith (1660) for the 'Whitehall Ban- 
queting House,' etc., and those by Harris in his 
instruments at St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill (1670), 
etc., were doubtless ' voiced ' to imitate the first- 
named and now obsolete crooked-horn. They 
were never intended to represent the violin, into 
the name of which its own had nevertheless been 
corrupted. The pipes are of metal, cylindrical 
in shape, short, and of narrow measure, the CC 
pipe being only about 4 ft. 6 in. in length, and 
i|in. in diameter. [E.J.H.] 

KRUMPHOLZ, Johann Baptist, celebrated 
harpist and composer, born about 1 745 at Zlonitz 
near Prague ; son of a bandmaster in a French 
regiment, lived in Paris from his childhood, 
learning music from his father. The first public 
mention of him is in the ' Wiener Diarium ' for 
1772 ; he had played at a concert in the Burg- 
theater, and advertised for pupils on the pedal- 
harp. From Oct. 1773 to March 1776 he was a 
member of Prince Esterhazy's chapel at Esterhaz, 
taking lessons from Haydn in composition, and 
already seeking after improvements in his instru- 
ment. He next started on a concert-tour, play- 
ing at Leipzig on an ' organisirten Harfe.' He 
then settled in Paris, where h*e was highly es- 
teemed as a teacher and virtuoso. Nadermann 
built a harp from his specifications, to which 
attention was drawn by an article in the 'Journal 
de PariB ' (Feb. 8, 1 786), and which Krumpholz 
described in a preface to his sonata, op. 14. His 
wife played some pieces on it before the Acade"mie, 
Krumpholz accompanying her on the violin, and 


on the ' Pianoforte contrebasse ' or ' Clavichord a 
marteau,' another instrument made by Erard 
from his specifications. The Acade"mie expressed 
their approval of the new harp in a letter to 
Krumpholz (Nov. 21, 1787). He drowned him- 
self in the Seine in 1 790 from grief at the infidelity 
and ingratitude of his wife. 

Gerber gives a list of his compositions, which 
are still of value. They comprise 6 grand con- 
certos, 32 sonatas with violin accompaniment, 
preludes, variations, duets for 2 harps, a quartet 
for harp and strings, and symphonies for harp and 
small orchestra, published in Paris and London. 

His wife, ne'e Meyer, from ' Metz, eloped with 
a young man to London. She was even a finer 
player than her husband, making the instrument 
sound almost like an Eolian harp. In London 
she gave her first concert at Hanover Square 
Rooms, June 2, 1788, 2 and for many years ap- 
peared with great success at her own and Salo- 
mon's concerts, at the oratorios in Drury Lane, 
and at Haydn's benefit. She frequently played 
Dussek's duos concertantes for harp and piano- 
forte with the composer. She is mentioned in 
1802, but after that appears to have retired into 
private life. 

Wenzel Krumpholz, brother of the former, 
born in 1 750, became one of the first violins at 
the court-opera in Vienna in 1 796. His name is 
immortalised by his intimacy with Beethoven, 
who was very fond of him, though he used to call 
him in joke 'mein Narr,' my fool. According 
to Ries 3 he gave Beethoven some instruction on 
the violin in Vienna. Krumpholz was one of 
the first to recognise Beethoven's genius, and he 
inspired others with his own enthusiasm. Czerny 
mentions this in his Autobiography, 4 and also 
that he introduced him to Beethoven, who offered 
of his own accord to give him lessons. Krump- 
holz also played the mandoline, and Beethoven 
seems to have intended writing a sonata for P. F. 
and mandoline for him. 5 He died May 2, 181 7, 
aged 67, and Beethoven must have felt his death 
deeply, since he composed on the following day 
the • Gesang der Mbnche ' (from Schiller's • Wil- 
helm Tell'), for 3 men's voices, 'in commemora- 
tion of the sudden and unexpected death of our 
6 Krumpholz.' Only two of his compositions have 
been printed — an 'Abendunterhaltung' for a 
single violin 7 (dances, variations, a short andante, 
etc. ; Vienna and Pesth, Kunst & Tndustrie-Comp- 
toir) ; and ' Ein Viertelstunde fur eine Violine,' 
dedicated to Schuppanzigh ( Joh. Traeg). [C. F. P.] 

KUCKEN, Friedrich Wilhelm, born at 
Bleckede, Hanover, Nov. 16, 18 10. His father, 
a country gentleman, was averse to the musical 
proclivities of his son, and the boy had to thank 
his brother-in-law, Ltirss, music-director and or- 

1 Or Liege, according to Gerber and Belchardt. 

' Not 1790, as commonly stated. 

» •Biographlsche Notlzen,' p. 119. 

4 He calls Krumpholz ' an old man.' He was then about 60. 

* 'Autographische Skizze,' by Artaria. On Wenzel Krumpholz see 
also Thayer's * Beethoven,' vol. ll. p. 48 ; the confusion between the 
two brothers i* rectified vol. 111. p. 510. 

< Compare Nottebohm's Thematic Catalogue, p. 161. 

7 Czerny took No. 1, a contredanse, as the theme of his XX concert 
variations for P.F. and violin. This, his op. 1 (Steiner. 2nd edit.). It 
dedicated to Krumpholz—* fine trait of gratitude. 


ganist of Schwerin, for being allowed to follow 
his bent, which he did under Liirss and Aron 
in Schwerin, and as flute, viola, and violin 
player in the Duke's orchestra there. His early 
compositions, ' Ach wie wars moglich dann ' and 
others, became so popular that he was taken 
into the palace as teacher and player. But this 
did not satisfy him, and he made his way to 
Berlin, where, while studying hard at counter- 
point under Birabach, he gradually composed the 
Bongs which rendered him so famous, and have 
made his name a household word in his own 
and other countries. His opera, 'Die Flucht 
nach den Schweiz' (the Flight to Switzerland) 
was produced at Berlin in 1839, and proved very 
successful throughout Germany. In 184 1 he went 
to Vienna to study under Sechter. In 1 843 he 
conducted the great festival of male singers at 
St. Gall and Appenzel. Thence he went to Paris, 
where, with characteristic zeal and desire to 
learn, he studied orchestration with Halevy, and 
writing for the voice with Bordogni. His stay 
in Paris lasted for 3! years ; thence he went to 
Stuttgart, and brought out (April 21, 1847) a 
new opera, 'Der Pratendent' (the Pretender), 
with the greatest success, which followed it to 
Hamburg and elsewhere in Germany. In 1851 
he received a call to Stuttgart aa joint Kapell- 
meister with Lindpaintner, filling the place alone 
after Lindpaintner's death (Aug. 21, 1856) till 
1S61, when he resigned. In 1863 he joined 
Abt and Berlioz as judges of a competition in 
Strassburg, and had an extraordinary reception. 
He composed sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 
pianoforte and cello, etc., but his immense popu- 
larity sprang from his songs and duets, some of 
which, Buch as 'Das Sternelein' and 'O weine 
nicht,' were extraordinarily beloved in their time. 
Almost exclusively however by amateurs and the 
masses ; among musicians they found no favour, 
and are already almost forgotten. They were also 
very popular in England (' Trab, trab,' ' The Maid 
of Judah,' ' The Swallows,' duet, etc., etc.), and 
Kiicken had an arrangement with Messrs. Wessel 
& Co. for the exclusive publication of them. [G.] 
KUHMSTEDT, Friedrich, born at Oldis- 
leben, Saxe-Weimar, Dec. 20, 1809. His gift for 
music appeared very early and asserted itself 
against the resistance of his parents, so frequent 
in these cases. At length, when 19, he left the 
university of Weimar and walked to Darmstadt 
(a distance of full 1 50 miles) to ask the advice of 
C. H. Rinck. The visit resulted in a course of 
three years instruction in theoretical and practical 
music under that great organist. At the end of 
that time he returned to his family and began to 
write. His career however was threatened by 
a paralysis of his right hand, from which he never 
recovered, and which but for his perseverance 
and energy would have wrecked him. During 
several years he remained almost without the 
means of subsistence, till in 1836 he obtained 
the post of music-director and professor of the 
Seminar at Eisenach, with a pittance of £30 
per annum. This however was wealth to him : 
he married, and the day of his wedding his 



wife was snatched from him by a sudden 
stroke as they left the church. After a 
period of deep distress music came to his relief 
and he began to compose. As he grew older 
and published his excellent treatises and his good 
music, he became famed as a teacher, and before 
his death was in easier circumstances. He died 
in harness at Eisenach, Jan. 10, 1858. His works 
extend to op. 49. His oratorios, operas and 
symphonies are forgotten, but his fame rests on 
his organ works — his art of preluding, op. 6 
(Schotts); his Gradus ad Parnassum or intro- 
duction to the works of J. S. Bach, op. 4 (ibid) ; 
his Fantasia eroica, op. 29 (Erfurt, Korner) ; and 
many preludes, fugues, and other pieces for the 
organ, which are solid and effective compositions. 
He also published a treatise on harmony and 
modulation (Eisenach, Bornker, 1838). [G.] 

KUFFERATH, Hubert Ferdinand, one of 
six brothers, all musicians, born June 10, 1808, 
at Mulheim, studied under Hartmann of Cologne, 
and Schneider of Dessau. He played a solo for 
the violin at the Dusseldorf Festival of 1839 so 
much to the satisfaction of Mendelssohn, who was 
conducting, that he invited him to Leipzig. There 
he formed one of the brilliant class for composition 
which included Eckert, Verhulst, and C. E. Hors- 
ley. At Mendelssohn's suggestion he studied the 
pianoforte, and he also took lessons on the violin 
from David. In 1841 he became conductor of 
the Mannergesangverein of Cologne, which has 
more than once visited England. In 1844 he 
settled in Brussels, and in 1872 became professor 
of composition at the Conservatoire, a post he 
still retains. He has published a symphony for 
full orchestra ; several concertos and other com- 
positions for the Piano, and some expressive 
Lieder. His daughter Antonie, a pupil of Stock- 
hausen's, was much applauded at the Dusseldorf 
Festival of 1878, for her fine soprano voice, and 
artistic singing. L^G.] 

KUHLAU, Friedrich, a musician of some 
distinction in his day. He was born of poor 
parents at Uelzen in Hanover, March 13, 1786, 
and had the misfortune to lose an eye at an 
early age. The loss did not however quench his 
ardour for music. During a wandering life he 
contrived to learn the piano and the flute, and 
to acquire a solid foundation of harmony and 
composition. Germany was at that time under 
French rule, and to avoid the conscription he 
escaped to Copenhagen, where he became the 
first flute in the king's band. He then settled 
in Denmark, acquired a house in Lyngbye, near 
Copenhagen, to which he fetched his parents, 
composed half-a-dozen operas, was made pro- 
fessor of music and court composer, and en- 
joyed a very great popularity. In the autumn 
of 1825 he was at Vienna, and Seyfried 1 has 
preserved a capital story of his expedition to 
Beethoven at Baden with a circle of choice 
friends, of the way in which the great composer 
dragged them at once into the open air, and of 
the jovial close of the day's proceedings. Kuhlau, 

1 Beethorens Studien, Anhmg, p. 25. See also Beethoven's Letters 
(Nohlj, No. 365. 



inspired by champagne and the presence of Bee- 
thoven, extemporised a canon, to which Beethoven 
responded on the spot, but thought it wise to 
replace his first attempt next morning by another, 
which is one reiterated joke on the name of his 
guest — 

Kuhl nlcht lau nlcht lau Kohl nlcht 

lau Kulilau nicl.t lau 

Kohl nicht lau etc 

and was accompanied by the following note : — 

BADEN, 3 September, 1825. 
I must confess that the champagne got too much into 
my head last night, and has once more shewn me that 
it rather confuses my wits than assists them ; for though 
it is usually easy enough for me to give an answer on the 
spot, I declare I do not in the least recollect what I wrote 
last night Think sometimes of your most faithful 


In 1 830 Kuhlau suffered two irreparable losses 
— the destruction of the greater part of his 
manuscripts by fire, and the death of his parents. 
This double calamity affected his health, and he 
died at Lyngbye March 1 8, 1832, leaving a mass of 
compositions, of which a few for flute and a few 
for piano are still much esteemed. [G.] 

KUHNAU, Johann, a very remarkable old 
musician, Cantor of Leipzig, and one of the 
pillars of the German school of the clavier, born 
at Geysing on the borders of Bohemia in April 
1667. As a boy he had a lovely voice and a 
strong turn for music. He was put to the 
Kreuzschule at Dresden, where he became a 
chorister under the quaint title of ' Rathsdiscan- 
tist,' and obtained regular instruction in music. 
On the breaking of his voice he worked the 
harder, and in addition to his music learned 
Italian. The plague in 1680 drove him home, 
but Geysing was no field for his talent, and he 
went to Zittau and worked in the school, till 
the excellence of a motet which he wrote for 
the Rathswahl, or election of the town council, 
procured him the post of Cantor, with a salary 
on which he could study at leisure. He began 
by lecturing on French. His next move was to 
Leipzig, in 1682, whither his fame had preceded 
him, and in that city of music he cast anchor for 
the rest of his life. In 1684 ne succeeded 
Kiihnel as organist at St. Thomas's. At the 
same time he was studying law, and qualified 
himself for the rank of advocate. In 1 700 he 
was made musical director of the University and 
of the two principal churches, and then Cantor. 
After this no further rise was possible, and he 
died June 25, 1722, admired and honoured as 
one of the greatest musicians and most learned 
men of his time. He left translations from 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, and French, and 
wrote satirical poetry of no common order. Of 
his musical works the following are named: — 
• Jura circa musicos ecclesiasticos' (Leipzig, 1 688) ; 
Der musickalische Quacksalber ... in einer 


kurtzweiligen und angenehmen Historie . . . 
beschrieben ' (Dresden, 1 700) ; ' Tractatus de 
tetrachordo' ; 'Introductio ad compositionem' ; 
and ' Disputatio de triade ' — the three last in MS. 
He wrote motets on chorales, and other sacred 
pieces ; but his clavier music is his glory, and he 
is the greatest figure among German composers 
for the clavier before Bach, who obliterated all 
his predecessors. He was the inventor of the 
sonata as a piece in several movements, not 
dance-tunes — the first of which, 'Erne Sonata 
aus dem B,' in three movements, is found in his 
'Sieben Partien' (Leipzig, 1695). He followed 
this with 13 others — 'Fnsche Clavier-Friichte, 
oder sieben Sonaten' (Dresden and Leipzig, 
1696) ; ' Biblische Historien nebst Auslegung in 
sechs Sonaten' — the last a curious offspring of 
the musician and the divine, and a very early 
instance of Programme music. In addition to 
these he published ' Clavier- iibung aus 14 Partien 
. . . bestehend' (Leipzig, 1689) — a collection of 
Suites, that is of dance-tunes. Becker has repub- 
lished two of Kuhnau's pieces in his 'Ausgewahlte 
Tonstiicke' ; and Pauer, who introduced several 
of them to the English public in his chronological 
performances in 1862 and 63, has printed a Suite 
in his 'Alte Clavier musik' (Senff) and a Sonata 
in his 'Alte meister' (Breitkopf). [G.] 

KULLAK, Theodob, bom Sept. 12, 1818 
(not 1820, as Fetis supposes), at Krotoschin in 
the province of Posen, where his father held the 
post of ' Landgerichts-sekretar.' He was first in- 
tended for the law, but preferred to devote him- 
self to music. He was a pupil of Hauck's from 
his nth year, having previously been under the 
tuition of Albert Agthe. In 1842 he became a 
pupil of Czerny, and in 1846 was made Hofpianist 
to the King of Prussia. He founded, in conjunc- 
tion with Stern and Marx, a Conservatorium at 
Berlin in 1851; and in 1855, in consequence of 
some disagreement with his fellow-workers, he 
started a new institution under the name of 
'Neue Akademie der Tonkunst* in the same 
city, where he himself continues to reside. He 
has devoted his attention principally to the 
'drawing-room' style of composition, and has 
published many transcriptions and arrangements 
for the piano, which are very popular. Of his 
original works the following are the most re- 
markable : — Grand concerto in C minor for piano 
and orchestra (op. 55) ; Trio for piano and strings 
(op. 77) ; Duos for piano and violin; Ballades, 
Boleros, etc., for piano solo; 'Les Etincelles,' 
' Les Dana'ides,' ' La Gazelle,' etc. ; also collec- 
tions of small pieces, such as ' Deux Portefeuilles 
de Musique,' ' Kinderleben,' 2 sets of pieces (op. 
81), 'Les Fleurs anime'es.' Among his later 
works may be mentioned 'Ondine' (op. 112), 
'Concert-e"tude' (op. 121). In 1877 he pub- 
lished a second edition of his 'Octave-school,' 
which is very valuable as an instruction book. 

His brother, Adolf Kullak, born 1823, was 
a distinguished musical critic in Berlin, and 
wrote ' Das Musikalisch -Scheme' (Leipzig, 1858), 
and 'Aesthetik des Clavierspiels ' (Berlin, 1861). 
He died in 1862 at Berlin. [J.A.F.M.] 


KUMMER, Friedrich August, a great 
violoncellist, born at Meiningen Aug. 5 1797. 
His father (an oboist) migrated to Dresden, 
where the lad learnt the cello under Dotzauer. 
It was his ambition to enter the King's band, 
but as there was then no vacancy for a cellist, 
he took up the oboe, and soon attained such 
proficiency as to obtain the desired appoint- 
ment, in Nov. 1814. In 181 7 he again took 
up his original instrument, and in time became 
known as the most accomplished virtuoso in 
Germany. With the exception of occasional 
musical tours, principally in Germany and Italy, 
his career has been confined to Dresden. In 
1864 he celebrated the 50th anniversary of his 
appointment as a member of the Dresden 
orchestra, after which he retired on a pension, 
and was succeeded by F. Griitzmacher. He 
died at Dresden, May 22, 1879. Kummer's 
tone was at once sweet and powerful, and his 
command over difficulties very great. His play- 
ing however was characterised in a remarkable 
degree by repose, and he is described as never 
having been excited even when playing the 
most passionate or difficult passages. Kummer 
has been a voluminous writer for his instrument. 
163 of his works have appeared in print, among 
which are Concertos, Fantasias, a good Violon- 
cello School, etc. He has also composed some 
200 entractes for the Dresden Theatre. Among 
his many distinguished pupils, Goltermann of 
Stuttgart, and Cossmann of Wiesbaden may be 
named. [T.P.H.] 

KUNST DER FUGE, DIE. This work of 
J. S. Bach's has been already mentioned under 
the head Art op Fugue. It only remains to 
add that since that time a good analysis of it 
was read by Mr. James Higgs to the Musical 
Association, Feb. 5, 1877, and is published in 
their Proceedings for 1876-77. [G.] 

KUNTZSCH, Johann Gottfried, one of 
those earnest, old-fashioned, somewhat pedantic, 
musicians, to whom Germany owes so much; 
who are born in the poorest ranks, raise them- 
selves by unheard-of efforts and self-denial, and 
die without leaving any permanent mark except 
the pupils whom they help to form. The ' Bac- 
calaureus Kuntzsch was teacher of the organ 
and clavier at the Lyceum of Zwickau when 
Schumann was a small boy, and it was by him 
that the great composer was grounded in piano- 
forte playing. Kuntzsch celebrated his jubilee 
at Zwickau in July 1852, when Schumann wrote 
him a charming letter, 1 which his biographer 
assures us was but one of many. Schumann's 
studies for the pedal piano — 6 pieces in canon- 
form (op. 56), composed in 1845 and published 
in 1846 — are dedicated to his old master, whose 
name is thus happily preserved from oblivion. 
Kuntzsch died at a great age in 1854. [G.] 

KUPSCH, Karl Gustav, demands a few 
lines as having been for a short time Schumann's 
instructor in the theory of music 2 — apparently 
in the latter part of 1830, after his accident to 



1 Wsssielewskjr gives It, p. 10. 

' Wmieltwsky, p. 97. 

his finger. Kupsch was an average German 
Kapellmeister, born in Berlin, lived and worked 
there and in Leipzig and Dresden as teacher 
composer and conductor, till 1838, when he 
settled in Rotterdam as Director of the Singing 
Academy, and one of the committee of the ' Eru- 
ditio musica' Society. In 1845 ne returned to 
Germany, became Director of the Theatre at 
Freiburg im Breisgau, and at Naumburg, where 
he died July 30, 1846. [G.] 

KYRIE (Gr. Kvpi€ iXiijaov ; Kyrie eleison ; 
'Lord, have mercy'). 

I. That portion of the Ordinary of the Mass 
which immediately follows the Introit, and pre- 
cedes the Gloria in excelsis : and which, at High 
Mass, is sung by the Choir, while the Celebrant, 
supported by the Deacon and Subdeacon, is oc- 
cupied in incensing the Altar. 

The Kyrie, in common with all other choral 
portions of the Mass, was originally sung exclu- 
sively to Plain Chaunt melodies, such as those 
which are still preserved in the Roman Gradual, 
and still sung, with great effect, in many Conti- 
nental Cathedrals. One of these, the Kyrie of 
the Missa pro Defunctis, exhibited in the sub- 
joined example, is peculiarly interesting, not only 
from its own inherent beauty, but, as will be 
presently shewn, from the use to which it was 
turned by Palestrina, in the Sixteenth Century. 
Ton. VI. 





- lei - - son. 




c^^No l ^ . m --^ , gg§ gj 

lei - son. 




Mbo rj ■ g «S ^= 

Kj-ri - e 

When, after the invention of Figured Music, 
these venerable melodies were selected as themes 
for the exercise of contrapuntal skill, the Kyrie 
naturally assumed a prominent position in the 
polyphonic Mass ; and at once took a definite 
form, the broad outlines of which passed, un- 
altered, through the vicissitudes of many chang- 
ing Schools. The construction of the words led, 
almost of necessity, to their separation into three 
distinct movements. Some of the earlier contra- 
puntists delighted in moulding these into Canons, 
of maddening complexity. The great Masters of 
the Sixteenth Century preferred rather to treat 
them as short, but well-developed Real Fugues, 
on three distinct subjects, the last of which was 
usually of a somewhat more animated character 
than the other two. Whether from a pious ap- 
preciation of the spirit of the words, or a desire 
to render the opening movement of the Mass as 
impressive as possible, these earnest writers never 
failed to treat the Kyrie with peculiar solemnity. 
In the hands of Palestrina, it frequently expresses 
itself in a wailing cry for mercy, the tender pa- 
thos of which transcends all power of description. 



This is pre-eminently the case, in the Eyrie of his 
Missa brevis, a few bars of which have already 
been given, as an example, under the heading 
Hexachokd [vol. i. p. 735]. The same feeling 
is distinctly perceptible throughout the Kyrie of 
the Missa Papce Marcelli ; but associated, there, 
with a spirit of hopeful confidence which at once 
stamps it as the nearest approach to a perfect 
ideal that has ever yet been reached. More simple 
in construction, yet, scarcely less beautiful, is the 
opening movement of the same composer's Missa 
pro Defunctis, in which the Plain Chaunt Canto 
fermo given above is invested with a plaintive ten- 
derness which entirely conceals the consummate 
Art displayed in its contrapuntal treatment — 
Cantus Palestrina. 



p^F" \\rr^r¥^ 

Tenor 1. 

rl - 

Tenor 2. 









The effect of these pure vocal harmonies, when 
sung, as they are intended to be sung, in imme- 
diate contrast to the stern unisonous Plain Chaunt 
of the Introit, is one which, once heard, can never 
be forgotten. The manner of singing them, how- 
ever, requires careful consideration. One great 
difficulty arises from the fact, that, in the old part- 
books, no indication whatever is given as to the 
way in which the words and music are to be 
fitted together : and modern editors differ so 
much in their ideas on the subject, that no two 
editions are found to correspond. The following 
phrase from the Kyrie of the Missa Papce Mar- 
celli only exhibits one instance of divergence out 
of a thousand. 


(As edited by Lafage.) 

In this case, Lafage is undoubtedly right in 
allotting a distinct note to each syllable of the 


word, Ky-ri-e : but, nothing can justify his divi- 
sion of the penultimate semibreve into a dotted 
minim and crotchet. The second and third syl- 
lables of e-le-i-son can be perfectly enunciated, 
after the Italian manner, to a single note. In 
all such cases, the conductor must use his own 
judgment as to the best mode of procedure. 

Without pausing to trace the progress of the 
polyphonic Kyrie through the decadence of the 
School to which it owed its existence, or the rise 
of that which followed — a School in which instru- 
mental accompaniment first seriously asserted its 
claim to notice — we pass on to a period at 
which an entirely new phase of Art had already 
attained its highest degree of perfection. The 
Kyrie of Bach's great Mass in B minor differs, 
toto coelo, from its polyphonic predecessors. 
Though moulded in the old tripartite form, its 
two stupendous Fugues, and the melodious and 
elaborately developed Duet which separates them, 
have nothing but that division in common with 
the grave slow movements of the older Masters, 
and are such, indeed, as Bach alone could ever 
have conceived. Too long for practical use, as 
a part of the Church Service, they unite in 
forming a monument of artistic excellence, re- 
presenting a School, which, while it scorned to 
imitate anything which had gone before it, was 
able to defy the imitation of later composers. 

The Kyries of Haydn, and Mozart— legitimate 
descendants of those of Pergolesi, and Jomelli — 
abound with beauties of a wholly different order. 
The well-known opening of Haydn's grand Missa 
Imperialis (in D minor) is a fiery Allegro, in 
which bright passages of semiquavers, and short 
but telling points of fugal imitation, are con- 
trasted together with striking effect, but with 
very little trace of the expression which we 
should naturally expect in a petition for mercy. 
That of the favourite Mass commonly called 
'Mozart's Twelfth' is too well known to need 
more than a passing allusion. Neither Beetho- 
ven, in his Missa Solemnis, nor Cherubini, in 
his great Mass in D minor, can be said to have 
struck out a new ideal ; though both infused into 
the Kyrie an amount of dramatic power previously 
unknown in Church Music. In the Kyries of 
Rossini, and Gounod, free use is made of the same 
forcible means of expression, notwithstanding the 
feigned return to an older style, in the Christe of 
the first-named composer's Messe Solennelle. 

In tracing the history of the Kyrie, from its 
first appearance as a polyphonic composition, to 
the latest development of modern times, we find, 
that, apart from the idiosyncratic peculiarities of 
varying Schools, and individual composers, it has 
clothed itself in no more than three distinct ideal 
forms ; of which the first depends, for its effect, 
upon the expression of devotional feeling, while 
the second appeals more strongly to the intellect, 
and the third, to the power of human emotion. 
Each of these types may fairly lay claim to its 
own peculiar merits : but, if it be conceded that 
devotional feeling is the most necessary attribute 
of true Church Music, it is certain, that, what- 
ever may be in store for the future, that particular 


attribute has never hitherto been reached, in its 
highest perfection, in the presence of instrumental 

II. The Response, ' Lord have mercy upon us, 
and incline our hearts to keep this law '; sung, in 
the Service of the Church of England, after the 
recitation of the Ten Commandments. 

As the custom of reciting the Commandments 
during the Communion Service is of later date 
than the First Prayer Book of King Edward the 
Sixth, this Response is not found in Merbecke's 
' Booke of Common Praier Noted,' which was 
first published in 1550 : in Plain Song Services, 
therefore, it is usually sung to the simple melody 
given, by Merbecke, to the older form of Kyrie 
used in the Mass. The manner of its treatment 
by the earlier composers of the polyphonic School 
was extremely simple, and dignified : indeed, 



some of these Responses, as set by Tallis, (in the 
Dorian Mode,) Bird, Farrant, Gibbons, and other 
old English writers, are perfect little gems of 
artistic beauty. With such examples — and many 
excellent ones, of later date — within their reach, 
it is strange that Cathedral Organists should 
ever have countenanced the pernicious custom of 
'adapting' the words of the Kyrie to music 
which — however good in itself — was never in- 
tended to be sung to them. Not very long ago, 
the opening bars of a Chaconne, by Jomelli, 
were heard in almost every Church in which the 
Responses were chaunted : while, within the last 
few years, no Kyrie has been so popular as one 
1 adapted ' to a passage occurring in ' Elijah,' and 
generally associated with a distribution of the 
voice parts which Mendelssohn would have con- 
demned as utterly barbarous. [W. S. R.] 


LA, the syllable used in solmisation for the 
sixth note in the scale, possibly derived by 
Guido from the sixth line of the well- 
known hymn to S. John — ' X«bii reatum.' It is 
used by the French and Italians as a synonym 
for A (the sixth note of the scale of C) — ' Sinfonie 
en la de Beethoven,' and they speak of the 
second string of the violin as • corde en la.' ' La 
be"mor is A flat. 

The number of vibrations per second for the 
A in the treble stave is — Paris diapason 435, 
London Philharmonic pitch 454. The A pro- 
posed by the Society of Arts, and actually in use 
(1879) at H.M. Opera, 444 (eq. temp.) [G.] 

LABITZKY, Josef, a well-known dance 
composer, born July 4, 1802, at Schonfeld, Eger, 
was grounded in music by Veit of Petschau ; in 
1820 began the world as first violin in the band 
at Marienbad, and in 1 8 2 1 removed to a similar 
position at Carlsbad. He then formed an orches- 
tra of his own, and made tournies in South Ger- 
many. Feeling his deficiencies, he took a course 
of composition under Winter, in Munich, and in 
1827 published his first dances there. In 1835 
he settled at Carlsbad as director of the band, 
making journeys from Petersburg on the one hand, 
to London on the other, and becoming every day 
more famous. He resides at Carlsbad, and has 
associated his son August with him as director. 
His second son, Wilhelm, an excellent violin 
player, is settled at Toronto, Canada, and his 
daughter is a favourite singer at Frankfort. La- 
bitzky's dances are full of rhythm and spirit. 
Among his waltzes, the 'Sirenen,' 'Grenzboten,' 
* Aurora,' ' Carlsbader,' and ' Lichtensteiner,' are 
good. In galops he fairly rivals Lanner and 
Strauss, though he has not the poetry of those 
two composers. [F. G.] 

LABLACHE, Luigi, was born at Naples, Dec. 
5, 1 794. His mother was Irish, and his father, 

Nicolas Lablache, a merchant of Marseilles, had 
quitted that place in 1791 in consequence of the 
Revolution. But another Revolution, in 1799, 
overwhelmed him with ruin in his new country, 
and he died of chagrin. His family was, however, 
protected by Joseph Buonaparte, aud the young 
Luigi was placed in the Conserratorio della Pieta 
de' Turchini, afterwards called SanSebastiano. He 
was now twelve years old. Gentilli taught him the 
elements of music, and Valesi instructed him in 
singing ; while, at the same time, he studied the 
violin and violoncello under other masters. His 
progress was not at first remarkable, for he was 
wanting in application and regularity; but his 
aptitude was soon discovered by a singular inci- 
dent. One day a contrebassist was wanted for the 
orchestra of S. Onofrio. Marcello-Perrino, who 
taught young Lablache the cello, said to him, ' You 
play the cello very well : you can easily learn the 
double bass!' The boy had a dislike for that 
instrument, in spite of which he got the gamut of 
the double bass written out for him on a Tuesday, 
and on the following Friday executed his part 
with perfect accuracy. There is no doubt, in 
fact, that, had he not been so splendidly endowed 
as a singer, he might have been equally brilliant 
as a virtuoso on any other instrument that he 
chose (Escudier). At this period his boy's voice 
was a beautiful contralto, the last thing that he 
did with which was to sing, as it was just 
breaking, the solos in the Requiem of Mozart on 
the death of Haydn in 1809. He was then 15, 
and his efforts to sing to the end of the work left 
him at last without power to produce a sound. 
Before many months were passed, however, he 
became possessed of a magnificent bass, which 
gradually increased in volume until, at the age 
of 20, it was the finest of the kind which can be 
remembered, with a compass of two octaves, from 
Eb below to E b above the bass stave. 

Continually dominated by the desire to appear 



on the stage, the young Lablache made his escape 
from the Conservatorio no less than five times, 
and was as often brought back in disgrace. He 
engaged himself to sing at Salerno at 1 5 ducats 
a month (40 sous a day), and received a month's 
salary in advance ; but, remaining two days longer 
at Naples, he spent the money. As he could not, 
however, appear decently without luggage, he 
filled a portmanteau with sand, and set out. 
Two days later he was found at Salerno by the 
vice-president' of the Conservatorio, while the 
Impresario seized the effects of the young truant 
in order to recoup himself the salary he had 
advanced, but found, to his horror, nothing in 
the portmanteau .... but what Lablache had 
put there ! (Escudier). To these escapades was 
due, however, the institution of a little theatre 
within the Conservatorio; and Lablache was 
satisfied for a time. A royal edict, meanwhile, 
forbade the Impresario of any theatre, under 
severe penalties, to engage a student of the Con- 
servatorio without special permission. 

Having at length completed his musical educa- 
tion, Lablache was engaged at the San Carlino 
Theatre at Naples, as buffo Napolitano, in 181 a, 
though then only 18. ( He made his debut in 
'La Molinara' of Fioravanti. A few months 
later, he married Teresa Pinotti, the daughter 
of an actor engaged at the theatre and one 
of the best in Italy. This happy union ex- 
ercised a powerful and beneficial influence 
over the life of Lablache. Quickly seeing his 
genius and capacity for development far beyond 
the narrow sphere in which she found him, his 
young wife persuaded Lablache, not without 
difficulty, to quit the San Carlino, a theatre in 
which two performances a day were given, 
ruining completely within a year every voice 
but that of her robust husband ; to re- commence 
serious study of singing, and to give up the 
patois in which he had hitherto sung and 
spoken. Accordingly, a year later, after a 
short engagement at Messina, he went as prlmo 
basso cantante to the Opera at Palermo. His 
first appearance was in the ' Ser Marc-Antonio' 
of Pavesi, and his success was so great as to 
decide him to stay at Palermo for nearly five 
years. But it was impossible that he should 
remain there unknown ; and the administration 
of La Scala at Milan engaged him in 1S17, 
where he made his de"but as Dandini in ' Cene- 
rentola,' with great success, due to his splendid 
acting and singing, and in spite of the provincial 
accent which still marred his pronunciation. Over 
the latter defect he soon triumphed, as he had over 
his want of application a few years before. In fact, 
perhaps the most remarkable things about La- 
blache were the extent to which he succeeded in 
cultivating himself, and the stores of general know- 
ledge which he accumulated by his own unaided 
efforts. It is said that at Naples he had enjoyed 
the great advantage of the society and counsels of 
Madame Mericoffre, a banker's wife, known in 
Italy before her marriage as La Coltellini, but then 
quite unknown in England, though described as 
one of the finest artists belonging to the golden 


age of Italian singing. To such influence as 
this, and to that of his intelligent wife, Lablache 
perhaps owed some of the impulse which prompted 
him to continue to study when most singers cease 
to learn and content themselves with reaping the 
harvest ; but much must have been due to his own 
desire for improvement. 

The opera 'Elisa e Claudio' was now (18 21) 
written for him by Mercadante ; his position was 
made, and his reputation spread throughout Eu- 
rope. From Milan he went to Turin ; returned 
to Milan in 1822, then appeared at Venice, and 
in 1824 at Vienna, and always with the same 
success. At the last city he received from the 
enthusiastic inhabitants a gold medal bearing a 
most flattering inscription. After twelve years 
absence he returned to Naples, with the title of 
singer in the chapel of Ferdinand I., and with an 
engagement at the San Carlo. Here he created a 
great sensation as Assur in ' Semiramide.' Two 
years later we find him at Parma, singing in Bel- 
lini's ' Zaire.' Although Ebers had endeavoured, 
as early as 1822, to secure him for London, on 
the strength of his reputation as ' perhaps even 
excelling Zucchini,' Lablache did not tread the 
English boards till the season of 1830, when 
he made his debut on the 30th March in the 
'Matrimonio segreto.' Here, as elsewhere, his 
succesa was assured from the moment when he 
sang his first note, almost from the first step 
he took upon the stage. It is indeed doubtful 
whether he was greater as a singer or as an 
actor. TTi« head was noble, his figure very 
tall, and so atoning for his bulk, which became 
immense in later years : yet he never looked 
too tall on the stage. One of the boots of La- 
blache would have made a small portmanteau ; 
' one could have clad a child in one of his gloves' 
(Chorley). His strength was enormous. As Le- 
porello, he sometimes carried off under his arm, 
apparently without effort, the troublesome Ma- 
setto, represented by Giubilei, a man of the full 
height and weight of ordinary men ! Again, in 
an interval of tedious rehearsing, he was once 
seen on the stage to pick up with one hand a 
double bass that was standing in the orchestra, 
examine it at arm's length, and gently replace it 
where he had found it ! The force of his voice 
exceeded, when he chose, the tone of the instru- 
ments that accompanied it and the noise and 
clamour of the stage ; nothing drowned his por- 
tentous notes, which rang through the house like 
the booming of a great bell. On one occasion, 
indeed, his wife is said to have been woke up by a 
sound, in the middle of the night, which she took 
for the tocsin announcing a fire, but which turned 
out to be nothing more than Lablache producing 
in his sleep these bell-like sounds. It was during 
the great popularity of ' I Puritani,' when Grisi, 
accompanied by Lablache, was in the habit of 
singing the polacca thrice a week at the Opera, 
and frequently also at concerts. After performing 
his staccato part in the duet thrice within nine 
hours, Lablache was haunted by it even in his 
sleep. This power was wisely used by the great 
artist on the right occasions, and only then — as 


the deaf and angry Geronimo, or as Oroveso in 
'Norma'; but at other times his voice could 
' roar as sweetly as any sucking dove,' and he 
could use its accents for comic, humorous, tender, 
or sorrowful effects, with equal ease and mastery. 

Like Garrick, and other great artists, Lablache 
shone as much in comic as in tragic parts. No- 
thing could exceed his Leporello ; of that cha- 
racter he was doubtless the greatest known ex- 
ponent. But he had, at an earlier date, played Don 
Giovanni. As Geronimo, the Podesta- in ' La Gazza 
Ladra,' again, in 'La Prova d'un' Opera Seria,' 
as Dandini and the Barone di Montefiascone, he 
was equally unapproachable; while his Henry 
VIII. in 'Anna Bolena,' his Doge in 'Marino 
Faliero,' and Oroveso in ' Norma,' were splendid 
examples of dignity and dramatic force. He 
appeared for the first time in Paris, Nov. 4, 
1830, as Geronimo in the ' Matrimonio Segreto,' 
and was there also recognised immediately as the 
first basso cantante of the day. He continued to 
sing in Paris and London for several years ; and, 
it may be mentioned that his terms were in 1828, 
for four months, 40,000 frs. (£1,600), with lodging 
and one benefit-night clear of all expenses, the 
opera and his part in it to be chosen by himself on 
that occasion, as also at his dibut. The modest 
sum named above, in no degree corresponding with 
the value of Lablache in an operatic company, 
was a few years later (1839) the price paid by 
Laporte to Robert, to whom Lablache was then 
engaged at Paris, for the mere cession of his 
services to the London Opera. 

In 1833 Lablache sang again at Naples, re- 
newing his triumphs in the ' Elisire d'amore ' and 
'Don Pasquale.' He returned to Paris in 1834, 
after which he continued to appear annually 
there and in London, singing in our provincial 
festivals as well as at the Opera, for many years. 
In 1852 he sang at St. Petersburg with no less 
eclat than elsewhere. In London, near the close 
of his career, at a time when most artists are 
liable to become dull and mechanical, he broke 
out into the personification of two beings as 
different from each other and from the types 
hitherto represented by him as Shakspere's Cali- 
ban and Scribe's Calmuck Qritzoriko, in 'L'Etoile 
du Nord,' with a vivacity, a profound stage- 
knowledge, and a versatility, which were as rare 
as they were strongly marked (Chorley). But 
he had qualities as sterling as others which were 
fascinating. Whether in comic opera, in the 
chromatic music of Spohr, or in that of Pales- 
trina, he seemed equally at home. Let it be 
never forgotten that he sang (April 3, 1827) the 
bass solo part in Mozart's Requiem after the 
death of Beethoven, as he had, when a child, 
sung the contralto part at the funeral of Haydn ; 
and let the former fact be a sufficient answer to 
those who say he had no notes lower than A 
or G. Be it recorded, at the same time, that 
he paid Barbaja 200 guldens for the operatic 
singers engaged on that occasion. He was also 
one of the 32 torch-bearers who surrounded the 
coffin of Beethoven at its interment. To him, 
again, Schubert dedicated his three Italian songs 
VOL. it 



(op. 83), written to Metastasio's words, and com- 
posed in 1827, showing thus his appreciation of 
the powers of the great Italian. 

In 1856, however, his health began to fail, 
and he was obliged in the following spring 
to drink the waters of Kissingen, where he was 
met and treated with honour by Alexander II. 
of Russia. Lablache received the medal and 
order given by the Emperor with the prophetic 
words, "These will do to ornament my coffin.' 
After this he returned for a few days in August 
to his house at Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris ; but 
left it on the 18th, to try the effect of his native 
climate at his villa at Posilipo. But the bright, 
brisk air was too keen for him, and he had to 
take refuge in Naples. The relief, however, 
served only to prolong his life a short while, and 
he died Jan. 23, 1858. His remains were brought 
to Paris, and buried at Maisons-Lafitte. 

Lablache had two sisters, the elder of whom 
became Marchesa de Braida, and the younger 
Abbess of Sessa. He had many children, among 
whom Frederick, the eldest son, followed his 
father's steps, but not with the same success. 
The youngest is an officer in the French army. Of 
his daughters, one married the great pianist, 
Thalberg. A Mithode de chant, written by La- 
blache, was published chez Mme. V T0 Canaux, at 
Paris ; but it rather disappointed expectation. 

Lablache died, as he had lived, respected by 
every one who knew him for his honourable, 
upright probity, as he was admired for his mar- 
vellous and cultivated talents. [J.M.] 

He was the Queen's singing master, and the 
esteem and even affection which that intercourse 
engendered are expressed more than once in 
warm terms in her Majesty's published Diaries 
and Letters. 

LAC DES FEES, LE. Opera in 5 acts ; 
words by Scribe and Melesville, music by Auber. 
Produced at the Grand Opera April 1, 1839. 
The overture alone has survived. [G.] 

LACHNER, a prominent musical family of 
this century. The father was an organist at 
Rain, on the Lech, in Bavaria, very poor and 
with a very large family, but not the less a 
man of worth and character. He was twice 
married. One of the first family, Theodob, born 
1798, was a sound musician, but unambitious, 
who ended his career as organist at Munich, and 
chorus-master at the Court theatre. The second 
family were more remarkable. Of the daughters, 
Thekla, born 1803, was recently organist of S. 
George's church, Augsburg, and Chbistiane, born 
1805, held the same post in her native place, 
Of the brothers, Fbanz was born April 2, 1804. 
He was solidly educated in other things beside 
music, but music was his desire, and in 1822 he 
prevailed on his parents to let him go to Vienna. 
He put himself under Stadler and Sechter, and 
was constantly in Schubert's company, with whom 
he became very intimate. In 1826 he was made 
Vice-Kapellmeister of the Karnthnerthor theatre, 
and the next year, on the death of Weigh prin- 
cipal Kapellmeister. He retained this post till 
1834, and it was a time of great productivity. In 




34 be went to Mannheim to conduct the opera 
there, and in 36 advanced to the top of the 
ladder as Hofkapellmeister — in 1852 general 
music director — at Munich, and there remained 
till 1865, when he retired on a pension. Lach- 
ner's writings are of prodigious number and 
extent. An oratorio, and a sacred cantata ; 
4 opera3 ; requiems ; 3 grand masses ; various 
cantatas, entr'actes, and other pieces ; many large 
compositions for male voices ; 8 symphonies — 
among them those in D minor (No. 3), in C minor 
(op. 5 2 ) — which won the prize offered by theGesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde — and inD (No. 6), which 
Schumann finds twice as good as the prize one 
— suites, overtures and serenades for orchestra, 
the orchestration of Schubert's 'Song of Miriam'; 
3 quartets ; concertos for harp and bassoon ; trios, 
duos, pianoforte pieces of all dimensions ; and a 
large number of vocal pieces for solo and several 
voices. All that industry, knowledge, tact, and 
musicianship can give is here — if there were but 
a little more of the sacred fire ! No one can 
deny to Lachner the praise of conscientiousness 
and artistic character ; he is deservedly esteemed 
by his countrymen almost as if he were an 
old classic, and holds a similar position in the 
South to that of Hiller in the North. The 
next brother, Ignaz, was born in 1807, was 
brought up to music, and at 1 2 years old was 
sent to the Gymnasium at Augsburg, where he is 
said to have had no less a person than Napoleon 
III. (then Count St. Leu) as a schoolfellow. In 
1824 he joined his brother at Vienna, in 1825 
was made Vice -Kapellmeister of the opera ; in 
1831 a Court music-director at Stuttgart, and in 
1842 rejoined his brother in a similar position at 
Munich. In 53 he took the conduct of the 
theatre at Hamburg, in 58 was made Court 
Kapellmeister at Stockholm ; and in 6 1 settled 
down for good at Frankfort, where he fills many 
musical positions, and celebrated his 50th anni- 
versary on Oct. 18, 1875. He also has produced 
a long list of works — 3 operas ; several ballets, 
melodramas, etc., etc. ; with masses, symphonies, 
quartets, pianoforte works, and many songs, one 
of which — ' Uberall Du ' — was very popular in its 
day. The third brother, Vincenz, was born 
July 19, 1 81 1, and also brought up at the 
Augsburg Gymnasium. He began by taking 
Ignaz's place as organist in Vienna, and rose by 
the same course of goodness and indefatigable 
assiduity as his brothers, to be Court Kapell- 
meister at Mannheim from 1836 till 73, when 
he retired on a pension. He was in London in 42, 
conducting the German Company. His music to 
Turandot, his Prize song ' In der Feme,' and other 
pieces, are favourites with his countrymen. [G.] 
LACHNITH, Ludwio Wenzkl, born July 7, 
1 746, at Prague, migrated to the service of the 
Duke at Zweibrucken, and thence to Paris, 
where he made his delmt at the Concert Spi- 
rituel as a horn player. He was a clever handy 
creature, who wrote not only quantities of all 
kinds of instrumental music, but at least four 
operas, and several pasticcios and other pieces. 
His most notable achievements however, were 


his adaptations of great operas, by way of making 
them pleasant to the public, such as ' Les niys- 
teres d'Isis,' for which both libretto and music of 
the Magic Flute were ' arranged ' into what M. 
Fe"tis calls 'a monstrous 1 compilation* (Grand 
Opera, Aug. 20, 1801). No wonder that the 
piece was called 'Les miseres d'ici,' and that 
Lachnith was styled 'le derangeur.' He was 
clever also at working up the music of several 
composers into one piece, and torturing it to the 
expression of different words and sentiments 
from those to which it had originally been set — as 
• Le Laboureur Chinois. ' in which the music of 
'several celebrated composers' was 'arrangee 
par M. Lachnitch' (Feb. 5, 1813). In these 
crimes he had an accomplice in the elder Kalk- 
brenner, who assisted him to concoct two ' Ora- 
torios in action' — Saul (April 6, 1803) and 
'The taking of Jericho' (April 11, 1805). We 
were as bad in England several years later, and 
many fine operas of Rossini, Auber, and quasi- 
Weber were first made known to Londoners by 
much the same expedients as those of Lachnith, in 
the hands of T. P. Cooke, Lacy, and others. [G.] 

LACY, John, bass singer, born in the last 
quarter of last century, was a pupil of Rauzzini 
at Bath. After singing in London he went to 
Italy, where he became complete master of the 
Italian language and style of singing. On his 
return he sang at concerts and the Lenten 
oratorios, but although he possessed an excep- 
tionally fine voice and sang admirably in various 
styles, circumstances prevented him from taking 
any prominent position. In 181 8 he accepted an 
engagement at Calcutta, and, accompanied by his 
wife, left England, to which he never returned. 
Had he remained here he would most probably 
have been appointed successor to Bartleman. 

Mrs. Lacy, his wife, was originally Miss 
Jackson, and appeared as a soprano singer at 
the Concert of Ancient Music, April 25, 1798. 
In 1 800 she became the wife of Francesco Bianchi, 
the composer, and in 1 810 his widow. In 181 2 
she was married to Lacy, and sang as Mrs. 
Bianchi Lacy in 181 2, 13, and 14. She ' was the 
best representative of the great and simple style as 
delivered down by Mrs. Bates and Madame Mara, 
whilst her articulate delivery and pure pronuncia- 
tion of Italian, rendered her no less generally valu- 
able in other departments of the art.' [W. H. H.] 

LACY, Michael Rophino, son of an English 
merchant, born at Bilbao, July 19, 1 795 ; learned 
music from an early age, and made rapid pro- 
gress on the violin ; was at college at Bourdeaux 
for 18 months, and in 1803 was sent to Paris 
to finish his education, and attained to con- 
siderable skill as a linguist. Kreutzer was his 
principal instructor in music. About the end 
of 1804 he performed before Napoleon at the 
Tuileries. He was then known as ' Le petit 
Espagnol.' He played in the principal Dutch 

» See the account by 0. Jahn (Mozart , 2nd ed., it SS7). The magic 
flute and all the comic music were omitted ; Fapageno was turned 
into a shepherd sage ; while many pieces were left out, others were put 
in— as for instance 'Fin ch'an dal rino,' arranged at a duet I The opera 
opened with Mozart's finale, and the disorder must hare been eom- 
pltt*. And jet it ran 49 nights '. 


towns on his way to London, which he reached 
in Oct. 1 805. He soon gave concerts at Hanover 
Square Rooms, under the sobriquet of 'The 
Young Spaniard,' his name not being announced 
until May, 1807, when an engraved portrait of 
him was published. He next performed at 
Catalani's first concert in Dublin, and was after- 
wards engaged for Corri's concerts at Edinburgh 
at 20 guineas per night. A few years later he 
quitted the musical for the theatrical profession, 
and performed the principal genteel comedy 
parts at the theatres of Dublin, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, etc. In 1818 he was appointed 
leader of the Liverpool concerts vice Yaniewicz, 
and at the end of 1820 returned to London 
and was engaged as leader of the ballet at the 
King's Theatre. Lacy adapted to the English 
stage both words and music of several popular 
operas; and his adaptations display great skill, 
although gross liberties were frequently taken 
with the original pieces, which can only be 
excused by the taste of the time. Among them 
are 'The Maid of Judah' from 'Ivanhoe,' the 
music from ' Semiramide,' 1829; 'Cinderella,' 
the music from Rossini's 'Cenerentola,' 'Armida,' 
'Maometto Secondo,' and 'Guillaume Tell,' 
1830; 'Fra Diavolo,' 1831 ; and 'Robert le 
Diable,' under the title of 'The Fiend Father,' 
1832. In 1833 he produced an oratorio entitled 
'The Israelites in Egypt,' a pasticcio from 
Rossini's ' Mose in Egitto,' and Handel's ' Israel 
in Egypt,' which was performed with scenery, 
dresses, and personation. In 1839 he brought 
forward a readaptation of Weber's 'Der l'rei- 
schiitz,' introducing the whole of the music for 
the first time. He rendered great assistance to 
Mr. Schoelcher in collecting the material for his 
' Life of Handel.' He died at Pentonville, Sept. 
20, 1867. [W.H.H.] 

LADY HENRIETTE, ou la servante de 
Greenwich. A ballet pantonine in 3 acts ; music 
by Flotow, Burgmuller, and Deldevez. Produced 
at the Grand Opera Feb. 1, 1 844. Saint Georges, 
by whom the libretto was written, afterwards 
extended it into an opera, which was set by 
Flotow as Martha. [G.] 

in 2 parts ; the text founded on Scott's poem by 
Natalia Macfarren, the music by Professor G. A. 
Macfarren. Written for and produced at Glasgow 
New Public Hall Nov. 15, 1877. [G.] 

LANDLER, Landerer, or Landlerische 
Tanz, a national dance popular in Austria, 
Bavaria, Bohemia, and Styria. It probably 
derives its name from the Landel, a district in 
the valley of the Ens, where the dance is said 
to have had its origin; but according to some 
authorities the word simply means 'country 
dance,' i. e. a waltz danced in a country fashion. 
In fact the Landler is a homely waltz, and only 
differs from the waltz in being danced more slowly. 
It is in 3-4 or 3-8 time, and consists of two 
parts of eight bars, each part being repeated two 
or more times. Like most early dances, it oc- 
casionally has a vocal accompaniment. Both 



Mozart (Kochel, No. 606) and Beethoven (Not- 
tebohm's Cat. p. 150, 151) have written genuine 
Landler, but the compositions under this name 
of Jensen, Raff, Reinecke, and other modern 
musicians, have little in common with the original 
dance. The following example is the first part 
of a Styrian Landler (Kohler, Volkstanze; Bruns- 
wick, 1854). 




=H-Hrllr n 

The little waltz so well known as ' Le De"sir,' 
usually attributed to Beethoven, though really 
composed by Schubert, is a Landler. To know 
what grace and beauty can be infused into this 
simple form one must hear Schubert's ' Wiener 
Damen-Landler ' or ' Belles Viennoises ' in their 
unsophisticated form, before they were treated 
by Liszt. [W.B.S.] 

LA FAGE, Jcste Adrien Lenoir de, born 
in Paris, March 28, 1801, grandson of the cele- 
brated architect Lenoir. After trying education 
for the church and the army, he settled to music 
as a pupil of Perne's for harmony and counter- 
point, devoting himself especially to the study of 
plain-chant. Perne recommended him to Cho- 
ron, who took him first as pupil, and then as 
re'pe'titeur, or assistant -master. In 1828 he was 
sent by the government to Rome and studied for 
a year under Baini. While in Italy he produced 
a comic opera ' I Creditori,' but comic opera was 
not to be his road to distinction. On his return 
to Paris, in Dec. 1829, he was appointed maitre 
de chapelle of St. Etienne du Mont, where he 
substituted an organ (built by John Abbey) for 
the harsh out-of-tune serpent hitherto used to 
accompany the voices — an excellent innovation ! 
1833 to 36 he spent in Italy, and lost his wife 
and son. He returned to Paris, and there 
published the 'Manuel complet de Musique' 
(1836-38), the first chapters of which had been 
prepared by Choron ; ' Seineiologie musicale ' ; 
' Miscellanies musicales ' ; ' Histoire generate de 
la musique,' and many biographical and critical 
articles collected from periodicals. He again 
visited Italy after the Revolution of 1848, and 
during this trip took copies of MSS. never before 
consulted. He also visited Germany and Spain, 
and during the Exhibition of 185 1 made a short 
excursion to England. He then settled finally 
in Paris, and published the works which have 
placed him in the first rank of 'musicists' — to 
use a favourite word of his own. Over-work as 
an author, and as editor in chief of ' Le Plain- 
Chant,' a periodical which he founded in 1859, 
brought on a nervous affection, which ultimately 
led to his removal to the asylum for the insane 
at Charenton, where he died March 8, 1862. 

La Fage composed much music of many kinds, 



both vocal and instrumental, sacred and secular, 
but it is as a historian and didactic writer that 
his name will live. His 'Cours complet de 
Plain-Chant' (Paris 1855-56, 2 vols 8vo.) is 
a book of the first order, and fully justifies its 
title. It was succeeded by the ' Nouveau Traite 
de Plain-Chant romaiii,' with questions, an indis- 
pensable supplement to the former. His ' Histoire 
ge'ne'rale de la musique' (Paris 1844, 2 vols. 
8vo., with an album of plates) is incomplete, 
treating only of Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and 
Hebrew music, but it is a careful and con- 
scientious work, and has been largely used by 
Fe"tis. His learning and method appear con- 
spicuously in his • Extraits du Catalogue critique 
et raisonne" d'une petite bibliotheque musicale ' 
(Rennes, undated, 1 20 pp. 8vo., 100 copies only), 
and in his ' Essais de Diphtherographie musicale ' 
(Paris, 1864, 2 vols. 8vo., one containing very 
curious musical examples). A perusal of these 
two books will amply corroborate every word we 
have said in praise of this erudite musician. He 
left a valuable library (the catalogue was pub- 
lished, Paris 1862, 8vo.), afterwards dispersed by 
auction ; but his unpublished works and materials 
are in the Bibliotheque nationale, to which he 
bequeathed all his papers, with the MSS. of 
Choron and Baini in his possession. [G. C] 

LAFONT, Charles Philippe, an eminent vio- 
linist, was born at Paris in 1781. F^tis relates 
that he got his first instruction on the violin 
from his mother, a sister of Bertheaume, a well- 
known violinist of that period, whom he also 
accompanied on his travels through Germany, 
performing successfully, when only eleven years 
of age, at Hamburg, Oldenburg and other towns. 
On his return to Paris he continued his studies 
under Kreutzer; and soon appeared at the 
Theatre Feydeau, though not as a violinist, but 
as a singer of French ballads. After some time he 
again took up the violin, this time under the 
tuition of Rode, and soon proved himself a player 
of exceptional merit. Fltis credits him with a 
perfect intonation, a pure and mellow, though 
somewhat feeble tone, great powers of execution, 
and a remarkable charm of expression. From 
1801 to 1808 he travelled and played with great 
success in France, Belgium, Holland, Germany 
and Russia. In 1 808 he was appointed Rode's suc- 
cessor as solo-violinist to the Emperor of Russia, 
a position in which he remained for six years. In 
181 2 he had a public contest with Paganini at 
Milan. In 181 5 he returned to Paris, and was 
appointed solo-violinist to Louis XVIII. In 1 831 
he made a long tour with Henri Herz, the pianist, 
which occupied him till 1 839, when his career was 
suddenly ended by a carriage accident in the south 
of France, through which he lost his life. 

Spohr in his Autobiography praises his fine 
tone, perfect intonation, energy and gracefulness, 
but deplores the absence of deep feeling, and 
accuses him of mannerism in phrasing. He also 
relates that Lafont's repertoire was confined to a 
very few pieces, and that he would practise a 
concerto for years before venturing on it in 
public, — a method which, although leading to 


absolute mechanical perfection, appears absurd 
from an artistic or even musical point of view. 
Lafont's compositions for the violin are of no 
musical value ; they comprise seven Concertos, a 
number of Fantasias, Rondos, etc. He wrote 
a number of Duos concertants in conjunction 
with Kalkbrenner, Herz, etc. ; more than 200 
ballads (romances), which for a time were very 
popular ; and two operas. [P. D.] 

LAGARDE, a French basso, who sang the 
part of Farasmane in Handel's ' Radamisto,' on 
the revival of that opera in Dec. 1720, with 
Senesino. It is not known who played Farasmane 
at the former performances ; perhaps Lagarde. 
He does not appear again in the casts. [J.M.I 

LAGUERRE, Jean, commonly called Jack, 
was the son of Louis Laguerre, the artist who 
painted the greater part of Verrio's large picture 
in St. Bartholomew s Hospital, the ' Labours of 
Hercules ' in chiar'oscuro at Hampton Court, the 
staircase at Wilton, etc., and is immortalized by 
Pope in the line 

' Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre.' 

This painter came to England in 16S3, and died 
in 1 72 1, his son Jean having, as it is supposed, 
been born about 1700. The lad was instructed 
by his father for his own profession, and had 
already shown some ability ; but, having a talent 
for music, he took to the stage, where he met 
with fair success. It must be he whom we find, 
under the name of Mr. Legar, playing the part 
of Metius in Camilla (revived), 1726, which had 
formerly (1706 and 8) been sung by Ramondon, 
a low tenor. Again, he is advertized {Daily 
Journal, March 13, 1731) as sustaining the 
added role of Corydon in ' Acis and Galatea,' ' for 
the benefit of M. Rochetti, at Lincoln's Inn 
Theatre Royal, on Friday, 26th,' his name being 
spelled as in the cast of ' Camilla.' He died in 
London in 1 748. 

Laguerre has been described as ' a high fellow, 
a great humourist, wit, singer, player, caricatur- 
ist, mimic, and a good scene-painter ; and, ac- 
cording to the notions of that merry age, known 
to everybody worth knowing.' He engraved 
a set of prints of ' Hob in the Well,' which had 
a great sale, though indifferently executed ; but 
we also owe to his point an exceedingly clever 
etching, 'The Stage Mutiny' (Br. Mus. Cat. 
1929), in which we have caricature-portraits of 
Colley and Theo. Cibber (as Pistol), Highmore, 
Mrs. Wilks, Ellis, Griffin, Johnson, and others. 
Hogarth did not disdain to copy this interesting 
print, having used it on the show-cloth in ' South- 
wark Fair' (Br. Mus. Cat. i960). 

As a painter, Laguerre was the author of the 
portrait of Mary Tofts, not the singer but the 
pretended rabbit-breeder, engraved by J. Faber 
in mezzotint. He also painted the portrait of 
Spiller for the Spiller 8 Head tavern, as we learn 
from that actor's epitaph, which begins thus : — 

' The butchers' wives fall in hysteric fits ; 
For, sure as they're alive, poor Spiller 's d 
But, thanks to Jack Laguerre, we Ve got his dead.' 





LAIDLAW, Anna Robena, a lady whom 
Schumann distinguished by dedicating to her his 
Fantasiestucke (op. 12), was a Yorkshirewoman, 
born at Bretton April 30, 18 19, educated in Edin- 
burgh at the school of her aunt, and in music by 
Robert Miiller, a pianoforte teacher there. Her 
family went to Konigsberg in 1 830, and there her 
vocation was decided, she improved in playing 
rapidly, and in three or four years appeared in 
public at Berlin with great applause. In 34 she 
was in London studying under Herz, and played 
at Paganini's farewell concert. In 36 she returned 
to Berlin, and after a lengthened tour through 
Prussia, Russia and Austria, returned in 1840 to 
London. It was during this last stay in Germany 
that the Fantasiestucke were written. [G.] 

LAJARTE, Theodore de, one of the libra- 
rians of the Grand Opera, Paris (Acade"mie de 
Musique), author of a book for which every 
student of musical history must be grateful to 
him, viz. a Catalogue, historical, chronological 
and anecdotic, of the Musical Library of the 
Opera, etc., 2 vols, with 7 portraits — beautifully 
etched by Le Rat — and a view. It contains an 
Introduction, describing the library; a list, in 
order of production, of the 594 pieces which have 
been produced at the Opera between ' Pomone,' 
March 19, 1671, and 'Sylvia,' June 14, 1876, 
with the names of the singers, remarks on the 
piece, its success or non-success, and often ex- 
tracts from the libretto ; biographical notices of 
composers and librettists ; a supplementary list 
of ' ceuvres di verses,' comprising 49 operas, 
received but not produced, and of which the 
MSS. are preserved — and of other music en- 
graved and MS. ; and to complete, two indexes 
of titles and names. The work is admirably 
done, apparently with great accuracy, and is not 
only a boon to the reader but a striking evidence 
of the superior system under which these things 
are managed in Paris. [G.] 

LAJEUNESSE, the family name of Madlle. 
Marie Emma Albani, who was born in 1851 of 
French Canadian parents, at Chambly, near 
Montreal, and is therefore an English subject. 
Her father was a professor of the harp, and she 
began life in a musical atmosphere. At the age 
of five the family removed to Montreal, and 
Madlle. Lajeunesse entered the school of the 
Convent of the Sacre Cceur. Here she remained 
several years, with such instruction in singing 
as the convent could afford, and she is said to 
have abandoned the idea of adopting a religious 
life on the representation of the Superior of the 
convent, who discovered the great qualities of 
her pupil. 

In the year 1864 the family again removed, this 
time to Albany, the capital of the State of New 
York ; and while pursuing her studies there 
Madlle. Lajeunesse sang in the choir of the Ca- 
tholic cathedral, and thus attracted the notice 
not only of the public but of the Catholic bishop, 
who strongly urged M. Lajeunesse to take his 
daughter to Europe and place her under proper 
masters for the development of so remarkable a 
talent. A concert was given in Albany to raise 

the necessary funds, after which Madlle. La- 
jeunesse proceeded to Paris with her father. 
From Paris, after studying with Duprez for eight 
months, she went to Lamperti at Milan, with 
whom she remained for a considerable time. The 
relation between the master and his gifted pupil 
may be gathered by the fact that his treatise on 
the Shake is dedicated to her. In 1870 she made 
her debut at Messina in the Sonnambula, under the 
name of Albani, in memory of the city in which 
her resolution to become a singer was carried into 
effect. She then sang for a time at the Pergola, 
Florence. Her first appearance in London was 
at the Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden, on 
April 2, 1872. The beautiful qualities of her 
voice and the charm of her appearance were at 
once appreciated, and she grew in favour during 
the whole of the season. Later in the year she 
made a very successful appearance at the Italian 
Opera of Paris. She then returned to Milan, 
and passed several months in hard study under 
her former master. 1873 saw her again at 
Covent Garden. In the autumn she sang at 
St. Petersburg, and between that and her next 
London season, re-visited America and sang 
once more in the cathedral at Albany. Since 
then Madlle. Albani has appeared regularly at 
Covent Garden, and is now one of the per- 
manent ornaments of that theatre. On Aug. 6, 
1878, she married Mr. Ernest Gye, who, since 
his father's death (Dec. 4, 1878), has been lessee 
of the theatre. It is sufficient to name her prin- 
cipal parts — Amina (Sonnambula), Margherita 
(Faust), Mignon, Ophelia, Elsa (Lohengrin), 
Lucia, Linda, Gilda (Rigoletto), Elisabetta 
(Tannhauser), to indicate the wide range of her 
vocal talent. Since 1872 she has sung every 
autumn at one or more of our great provincial 
festivals. Her voice is a light soprano of great 
beauty and very sympathetic quality, especially 
telling in the higher registers. She is in addition 
a fine pianoforte player. [H. S. E.] 

LALANDE, Henbiette-Cl^mentine ME- 
RIC, the daughter of Lamiraux-Lalande, the 
chief of a provincial operatic company, was born 
at Dunkerque in 1798. Having been taught 
music by her father, she scon developed a fresh 
and ringing voice, and was endowed with excel- 
lent memory and intelligence; but the only 
teaching she really had was in the music of the 
parts entrusted to her. She made her debut 
with success in 18 14 at Naples : Fe"tis heard her, 
and admired her as an actress of opera comique, 
at Douai in the following year. She continued 
to sing till 1822, with equal success, in the prin- 
cipal towns of France, and was then engaged at 
the Gymnase Dramatique at Paris, Ebers having 
made an unsuccessful attempt to engage her for 
London. Clever enough to perceive, however, 
after hearing the singers at the Italian Opera, 
how utterly she was without the knowledge 
of the proper manner of producing her voice, 
she took lessons of Garcia, and made her first 
appearance, April 3, 1823, in 'Les Folies amou- 
reuses,' a pasticcio arranged by Castil-Blaze. 
About this time she became the wife of M. Meric, 



a horn-player at the Opera Comique. Rejecting 
the offer of an engagement at the latter theatre, 
on Gareia's advice, she went to Italy, and re- 
ceived additional teaching from Bonfichi and 
Banderali at Milan. After singing with in- 
creased e'clat at Venice, Munich, Brescia, Cre- 
mona, Venice (again), and other Italian cities, 
she at length appeared in London during the 
season of 1830. 'She had been for six years 
reported to be one of the best singers of Italy — 
much had been expected of her . . . She had been 
compared with the best of the best ; but she 
arrived in England too late, and her place, more- 
over, had been filled by women of greater genius. 
She was a good musician, and sang with taste ; 
but her voice, a soprano, ere she came had con- 
tracted a habit of trembling, in those days a 
novelty (would it had always remained so!), to 
which English ears were then averse. She gave 
little satisfaction ' (Chorley). Mme. Me"ric sang, 
however, again in London in 183 1. In Paris she 
pleased no better in these latter years, and at 
length retired, in 1833, as it is said, to Spain ; 
since then no more has been heard of her. A bio- 
graphy, with a portrait, of Mme. Me"ric-Lalande 
was published in the musical journal, Teatro 
della Fenice, Venice, 1S26, i8mo. [J.M.] 

LALLA ROOKH. Moore's poem has been 
the parent of several musical compositions. 

1. An opera, by C. E. Horn ; produced in 
Dublin in or about 1820. 2. A ditto by Felicien 
David. [See Lalla Roukh.] 3. A ditto in 2 
acts ; words by Rodenberg, music by Rubinstein ; 
produced at Dresden in March, 1863. The name 
of the piece has since been changed to Feramors. 

4. Das Paradies und die Peri, by Schumann; and 

5. Paradise and the Peri, a Fantasie-Overture 
by Sterndale Bennett. For these two last see 
their own headings. [G.] 

LALLA ROUKH. Opera in 2 acts, founded 
on Moore's poem ; words by Lucas and Carre", 
music by Felicien David. Produced at the 
Opera Comique May 12, 1862. [G.] 

LAMB, Benjamin, organist of Eton College 
in the first quarter of the 18th century, and also 
verger of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, was the 
composer of some church music. An evening 
'Cantate' service and four anthems by him are 
in the Tudway collection (Harl. MSS. 7341-42). 
He was also a composer of songs. [W.H. H.] 

LAMBERT, George Jackson, son of George 
Lambert, organist of Beverley Minster, was born 
at Beverley in 1795. He studied under his 
father until he was sixteen, then in London 
under Samuel Thomas Lyon, and finally became 
a pupil of Dr. Crotch. In 181 8 he succeeded 
his father at Beverley. His compositions in- 
clude overtures, instrumental chamber music, 
organ fugues, pianoforte pieces, etc. In 1874 
ill health and deafness compelled him to relin- 
quish his post and retire from active life. 

The two Lamberts successively held the office 
of organist of Beverley Minster for the long 
period of 96 years, the father for 40 and the son 
for 56 years, and but for the latter's deafness 


would have held it for a century, a circumstance 
probably unparalleled. [W.H.H.] 

LAMENTATIONS (Lat. Lamentationes Hie- 
remice). On the Thursday, Friday, and Satur- 
day, in Holy Week, the three First Lessons ap- 
pointed, in the Roman Breviary, for the Office 
called Tcncbrce, are taken from the Lamentations 
of Jeremiah ; and the extraordinary beauty of the 
music to which they are sung, in the Sistine 
Chapel, and other large Churches, contributes 
not a little to the impressive character of the 
Service. [See Tenebr.«.] 

It is impossible to trace to its origin the Plain 
Chaunt melody to which the Lamentations were 
anciently adapted. The most celebrated version — 
though not, perhaps, the purest — is that printed 
by Guide tti, in his 'Directorium Chori,' in 1582. 
The best modern editions are those contained in 
the Mechlin 'Graduale,' and the Mechlin, and 
Ratisbon, 'OfficiumHebdomadae Sanctae'; in which 
the Lessons are given, at full length, in Gregorian 
notation, although the music is really no more 
than a simple Chaunt, in the Sixth Mode, re- 
peated, almost notatim, not only to each separate 
verse of the Sacred Text, but even to the prefatory 
'Incipit Lamentatio Jeremia3 Prophetse,' and the 
names of the Hebrew letters with which the 
several paragraphs are introduced. 
VI. Modus. 



I-Ol-- ■ 





g> ^ I S ! r zr 

Early in the 16th century, the use of the Plain 
Chaunt Lamentations was discontinued, in the 
Pontifical Chapel, to make room for a polyphonic 
setting, by Elziario Genet — more commonly 
known by his Italian cognomen, Carpentrasso — 
who held the appointment of Maestro di Capella, 
from i5i5toi526. These compositions remained 
in constant use, till the year 1587, when Pope 
Sixtus V. ordained, that the First Lamentation 
for each day should be adapted to some kind of 
polyphonic music better fitted to express the 
mournful character of the words than that of 
Carpentrasso; and, that the Second and Third 
Lessons should be sung, by a single Soprano, to 
the old Plain Chaunt melody as revised by 
Guidetti. The disuse of Carpentrasso' s time- 
honoured harmonies gave great offence to the 
Choir : but, the Pope's command being absolute, 
Palestrina composed some music to the First 
Lamentation for Good Friday, in a manner so 
impressive, that all opposition was at once 
silenced ; and the Pope, himself, on leaving the 
Chapel, said, that he hoped, in the following 
year, to hear the other two First Lessons sung 
in exactly the same style. The expression of this 
wish was, of course, a command : and, so under- 
standing it, Palestrina produced, in January 
1588, a volume, containing a complete set of the 
nine Lamentations — three, for each of the three 
days — which were printed, the same year, by 
Alexander Gardanus, under the title of Lamenta- 


tionum liber primus. The work was prefaced by 
a formal dedication to the Supreme Pontiff, who, 
though he still adhered to his resolution of having 
the Second and Third Lessons sung always in 
Plain Chaunt, expressed great pleasure in accept- 
ing it : and, in 1589, it was reprinted, at Venice, 
in 8vo., by Girolamo Scoto. 

More complex in construction than the great 
Composer's ' Improperia,' though infinitely less so 
than his Masses and Motets, these matchless 
'Lamentations' are written, throughout, in the 
devout and impressive style which produces so 
profound an effect in the first-named work, and 
always with marked attention to the mournful 
spirit of the words. They do not, like the Plain 
Chaunt rendering, embrace the entire text : but, 
after a certain number of verses, pause on the 
final chord of a prolonged cadence, and then pass 
on to the Strophe, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, with 
which each of the nine Lessons concludes. In 
the single Lesson for Good Friday — which, though 
not included in the original printed copy, is, un- 
doubtedly, the most beautiful of all — the opening 
verses are sung by two Soprani, an Alto, and a 
Tenor; a Bass being added, in the concluding 
Strophe, with wonderful effect. A similar ar- 
rangement is followed in the third Lamentation 
for the same day : but the others are for four 
voices only, and most of them with a Tenor in the 
lowest place ; while in all, without exception, the 
introductory sentences, 'Incipit Lamentatio,' or, 
'De Lamentatione,' as well as the names of the 
Hebrew initial letters, are set to harmonies of 
infinite richness and beauty — 

Fcria VI in Paratceve. Lectio I. 
Oata 1 



Since the death of Palestrina, the manner of 
singing the Lamentations in the Pontifical Chapel 
has undergone no very serious change. In ac- 
cordance with the injunction of Pope Sixtus V, 
the Second and Third Lessons for each day have 
always been sung 1 in Plain Chaunt: generally, 
by a single Soprano; but, sometimes, by two, 

1 Of course, without any accompaniment. 

the perfection of whose unisonous performance 
has constantly caused it to be mistaken for that 
of a single Voice. Until the year 1640, the First 
Lesson for each day was sung from Palestrina's 
printed volume. In that year, the single unpub- 
lished Lesson for Good Friday, composed in 1587, 
was restored to its place, and the use of the pub- 
lished one discontinued : while a new composition, 
by Gregorio Allegri, was substituted for Pales- 
trina's Lesson for Holy Saturday. The restoration 
of the MS. work can only be regarded as an 
inestimable gain. Allegri's work will not bear 
comparison with that which it displaced ; though 
it is a composition of the highest order of merit, 
abounding in beautiful combinations, and written 
with a true appreciation of the spirit of the text. 
It opens as follows : — 

Sabbato Sancto. Lectio I. 



De La -men - ta 

-«- j=*. 



<ty JJ 








re - mi - ae Pro - phe - tae. etc. 

It will be seen that Allegri has here not only 
adopted the tonality in which nearly all Pales- 
trina's Lamentations are written — the Thirteenth 
Mode, transposed — but has also insensibly fallen 
very much into the Great Master's method of 
treatment. Unhappily, the same praise cannot 
be awarded to another work, which he produced 
in 1 65 1, a few months only before his death, and 
which, though it bears but too plain traces of his 
failing discernment, was accepted by the College, 
as a mark of respect to the dying Composer, and 
retained in use until the Pontificate of Benedict 
XIII. This Pontiff inaugurated a radical change, 
by decreeing that the First Lessons should no 
longer be sung in this shortened form, but, with 
the entire text set to music. To meet his desire, 
three Lamentations, by modern writers, were 
submitted for approval, but unanimously rejected 
by the College, who commissioned Giovanni Biordi 
to add to the compositions of Palestrina and 
Allegri whatever was necessary to complete the 
text. Biordi was, perhaps, as well fitted as any 
man then living to undertake this difficult task : 
but it is to be regretted that he did not more 
carefully abstain from the use of certain forbidden 
intervals, and unlicensed chords. At the word, 
lacrymis, in the Lesson for Good Friday, he has 
made the first Soprano move a chromatic semi- 
tone, thereby producing, with the other parts, the 
chord of the Augmented Sixth. No doubt, his 
object in doing this was to intensify the ex- 
pression of the word : but, neither the semitone, 
nor the chord, would have been tolerated by 


Palestrina. 1 Again, in the Lesson for Holy Satur- 
day, lie has used the diminished fourth in disjunct 
motion, and broken many other time-honoured 
rules. Nevertheless, his work — which is, in many 
respects, extremely good — was unhesitatingly ac- 
cepted, and retained in use till the year 1731, 
when Pope Clement XII. restored the Lamenta- 
tions to their original shortened form. In this 
form they were suffered to remain, till 18 15, 
when the indefatigable Baini restored Palestrina's 
printed Lamentation for the first day, retaining 
the MS. of 1587 for the second, and Allegri's 
really beautiful composition for the third ; while 
the last-named composer's inferior work was suf- 
fered to fall into disuse — an arrangement which 
left little to be desired, and which has not, we 
believe, been followed by any farther change. 

Besides the printed volume already mentioned, 
Palestrina composed two other entire sets of 
Lamentations, which, though written in his best 
and purest style, remained, for two centuries and 
a half, unpublished. One of them was prepared, 
as early as the year 1560, for the use of the 
Lateran Basilica, where the original MS. is still 
preserved. The other reaches us only through 
the medium of a MS. in the Altaemps Otthoboni 
collection, now in the Vatican Library. In the 
year 1842, Alfieri printed the three sets, entire, 
in the 4th volume of his Raccolta di Musica Sacra, 
together with the single Lamentation for Good 
Friday, to which he appended Biordi's additional 
verses, without, however, pointing out the place 
where Palestrina's work ends, and Biordi's begins. 
The three single Lamentations, sung in the Pon- 
tifical Chapel, are given, with Biordi's now use- 
less additions, in a volume of the same editor's 
Excerpta, published in 1840 ; and, without 
Biordi's verses, in Choron's Collection des Pieces 
de Musique Religieuse. Both these editions are 
now out of print, and difficult to obtain : but a 
fine reprint of the nine pieces contained in the 
original Lamentationum liber prirnvx will be 
found in Proske's Musica Divina, vol. iv. Mr. 
Capes, in his Selection from the works of Pales- 
trina (Novello), has given the 1st Lamentation 
in Coena Domini, and the 1st in Sabb. Sancto, 
from the 1st book (1588), and has introduced 
between them the single Lesson for Good Friday 
(1587) already mentioned. 

Though the Lamentations of Carpentrasso, Pa- 
lestrina, and Allegri, are the only ones that have 
ever been actually used in the Pontifical Chapel, 
many others have been produced by Composers 
of no small reputation. As early as the year 
1 506, Ottaviano dei Petrucci published, at Venice, 
two volumes, containing settings by Johannes 
Tinctoris, Ycaert, De Orto, Francesco (d'Ana) 
da Venezia, Johannes de Quadris, Agricola, Bar- 
tolomeo Tromboncino, and Gaspar and Erasmus 
Lapicida. All these works were given to the 

1 Alfieri has published two editions of this work ; and, la both, be 
has inserted Biordi's additional verses, without vouchsafing any sign- 
beyond that afforded by Internal evidence— to indicate that they are 
not the genuine work of Palestrina himself. We mention this circum- 
stance, in order to show the danger of trusting, in doubtful cases, to 
the authority of any modern edition whatever. Alfieri's volumes may, 
some day, lead to the belief that Palestrina permitted the use of the 
chromatic semitone In his Ecclesiastical music I 


world before that of Carpentrasso, which, with 
many more of his compositions, was first printed, 
at Avignon, by Johannes Channay, in 1532. But 
the richest collection extant is that entitled 
Piissimcs ac sacratissimw Lamentationes Jeremia 
Prophetce, printed, in Paris, by A. le Roy and 
Robert Ballard, in 1557, and containing, besides 
Carpentrasso's capo d'opera, some extremely fine 
examples by De la Rue, Fevin, Archadelt, Festa, 
and Claudin le Jeune. 

'Lamentations' by English Composers are ex- 
ceedingly rare : hence, quite an exceptional in- 
terest is attached to a set of six, for five Voices, by 
R. Whyte, discovered by Dean Aldrich, and pre- 
served, in MS., in the Library of Christ Church, 
Oxford. [See Whyte, Robeet.] [W. S. R.] 

LAMPE, John Frederick, a native of Saxony, 
born 1703, came to England about 1725, and 
was engaged as a bassoon-player at the Opera. 
In 1732 he composed the music for Carey's 
'Amelia.' In 1737 he published 'A Plain and 
Compendious Method of teaching Thorough-Bass, ' 
etc., and also furnished the music for Carey's 
burlesque opera ' The Dragon of Wantley,' which 
met with remarkable success. It is an admirable 
example of the true burlesque, and is said to 
have been an especial favourite of Handel's. In 
1 738 he composed music for the sequel, 'Margery ; 
or, A Worse Plague than the Dragon.' In 1 740 
he published 'The Aft of Musick,' and in 1741 
composed music for the masque of 'The Sham 
Conjuror.' In 1745 he composed 'Pyramus and 
Thisbe, a mock opera, the words taken from 
Shakspeare.' Lampe was the composer of many 
single songs, several of which appeared in col- 
lections, as ' Wit musically embellish'd, a Col- 
lection of Forty -two new English Ballads'; 
' The Ladies' Amusement ' and ' Lyra Britan- 
nica.' Many songs by him were included in ' The 
Vocal Musical Mask,' 'The Musical Miscellany,' 
etc. Lampe married Isabella, daughter of Charles 
Young, and sister of Mrs. Arne ; she was a 
favourite singer, both on the stage and in the 
concert-room. In 1748 he went to Dublin, and 
in 1750 to Edinburgh, where he died, July 25, 
1 751, leaving behind him the reputation of 
an accomplished musician and excellent man. 
Charles Wesley often mentions him with great 
affection, and wrote a hymn on his death — ' 'Tis 
done ! the Sovereign Will 's obeyed ! ' 

Charles John Frederick, his son, succeeded 
his grandfather, Charles Young, as organist of 
Allhallows, Barking, in 1758, and held the 
appointment until 1769. [W.H.H.] 

LAMPERTI, Francesco, teacher of singing. 
Born at Savona 18 13. His father was an ad- 
vocate, and his mother a prima-donna of con- 
siderable repute. As a child he showed great 
talent for music, and was placed under Pietra 
Rizzi of Lodi. In 1820 he entered the Conser- 
vatorio at Milan, and there studied the piano- 
forte and harmony under Sommaruga d'Appiano 
and Pietro Ray. Devoting himself afterwards 
to the teaching of singing, he became associated 
with Masini in the direction of the Teatro 
Filodrammatico at Lodi. Selecting many of the 


members of his company from the natives of the 
surrounding country, he educated and brought 
out at his theatre many famous singers, such as 
La Tiberini, whose reputation otherwise would 
never have extended beyond their native village. 
Attracted by their success pupils nocked to 
him from Bergamo, Milan, and other parts of 
Europe, and he there trained many of the most 
distinguished operatic vocalists ; amongst whom 
may be named Jeanne-Sophie Lowe, Cruvelli, 
Grua, Brambilla, Hayes, Artdt, Tiberini, La 
Grange, and others equally distinguished. Ap- 
pointed in 1850 by the Austrian government 
professor of singing to the Conservatorio at 
Milan, he brought out amongst others Angelica 
Moro, Paganini, Galli, Risarelli, Angeleri, 
Peralta; and as private pupils, Albani, Stoltz, 
Waldmann, Aldighieri, Campanini, Vialletti, 
Derevis, Mariani, Palermi, Everardi, and Shake- 
speare. After twenty -five years service he retired 
from the Conservatorio upon a pension in 1875, 
and now devotes himself entirely to private pupils. 
A friend of Rubini and Pasta, and associated 
with the great singers of the past, Lamperti 
follows the method of the old Italian school of 
pinging, instituted by Farinelli and taught by Cres- 
centini, Velluti, Marchesi, and Romani. Basing 
his teaching upon the study of respiration, the 
taking and retention of the breath by means of 
the abdominal muscles alone, and the just emis- 
sion of the voice, he thoroughly grounds his pupils 
in the production of pure tone. His memory 
and his intuition are alike remarkable, and en- 
able him to adapt to each of his pupils such 
readings of the music and cadenzas as are war- 
ranted by the traditions of the greatest singers 
and are best adapted to their powers. Mme. 
Albani, writing in 1875 of his published treatise 
on singing, says : ' To say that I appreciate the 
work, it is sufficient for me to state that I am a 
pupil of the Maestro Lamperti, and that I owe 
to him and to his method the true art of singing, 
bo little known in these days.' 

He is Commendatore and Cavaliere of the 
order of the Crown of Italy, and a member of 
many academies and foreign orders. He is the 
author of several series of vocal studies and of a 
treatise on the art of singing (Ricordi & Co.), 
which has been translated into English by one of 
his pupils. [J.C.G.] 

dance, for 8 or 16 couples. It would appear 
to have been the invention of Joseph Hart in 
1 819, according to the title-page of his original 
edition, published in 1820. ' Les Lanciers, a 
second set of Quadrilles for the Piano Forte, with 
entirely new figures, as danced by the Nobility 
and Gentry at Tenby in the summer of 181 9. 
Composed and most respectfully dedicated to 
Lady and the Misses Beechy by Joseph Hart. 
London, for the Author, Whitaker & Co., 75 St. 
Paul's Churchyard.' The dance consisted of 5 
figures— La Rose. La Lodoiska, La Dorset, Les 
Lanciers, and L'Etoile, danced to Airs by Spa- 
gnoletti, by Kreutzer, from the Beggar's Opera 
^' If the heart of a man'), by Janiewicz, and 



by Horn ('Pretty Maiden,' from the Haunted 
Tower) respectively. Another version was pub- 
lished by Duval of Dublin about the same time. 
In this the names of the figures and the music 
remain substantially the same, though in the 
figures themselves there is considerable alteration. 
Hart's figures, with a slight difference or two, 
are still danced, L'Etoile being now called Les 
Visites, and Les Lanciers danced last. Whether 
Hart or Duval was the real inventor is un- 
certain. [W.B.S.] 

LANDOLFI, Carlo Ferdinando (Lan- 
dulphus), a reputable violin-maker of Milan, 
where he lived in the Street of St. Margaret, 
1 750- 1 760. He lived in an age when it had be- 
come expedient to copy rather than to invent. 
He occasionally copied Joseph Guarnerius so 
cleverly as to deceive experienced judges : and 
many of his works consequently cut a figure in the 
world even above their high intrinsic merits. Lan- 
dolfi's patterns, in the midst of much excellence, 
exhibit that occasional faltering which too surely 
betrays the copyist ; and his varnish is less solid, 
and possesses more of the quality known as 
' sugariness,' than the makers of the golden age. 
Often it is thin and hard, especially when yellow 
in colour. Many red instruments however exist, 
which are covered with a highly transparent 
varnish : and these are the favourites. The Lan- 
dolfi violoncellos are especially striking in quality 
and appearance, and are in greater demand than 
the violins. Good specimens realise from £30 to 
£50 : common and undersized ones may be bought 
cheaper. [E.J. P.] 

LANDSBERG, Ludwig, a German musician, 
native of Breslau, who went to Rome and re- 
mained there for 24 years, teaching the piano 
and amassing a wonderful collection of music, 
both printed and MS. On his death, at Rome 
May 6, 1858, his library was taken, part to 
Berlin and part to Breslau, and a catalogue of 
the ancient portion was printed (Berlin, 1859, 
imprime chez Ernest Kiihn) — whether the whole 
or a part, does not appear. It contains composi- 
tions by more than 150 musicians of the old 
Italian and Flemish schools, down to Casali. 
M. Fe'tis, however, who had received a MS. 
catalogue of the collection from Landsberg during 
his life, insists upon the fact that many of the 
most important works have disappeared. The 
catalogue itself does not appear to be any longer in 
the Fe'tis Library, which is now at Brussels. [G.] 

LANG. A family of German musicians origin- 
ally from Mannheim, but settling at Munich, 
and mentioned here for the sake of Josephine 
Lang (the second of that name), born Mar. 14, 
181 5, a young lady of very remarkable musical 
gifts and personality, who attracted the notice of 
Mendelssohn when he passed through Munich in 
1830 and 31. There is an enthusiastic account 
of 'die kleine Lang' in his letter of Oct. 6, 31 ; 
in writing to Barmann (July 7 and Sept. 27, 1834) 
he enquires for her, and in a letter seven years 
later (Dec. 15, 41) to Professor Kostlin of Tubin- 
gen, who had just married her, he shows how 



deeply her image had impressed itself on his 
susceptible heart. She has published several 
books of songs (up to op. 38), which from the 
reviews in the Allg. mus. Zeitung, appear to be 
full of imagination, and well worthy of the warm 
praise bestowed on them by Mendelssohn in the 
letters just mentioned. Hiller tells the story of 
her life at length in his Tonleben (ii. 116), and 
selects her songs, op. 1 2 and 14, as the best. Con- 
nected with the same family at an earlier date 
was Regina Lang, a singer whose name was 
originally Hitzelberg, born at Wiirzburg 1786, 
educated at Munich by Winter, Cannabich, and 
Vogel, and became chamber singer at the Bava- 
rian Court. When Napoleon I. was at Munich 
in 1 806 she sang before him in Winter's ' Inter- 
rupted Sacrifice ' and Mozart's ' Don Giovanni,' 
and so pleased him that he is said to have urged 
her to come to Paris (Mendel). She however re- 
mained in Munich, and married Theobald Lang, 
a violinist in the Court band. In 1812 or 13 she 
was at Vienna, and Beethoven wrote in her album 
a song 'An die Geliebte,' to Stoll's words, ' dass 
ich dir vom stilleAuge,' which was published about 
1840 in a collection called ' Das singende Deutsch- 
land.' It is his second version of the song — the 
former one being dated by himself December 1 8 1 1 , 
and having been published in 1814. See Notte- 
bohm's Thematic Cat. of Beethoven, p. 183. [G.] 

LANGDON, Richabd, Mus. Baa, son of 
Rev. Tobias Langdon, priest -vicar of Exeter 
Cathedral, graduated as Mus. Bac. at Oxford in 
1 761. About 1770 he received the appointments 
of organist and sub-chanter of Exeter Cathedral, 
but resigned them in 1777 upon being chosen 
organist of Bristol Cathedral. He quitted Bristol 
in 1782 to become organist of Armagh Cathedral, 
which he resigned in 1 794. In 1 7 74 he published 
'Divine Harmony, a Collection, in score, of 
Psalms and Anthems.' His published com- 
positions include 'Twelve Glees,' two books of 
songs, and some canzonets. Two glees and a 
catch by him are contained in Warren's ' Vocal 
Harmony.' He died Sept. 1803. Langdon in F 
is still a favourite double chant. [W. H. H.] 

LANGE, a family intimately connected with 
Mozart, inasmuch as his wife's sister, Aloysia 
Weber, in 1780 married the famous Joseph 
Lange, an actor, who held the same rank in 
(iermany that Garrick did in England and 
Lekain in France. Mozart's marriage to her 
younger sister, Constanz, took place Aug. 4, 
1782. Lange was born at Wiirzburg, 1751, and 
died at Vienna in 1 82 7. Aloysia was a very great 
singer ; her voice wanted power, but was said to 
be ' the sweetest ever heard ' (Jahn, ii. 18). Its 
compass was extraordinary, from B below the 
stave to A on the sixth space above it ; as may 
be seen from the songs which Mozart wrote for 
her — the part of ' the Queen of Night ' in the 
Zauberflote, and several detached bravura airs. 
She died in 1830. Mozart was for a time vio- 
lently in love with her. [Weber.] [G.] 

LANGSAM, i. e. slow, the German equivalent 
for Adagio. ' Langsam und sehnsuchtsvoll ' is 


Beethoven's direction to the third movement of 
the Sonata op. 101, equivalent to Adagio con 
molto di sentimento. See also the opening song 
of the Liederkreis, op. 98. Schumann employs it 
habitually ; see the first movement of his Sym- 
phony in E b. [G.] 

LANGSHAW, John, was employed about 
1 76 1, under the direction of John Christopher 
Smith, in setting music upon the barrels of an 
organ, of much larger size than had been thereto- 
fore used for barrels, then being constructed for 
the Earl of Bute, which he did 'in so masterly 
a manner that the effect was equal to that 
produced by the most finished player.' In 1772 
he became organist of the parish church of 
Lancaster, and died in 1 798. 

His son, John, was born in London in 1763, 
in 1779 became a pupil of Charles Wesley, and 
in 1798 succeeded his father as organist at 
Lancaster. He composed many hymns, chants, 
organ voluntaries, pianoforte concertos, songs 
and duets, and made numerous arrangements for 
the pianoforte. [W.H.H.] 

LANIERE, Nicholas, was the son of Jerome 
Laniere, an Italian musician, who, together with 
Nicholas Laniere, probably his brother, settled 
in England, and in 1571 were musicians to Queen 
Elizabeth. The date of his birth is not known, 
but it was probably about 1590. His name first 
appears as singer and composer in the masque 
performed at court on the marriage of Carr, Earl 
of Somerset, and Lady Frances Howard in 16 14, 
the first song in which, ' Bring away the sacred 
tree' (reprinted in Smith's 'Musica Antiqua'), 
was composed by him. His skill as a singer is 
alluded to in some lines addressed by Herrick to 
Henry Lawes. He composed the music for Ben 
Jonson's masque presented at the house of Lord 
Hay for the entertainment of Baron de Tour, the 
French Ambassador, on Saturday, Feb. 22, 161 7, 
' in stylo recitativo,' being the first introduction 
of recitative into an English composition. He 
also sang in the piece and painted the scenery 
for it. He next composed the music for Jonson's 
masque, 'The Vision of Delight,' performed at 
court at Christmas, 161 7. Laniere cultivated the 
arts of painting and engraving as well as that of 
music, and his judgment was so much esteemed, 
that he was sent by Charles I. to Italy to pur- 
chase pictures in 1625, and again in 1627 to 
negociate for the purchase of the Duke of 
Mantua's collection. One of those pictures was 
' Mercury instructing Cupid,' by Correggio, now 
in the National Gallery. He was appointed 
' Master of the King's Musick,' at an annual 
salary of £200, by patent dated July 11, 1626. 
In 1636 Charles I. granted to Laniere and 
others a charter, based upon one of Edward IV., . 
incorporating them under the style of 'The 
Marshal, Wardens, and Cominality of the Arte 
and Science of Musick in Westminster,' and 
giving them power to control and regulate all 
matters connected with music, and of this body 
Laniere was appointed the first Marshal. At 
the fall of Charles, Laniere lost his court ap- 
pointments, but was reinstated in them on 


the accession of Charles II., and the Corpora- 
tion of Musicians was revived. The date of his 
death is unknown; he was living in 1665, but 
dead in Jan. 1670, when Capt. Cooke's name 
appears as Marshal of the Corporation. He com- 
posed a funeral hymn on Charles I., a pastoral 
upon the birth of Prince Charles, and New 
Year's Songs for 1663 and 1665. Songs and 
other pieces by him are contained in 'Select 
Musicall Ayres and Dialogues,' 1653 and 1659 ; 
'The Musical Companion,' 1667 ; ' The Treasury 
of Musick,' 1669 ; and ' Choice Ayres and Songs,' 
book iv, 1685. Several songs and dialogues by 
him are in the British Museum, Add. MSS. 
11,608. Vandyck painted Laniere's portrait for 
Charles I. Another portrait is in the Music 
School at Oxford, to which it was presented by 
Laniere himself. The Laniere family was very 
numerous, and several of its members were court 
musicians in the 17th century. [W.H.H.] 

LANNER, JosIph, born at Vienna, April 
12, 1 80 1 ; son of a glove-maker; early showed 
a talent for music, taught himself the violin, and 
by means of theoretical books learned to com- 
pose. Next came the desire to conduct an 
orchestra ; and in the meantime he got together 
a quartet party, in which the viola was taken by 
Strauss, his subsequent rival. They played 
potpourris from favourite operas, marches, etc., 
arranged by Lanner. He next composed waltzes 
and Landler, first for a small, then for a full 
orchestra, and performed them in public. His 
popularity increased rapidly, and important 
places of amusement eagerly competed for his 
services. He also appeared in most of the 
provincial capitals, but declined all invitations 
abroad. He conducted the dance music in the 
large and small Redoutensaal, and also that at 
the court balls, alternately with Strauss. As 
a mark of distinction he was appointed Capell- 
meister of the 2nd Burger-regiment. When thus 
at the height of prosperity he died, April 14, 1843 ; 
and was buried in the churchyard of Dobling, 
near Vienna. A memorial tablet was placed on 
the house in which he was born, May 15, 1879. 1 

Lanner may be considered the founder of our 
present dance-music. His galops, quadrilles, 
polkas, and marches, but especially his waltzes 
and Landler, bear traces of the frank, genial 
disposition which made him so beloved. All his 
works, from op. I, ('Neue Wiener Landler') to 
his swan-song ('Die Schonbrunner ') are pene- 
trated with the warm national life of Vienna. 
The titles often contain allusions to contempo- 
raneous events and customs, and thus have an 
historical interest. His printed works amount 
to 208, and he left others unpublished. The 
following numbers are dedicated to crowned 
heads, and distinguished persons— op. 74, 81, 85, 
91, ioi, 110-12, 115-16, 120, 128, 131-32, 138 
(' Victoria- Walzer ' dedicated to Queen Victoria), 
143,146, 155,161-62. The "Troubadour- Walzer,' 
op. 197, are dedicated to Donizetti, and the 
•Norwegische Arabesken,' op. 145, to Ole Bull. 

1 Owing to a curious error In the entry of his baptism, bis name 
was for long overlooked in the register. 



Diabelli published op. 1-15 ; Haslinger 16-32, 
and 170-208; Mechetti 33-169. 

Of Lanner's three children, August, born 1834 
in Vienna, a young man of great promise, fol- 
lowed his father's profession, but died Sept. 27, 
1855. Kathabina, born in Vienna 1831, is 
a well-known dancer, who since her de"but at 
the court opera in Vienna in 1845, has appeared 
at all the important theatres in Europe. She 
has also written several admired ballets, and in 
1858 formed a children's ballet in Hamburg, 
which gave 46 performances in Paris with great 
success. At a later date she was engaged also at 
the Italian Opera in England. [C.F.P.] 

LAPORTE, Pieebe Fbancois, an eminent 
French comedian, came to London as a member 
and joint manager of a company who, in January 
1824, commenced performing French plays at 
the theatre in Tottenham Street. On Nov. 18, 
1826, he appeared on the English stage, as a 
member of the Drury Lane company, as Sosia in 
Dryden's ' Amphitryon,' and afterwards played a 
variety of parts, mostly original, and amongst 
them Wormwood in ' The Lottery Ticket.' He 
next joined the Haymarket company, in which 
he first appeared June 15, 1827. In 1828 he 
became manager of the King's Theatre, and 
continued such until 1831. In 1832 he was 
lessee of Covent Garden Theatre, and actor as 
well as manager, but was compelled to retire, 
with heavy loss, before the end of the season. 
In 1833 he resumed the management of the 
King's Theatre, and retained it until his death, 
which occurred at his chateau near Paris, Sept. 
25, 1 84 1. A notable feature of his last season 
was the ' Tamburini Row,' a disturbance of the 
performance occasioned by the admirers of Tam- 
burini, who resented his non- engagement for 
that season, and by their tumultuous proceedings 
for two or three evenings forced the manager to 
yield to their wishes. Another curious feature 
of this year was the reappearance of Laporte in 
his original capacity as an actor, with Rachel, on 
three nights of her first London season. Laporte 
first introduced to the English public, amongst 
other operas, Rossini's 'ComteOry' and 'Assedio 
di Corinto' ; Belhni's 'Pirata,' ' Sonnambula,' 
'Norma' and 'Puritani' ; Donizetti's 'Anna 
Bolena,' and Costa's 'MalekAdel': and amongst 
singers, Sontag, Meric Lalande, Persiani, As- 
sandri, Albertazzi, Pisaroni, Donzelli, David jun., 
Ivanoff, Mario; and, above all, the famous 
quartet who so long held supremacy on the opera 
stage, Grisi, Rubini, Tamburini, and Lablache. 
Though his dilatory and unbusinesslike habits 
ruined his management, Laporte was not with- 
out good qualities. Amongst others his tact and 
coolness were great, and many of his bons mots 
were current at the time. When Cerito returned 
the ticket of a box on the upper tier with the 
remark that she was much too young to be 
exalted to the skies before her time, Laporte — 
having already given a box on the same tier to 
Taglioni — replied that he ' had done his best, but 
that perhaps he had been wrong in placing her on 
the same level with Mdlle. Taglioni.' [W. H. H.} 



LARGE (Lat. Maxima, Old Eng. Maxim). 
The longest note used in measured music. In 
ancient MSS., the Large appears as an oblong 
black note, corresponding with the Double-Long 
described in the Ars Cantus Mensurabilis of 
Franco of Cologne. Franchinus Gafforius, writing 
in 1496, figures it as an oblong white note, with a 
tail descending on the right hand side ; which form 
it has retained, unchanged, to the present day. 1 

In ancient In printed 
MSS. books. 

Large Rest. 

Large Rest. 





In the Great Mode Perfect, the Large is equal 
to three Longs : in the Great Mode Imperfect, to 
two. [See Mode.] The Rest for the Perfect 
Large stretches, in a double line, across three 
spaces ; that for the Imperfect Large, across two. 

In Polyphonic Music, the final note is always 
written as a Large : and, in that position, its 
length is sometimes indefinitely prolonged, in the 
Canto fermo, while the other voices are elaborat- 
ing a florid cadence. In Plain Chaunt, the Large 
— or, rather, in that case, the Double -Long — is 
sometimes, but not very frequently, used, to indi- 
cate the Reciting-Note. [W. S. R.] 

LARGHETTO, partaking, of the broad style 
of Largo, but about the same pace with Andante. 
Well-known instances of its use are the slow 
movements in Beethoven's 2nd Symphony and 
Violin Concerto. [G.] 

LARGO, i.e. broad, an Italian term meaning 
a slow, broad, dignified style. Handel employs 
it often, as in the Messiah in ' Behold the Lamb 
of God,' ' He was despised,' and ' Surely.' Haydn 
uses it for the Introduction and first Chorus 
in the 'Creation,' as well as in the Introduction 
to the 3rd Part. Beethoven employs it only in 
P. F. works, and it is enough to mention some of 
the instances to show what grandeur and deep 
feeling he conveyed by this term, — op. 7 ; op. 10, 
no. 3 ; op. 37 ; op. 70, no. 1 ; op. 106. He often ac- 
companies it with passionate, or some other term 
denoting intense expression. Mendelssohn uses it 
for • broad' in the Andante of his op. 12. 

The term Largamente has recently come into 
use to denote breadth of style without change 
of tempo. Largo implies a slow pace, but the 
very varying metronome marks applied to it show 
conclusively that style and not pace is its princi- 
pal intention. [G.] 

LARIGOT (from an old French word, I'arigot, 
for a small flute or flageolet, now obsolete), the 
old name for a rank of small open metal pipes, 
the longest of which is only 1^ ft. speaking-length. 
Its pitch is a fifth above that of the fifteenth, an 
octave above the twelfth, and a nineteenth above 
the unison. It is first met with, in English 
organs, in those made by Harris, who passed 
many years in France, and who placed one in his 

1 Tn modern reprints, the tall Is sometimes made to ascend ; but it 
Is indispensable that it should be on the right hand tide. See in- 
numerable examples in Froskt's Mutiea Duma. 


instrument in St. Sepulchre's, Snow Hill, erected 
in 1670. [E.J.H.] 

LAROCHE, James, better known as Jemmy 
Laroch, or Laroche, was a popular singer in 
London, though probably French by origin or 
birth, at the end of the 17th and beginning of 
the 1 8th centuries. He played, as a boy, the 
part of Cupid in Motteux's ' Loves of Mars and 
Venus,' set to music by Eccles and Finger, in 
which the part of Venus was played by Mrs. 
Bracegirdle, in 1696. He was, therefore, born 
probably about 1680-2. His portrait appears 
on a very rare print, called ' The Raree Show. 
Sung by Jemmy Laroch in the Musical Interlude 
for the Peace, with the Tune Set to Musick for the 
Violin. Ingraved Printed Cubed and Sold by 
Sutton Nicholls next door to the Jack, etc. Lon- 
don,' fol. It was afterwards published by Samuel 
Lyne. There are 33 verses beginning ■ Raree 
Show, O Brave Show' bejow the engraving, 
which represents Laroche with the show on a 
stool, exhibiting it to a group of children ; and 
at foot is the music. The Peace of Utrecht was 
signed in April, 17 13, and this interlude was 
played in celebration of it, at the Theatre in 
Little Lincoln's Inn Fields, the music being 
written by John Eccles. The portrait of La- 
roche was also engraved by M. Laroon in his 
• Cries of London.' [J.M.] 

LAROON, J., a foreigner who sang in opera 
in the first years of the last century in London, 
and was, perhaps, the son of M. Laroon, the 
artist (born at the Hague 1653, died 1705), who 
engraved the 'Cries of London,' etc. J. Laroon 
played, among other parts, that of Sylvander 
(tenor) in ' The Temple of Love,' by G. F. Sag- 
gione (1706), not (as Burney incorrectly says) 
by Greber. [See Gallia.] [J.M.] 

LASSEN, Eduaud, though a native of Copen- 
hagen, where he was born April 13, 1830, is vir- 
tually a Belgian musician, since he was taken to 
Brussels when only 2, entered the Conservatoire 
there at 12, in 1844 took the first prize as P. F. 
player, in 47 the same for harmony, and soon 
afterward the second prize for composition. His 
successes, which were many, were crowned by 
the great Government prize, which was adjudged 
to him in 1851, after which he started on a length- 
ened tour through Germany and Italy. Dis- 
appointed in his hopes of getting his 5 -act opera, 
' Le Roi Edgard ' performed at Brussels, he betook 
himself to Weimar, where in 57 it was produced 
under the care of Liszt, with great success. A 
second, ' Frauenlob,' and a third, 'Der Gefangene,' 
were equally fortunate. When Liszt retired 
from Weimar, Lassen took his place, and had 
the satisfaction to produce ' Tristan and Isolde ' 
in 1S74, at a time when no other theatre but 
Munich had dared to do so. He there published 
a Symphony in D, a Beethoven overture, and a 
Festival ditto, music to Sophocles' (Edipus, to 
Hebbel's Nibelungen, and Goethe's Faust, Parts 
1 and 2, a Fest-Cantate, a Te Deum, a large 
number of songs, and other pieces. His latest 
work is a set of 6 songs (op. 67). [G.] 




LASSERRE, Jules, eminent violoncellist, was 
born at Tarbes July 29, 1838, entered the Paris 
Conservatoire in 1852, where he gained the second 
prize in 1853 and the first prize in 1855. When 
the popular concerts of Pasdeloup were first 
started, he was appointed solo violoncellist ; he 
has also played with great success in the prin- 
cipal towns of France. During 1859 he was solo 
cellist at the Court of Madrid, and travelled 
through Spain. In 1869 he came to reside per- 
manently in England, since which time he has 
played principal violoncello under Sir Michael 
Costa and at the Musical Union. Lasserre has 
written various compositions both for his own 
instrument and for the violin — Etudes, Fantasies, 
Romances, Tarantelles, Transcriptions, a violon- 
cello 'Method,' etc., etc. [T.P.H.] 

LASSUS, Orlando di, born atMons in the first 
half of the 16th century. His real name was 
probably Delattre, but the form de Lassus seems 
to have been constantly used in Mons at the 
time, and was not his own invention. He had no 
fixed mode of writing his name, and in the prefaces 
to the first four volumes of the 'Patrocinium 
Musices,' signs himself differently each time, — 
Orlandus de Lasso, Orlandus di Lasso, Orlandus 
di Lassus, and Orlandus Lassus ; and again in the 
' Lectiones Hiob,' 1582, Orlando de Lasso. In the 
French editions we usually find the name Orlande 
de Lassus, and so it appears on the statue in his 
native town. Adrian Le Roy, however, in some 
of the Paris editions, by way perhaps of Latin- 
izing the de, calls him Orlandus Lassusius. 

The two works usually referred to for his early 
life are Vinchant's 'Annals of 'Hainault' ; and 
a notice by Van Quickelberg in 1565, in the 
' Heroum Prosopographia,' a biographical dic- 
tionary compiled by Pantaleon. Vinchant, under 
the year 1520, writes as follows: — 

' Orland dit Lassus was born in the town of Mons, in 
the same year that Charles V was proclaimed Emperor 
at Aix-la-Chapelle [1520] .... He was born in the Hue 
de Guirlande near the passage leading from the Black 
Head. J He was chorister in the church of S. Nicolas » in 

1 The original MS. is now In the Mons library. The author lived 
between 1580 and 1635. 

- 'A l'issue de la maison portant l'enselgne de la noire teste.' 
Delmotte (in his Life of Lassus, Valenciennes, 1836) thinks 'the Black 
Head ' was situated in the Rue Grande, No. 92. Counting the number 
of houses between the 'Poids de fer' (town weighing-house) and the 
' Maison de la noire tcte ' in the old records of the town, he found it to 
correspond with the distance from the former building. Moreover 
No. 92 bore, in Delmotte's time, the sign of a helmet, which he thinks 
might, in olden time, have been painted black to imitate iron, and 
thus have been called the ' noire tete.' He goes on to say, but without 
stating his authority, that this house, No. 92, bad formerly a passage 

leading into the Rue de grande Guir- , , 

tande (afterwards and now Rue des py^£S2 

Capuclns) between the houses l»os. 67 ~ 

an 159. If so, it must have been a house 

of importance, with back premises 

stretching behind the whole length of 

the Rue des Capuclns. Nos. 57 and 59 

are at present (1878) large new houses, 

with a passage between tbem leading 

to No. 55, a private bouse behind the 

street. If this passage marks the site 

of the original 'issue' spoken of by 

Vinchant, then the house in which 

Lassus was born may have been situated on one aide of It, at the 

corner of the Rue de Cantimpr<5. Curiously enough, Matthleu, in his 

Life of Lassus, says that an Isabeau de Lassus lived In the Rue de 

Cantimpre\ Quartler Guirlande, which adds to the probability that 

a house situated at the corner of the two streets may have been 

occupied by the composer. 

' The church of St. Nicolas was burnt down in the 17th century, and 
replaced by the present building. 

the Rue de Havrecq. After his father was condemned for 
coining false money etc. the said Orland, who was called 
Roland de Lattre, changed his name to Orland de Lassus, 
left the country, and went to Italy with Ferdinand de 

Van Quickelberg 1 dates his birth ten years 
later : — 

' Orlandus was born at Mons in Hainault in the year 
1530. At 7 years old he began his education, and a year 
and a half later took to music, which ho soon understood. 
The beauty of his voice attracted so much attention, that 
he was thrice stolen from the school where he lived with 
the other choristers. Twice his good parents sought and 
found him, but the third time he consented to remain 
with Ferdinand Gonzague viceroy of Sicily, at that time 
commander of the emperor's forces at St. Dizier. The 
war over, he went with that prince first to Sicily, and 
then to Milan. After 6 years his voice broke, and at the 
age of 18 Constantin Castriotto took him to Naples, where 
he lived for 3 years with the Marquis of Terza. Thence 
to Rome, where he was the guest of the archbishop of Flo- 
rence for 6 months, at the end of which time he was ap- 
pointed director of the choir in the church of S. Giovanni 
in Laterano, by far the most celebrated in Rome .... 
Two years afterwards he visited England and France with 
Julius Caesar Brancaccio, a nobleman and an amateur 
musician. Returning to his native land, he resided in 
Antwerp for two years, whence he was called to Munich 
by Albert of Bavaria in 1557. 

It is difficult to decide between the two birth- 
dates 1520 and 1530. Baini places the Roman 
appointment in 1541, Van Quickelberg in 1551. 
That Lassus left Rome about 1553, as Van 
Quickelberg says, is also to be inferred from the 
preface to his first Antwerp publication (May 13, 
1555), where he speaks of his removal from the 
one city to the other as if recent. Assuming 
that his life in Rome lasted either 2 years or 1 2, 
we may ask whether it is likely that one of the 
most industrious and prolific composers in the 
whole history of music, should obtain so high a 
position as early as 1541, without being known 
to us as a composer till '1555; or is it, on the 
contrary, more likely that a reputation which 
seems to have been European by the time he 
went to Munich (1557), could have been gained, 
without some eariy and long career as a composer 
of works which may yet be lying undiscovered in 
some Italian church or library. 

Vinchant alludes to Lassus' father having been 
condemned as a coiner of false money. Matthieu* 
has worked hard to refute this, and his examina- 
tion of the criminal records of Mons casts great 
improbability on the story. At the same time, 
and from the same sources, he has brought to 
light other namesakes of the composer, who if 

* Van Quickelberg, whose own biography appears In Fantaleon's 
book, was born at Antwerp in 1529, and practised as a physician at the 
court of Munich, while Lassus was chief musician there. We must 
give great weight to an account written by a contemporary and com- 
patriot, and under the eyes of the composer himself. The date 1530 is 
no printer's error, as Delmotte suggests, for the account speaks of 
Lassus as a child at the siege of 8. Dizier, which took place in the year 
1544. Therefore Van Quickelberg must have meant to say 1530, just 
as certainly as Vinchant emphasises his date ir>20 by a reference to the 
coronation of the emperor. Judging simply by the authority of the 
statements, we should certainly give the preference to Van Quickel- 
berg ; but Vinchant's date Is supported by so many other considera- 
tions that we think Delmotte, Fetis, and Ambros are right In preferring 
it, though it is premature to adopt it absolutely. These dates may be 
more important than at first sight appears. If some one undertakes a 
comparison of the Influence of Lassus and Palestrina on the history of 

» According to Dehn. an edition of motets, dated 1546. Is in the 
library at Bologna. This statement requires some confirmation. The 
MSS. catalogues of the Italian libraries, in Dehu's possession, some of 
which are in the F<Stis library at Brussels, are not likely to be entirely 
free from error. 

• Roland de Lattre par Adolphe Matthleu. Gand (no date). 



they belonged to his family, did little credit to it, 
and need not be mentioned here. It would be 
more interesting to find some tie between Orlando 
and two other contemporary composers, Olivier 
Delatre, and Claude Petit Jean Delattre, the 
second a man of considerable eminence. 

Of Lassus' education, after he left Mons, we 
know nothing, but his first compositions show him 
following the steps of his countrymen, Willaert, 
Verdelot, Arcadelt, and Rore, in the Venetian 
school of madrigal writing ; his first book of ma- 
drigals (a 5) being published in Venice soon 
after he had himself left Italy and settled in 
Antwerp. This book in its time went through 
many editions, but copies of it are scarce now, 
and none of its 22 pieces have been published in 
modern notation. 

The visit to England must have taken place 
about 1554. We have been unable to find any 
account of the nobleman whom Orlando accom- 
panied, but many of his family had been dig- 
nitaries of the church of Rome, and by him 
Orlando was probably introduced to Cardinal Pole, 
in whose honour he wrote music to the words 

' Te spectant Eegiualde poli, tihi sidera rident, 

Exultant montes, personat Oceanus, 
Anglia dum plaudit quod faustos excutis ignes 
Elicis et lachrimas ex adamante suo.' 

This was published in 1556, and the incidents 
to which it refers could not have taken place 
before 1554, so it gives an additional clue to the 
time of the composer's visit to this country, cor- 
roborating the statement of Van Quickelberg. 
It is curious that in the year 1554, a Don Pedro 
di Lasso attended the marriage of Philip and 
Mary in England as ambassador from Ferdinand, 
King of the Romans. 

By the end of 1554, Orlando is probably 
settled at Antwerp, for in 'the Italian pre- 
face to a book of madrigals and motets printed 
in that city (May 13, 1555),' he speaks of their 
having been composed there since his return from 
Rome. ' There,' says Van Quickelberg, • he re- 
mained two years, in the society of men of rank 
and culture, rousing in them a taste for music, and 
in return gaining their love and respect.' The 
book referred to contains 18 Italian canzones, 6 
French chansons, and 6 motets ' a la nouvelle 
composition d'aucuns d'ltalie.' Of the Italian 
ones 5 are published by Van Maldeghem. 1 This 
is our first introduction to the great composer, 
and we get over it with little formality. If Or- 
lando ever wrote any masses for his composer's 
diploma ; if the old tune ' l'omme arme,' was tor- 
tured by any fresh contrapuntal devices of his 
pen, it is plain that he left such tasks behind him 
when he gave up school, and ' roused the musical 
taste' of his Antwerp friends by music which 
errs, if at all, on the side of simplicity. We pass 
with regret from the graceful ' Madonna ma 
pieta' and the almost melodious 'La cortesia,' to 
the Latin motets — 3 sacred, 2 secular — in the 
same volume. One of the latter is the ' Alma 
nemes' which Burney gives in his History (iii. 
317), pointing out the modulation on the words 

1 Trisor Musical. 10«» Annie. Brnielles 1ST*. 


' novumque melos,' as a striking example of the 
chromatic passages of the school in which Lassus 
and Rore were educated. Burney couples the two 
together, and regards Lassus chiefly as a secular 
composer. He seems to know but little of the 
great sacred works of his later life, and likens 
him to a 'dwarf upon stilts' by the side of 
Palestrina. But though this unfortunate com- 
parison has brought the great English historian 
into disgrace with Fe"tis and Ambros, still Bur- 
ney's remarks on Lassus' early works are very 
interesting and certainly not unfair. It is only 
strange that, knowing and thinking so little of 
Lassus, he should have compared him to Pales- 
trina at all. 

The other work belonging to this period (Ant- 
werp 1556) is the first book of motets — 12 nos. 
a 5, and 5 nos. a 6. Here the composer recog- 
nises the importance of his first publication of 
serious music, by opening it with an ode to the 
Muses, ' Delitire Phoebi,' a 5, in which the setting 
of the words ' Sustine Lassum,' is the principal 
feature. Other interesting numbers are the 
' Gustate, videte,' which will be referred to again 
when we follow Lassus to Munich, the motet 
'Te spectant Reginalde poli,' and 'Heroum so- 
boles, in honour of Charles V, the second being 
in the strict imitative style, the last in simpler 
and more massive harmony (a 6), as if designed 
for a large chorus at some public ceremonial. 

The sacred numbers, such as the ' Mirabile mys- 
terium ' — an anthem, we suppose for Christmas 
day — show no signs of any secular tendency or 
Venetian influence. They are as hard to our 
ears as any music of the Josquin period. They 
give us our first insight into Orlando's church 
work, and it is interesting to find him drawing so 
distinct a line between compositions for the church 
and the world, and not, as Burney implies, too 
much petted in society and at court, to be grave 
and earnest in his religious music. We have a 
good example here that the contrary is the case. 
The Muses and Cardinal Pole are much too seri- 
ous subjects to be in the slightest degree trifled 
with, and the Ode to Charles V. alone exhibits any 
originality of treatment. 

On the strength of a reputation as a composer 
both for the chamber and the church, and of a 
popularity amongst men of rank and talent, 
gained as much by his character and disposition 
and liberal education, as by his musical powers, 
he was invited by Albert V., Duke of Bavaria, in 
1556 or 1557, to come to Munich as director of 
his chamber music. Albert was not only the 
kind patron of Lassus, but seems to have exercised 
considerable influence on the direction of his 
genius. He was born in 1527, was a great 
patron of the arts, founded the royal library at 
Munich, acquired considerable fame as an athlete, 
and was a man of the strictest religious prin- 
ciples, the effect of which was not confined to his 
family, but extended to his people by severe laws 
against immorality of every kind. Of the exact 
state of music at Munich when Lassus first 
reached it, we cannot speak precisely. The head 
of the chapel, Ludovico d'Asero, or Ludwig 


Daser, was a distinguished composer in his time, 
but a single 'Fuga' is all that has been left to 
us. 1 Being an old man, he would probably have 
retired in favour of Lassus, as he did a few years 
later, but it was thought better for the new comer 
to acquire the language of the country before 
undertaking so responsible a post, and he was 
therefore appointed a chamber musician. He 
seems to have settled at once into his new posi- 
tion, for the next year (1558) he married Kegina 
Weckinger, a maid of honour at the court. The 
marriage proved a very happy one, and Van 
Quickelberg speaks of the children, whom he 
must have known at a very early age (1565), as 
' elegantissimi.' At any rate they did very well 
afterwards. The four sons, Ferdinand, Ernest, 
Rudolph and Jean, all became musicians, and 
the two daughters were married — one of them, 
Regina, to the Seigneur d'Ach, one of the court 

In his subordinate position Lassus did not 
publish much, though, as the next paragraph 
shows, he wrote continually. The next two or 
three years produced a second book of 21 mad- 
rigals (a 5), and a book of chansons (a 4, 5, 6), 
the latter containing the 5-part chanson 'Su- 
sanne un jour,' to which Burney refers in his 
History (iii. 262), as well as a 6-part setting of 
the ' Tityre, tu patulse,' which is quite simple in 
effect, and has a very beautiful last movement. 
We observe at once the great care which Orlando 
takes of the quantities of the Latin words. 

In the year 1562 Daser is allowed to retire 
on his full salary, and 

• The Duke seeing that Master Orlando had by this time 
learnt the language, and gained the good will and love of 
all, by the propriety and gentleness of his behaviour, and 
that his compositions (in number infinite) were uni- 
versally liked, without loss of time elected him master of 
the chapel, to the evident pleasure of all. And, indeed, 
with all his distinguished colleagues, he lived so quietly 
and peacefully, that all were forced to love him, to re- 
spect him in his presence, and to praise him in his ab- 

From this time Lassus appears principally as 
a composer for the church, and it is worth re- 
marking that in this same year the subject of 
music was discussed by the Council of Trent, and 
a resolution passed to reform some of the glaring 
defects in the style of church composition. Las- 
sus' great works, being of a subsequent date, 
are as entirely free from the vagaries of his pre- 
decessors as are the later works of Palestrina. 
[See Josqoin.] 

The new chapel-master, in the June of the 
same year, prints his first book of entirely sacred 
music — ' Sacrse cantiones, a 5' (25 nos.), of which 
' Veni in hortum' has been published by 2 Com- 
mer, 'Angelus ad pastores' by 3 Rochlitz, and 
'Benedicam Dominum' by 4 Proske. 

But it was not alone as a church composer 
that Lassus was anxious at once to assert his new 
position. He soon showed special qualifications 
as conductor of the choir. ' One great quality,' 

I See the name In Eitner's Bibliographic (Berlin, 1877), p. 224. 

» Musica Sacra, x. 47 (Trautweln). 

• Sammlung Gesangstucke, 1. 15 (Schott). 

■ ilusica Divina, ii. 250 (Batisbon, 1853). 



says Massimo Trojano, 5 'was the firmness and 
genius he evinced when the choir were singing, 
giving the time with such steadiness and force, 
that, like warriors taking courage at the sound 
of the trumpet, the expert singers needed no 
other orders than the expression of that powerful 
and vigorous countenance to animate their 
sweetly -sounding voices.' The portrait which we 
here give, and which is now engraved for the 
first time, has been photographed 6 from the 
magnificent manuscript copy of Lassus's music 
to the Penitential Psalms, which forms one of 
the ornaments of the Royal State Library at Mu- 
nich. The inscription round the outside of the 
oval is ' In 7 corde prudentis requiescit sapientia 
et indoctos quosque erudiet. Pro. xiiii.,' showing 
in how favourable and honourable a light a great 
musician was regarded in the 1 6th century. 


In the autumn Lassus must have gone to 
Venice, taking his new ' Cantiones ' with him ; 
for though Gardane does not print them till 1 565, 
the preface to his edition is signed by the com- 
poser, and dated • Venetiis 1562 die 1. Nov.' 
He also left behind him a third set of 1 3 mad- 
rigals, published there in the following year. 
Van Quickelberg also speaks of a visit to Ant- 
werp about this time ; and the publications for 
the year 1 564 — two books of chansons, one printed 
in that city, the other at Louvain — corroborate 

» Discorsi delli triomphl, etc., nelle nozze dell' illustrlsslmo duca 
Guglielmo, etc., da Massimo Trojano (Monaco, Berg, 1588). 

8 The Editor desires to express his special thanks to Professor 
Halm, the Director of the Boyal State Library, for the prompt kind- 
ness with which he granted permission and gave every facility for the 
photographing of the portrait. Another portrait from the same MS., on 
a smaller scale, full length and In a long gown, 1» lithographed and 
given In Delmotte's Life of Lassus. 

' Thus rendered In the Douay Version—* In the heart of the prudent 
resteth wisdom, and It shall instruct all the Ignorant.' The artist has 
incorrectly written ' in doctos." 



the statement. The ist book (a 4) contains 27 
short pieces of a humorous character, many of 
which are given by Van Maldeghem in his 
' Tresor Musical.' The music is admirably adapted 
to the words, notwithstanding the fact that in 
later times it was considered equally well suited to 
sacred words, or at least published with them, an 
ordeal to which many of his earlier secular com- 
positions were subjected. The reason and residt 
of these journeys are thus given by Massimo 
Trojano : — 

'The Duke seeing that his predecessor's chapel was far 
beneath his own ideal, sent messages and letters, with 
gifts and promises through all Europe, to select learned 
musical artists, and singers with fine voices and experi- 
ence. And it came to pass in a short time, that he had 
collected as great a company of virtuosi as he could pos- 
sibly obtain, chosen from all the musicians in Germany 
and other countries by his composer, the excellent Or- 
lando di Lasso.' 

Of these musicians, upwards of 90 in number, 
the same author mentions more than 30 by name. 
Among them Antonio Morari, the head of the 
orchestra, Gioseppe da Lucca and Ivo da Vento, 
organists, Francesco da Lucca and Simone Gallo, 
both instrumentalists, Giovanne da Lochenburg, 
a great favourite and companion of the Duke's, 
and Antonio Gosuino, were all composers, some 
of whose works still exist. 1 The singing of the 
choir was of the highest order, balanced with the 
greatest nicety, and able to keep in tune through 
the longest compositions. The Duke treated 
them so kindly, and their life was made so 
pleasant, that, as Massimo Trojano says, ' had 
the heavenly choir been suddenly dismissed, they 
would straightway have made for the court of 
Munich, there to find peace and retirement.' 

For general purposes the wind and brass in- 
struments seem to have been kept separate from 
the strings. The former accompanied the mass 
on Sundays and festivals. In the chamber music 
all took part in turn. At a banquet, the wind 
instruments would play during the earlier courses, 
then till dinner was finished the strings, with 
Antonio Morari as their conductor, and at 
dessert Orlando would direct the choir, some- 
times singing quartets and trios with picked 
voices, a kind of music of which the Duke was so 
fond, that he would leave the table to listen 
more attentively to ' the much-loved strains.' He 
and all his family were intensely fond of music, 
and made a point of attending the musical mass 
every day. They took a keen interest in Lassus' 
work, and the Duke and his son William were 
continually sending him materials and suggestions 
for new compositions. The manuscript of the 
music to the 'Penitential Psalms,' already 
noticed, remains to this day a witness of the 
reverence with which the Duke treated the 
composer's work. 

These 7 psalms were composed, at the Duke's 
suggestion, before the year 1565, the date of the 
first volume of the MS., but were not published 
till some years after. The music is in 5 parts, 
one, and sometimes two separate movements for 
each verse. The last movement, 'Sicut erat,' 

1 See these ntm« in Eltner'i BibUognpai*. 


always in 6 parts. Duets, Trios, and Quartets 
appear for various combinations of voices. The 
length of the Psalms is considerable, and though 
no reliance can be placed on modern ideas of 
their tempi, the longer ones would probably 
occupy nearly an hour in performance. 

' When we think,' says Ambros, ' of the princi- 
pal works of the 16th century, these Psalms and 
Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli always come 
first to our a minds.' One reason for this is, 
perhaps, that these works have each a little story 
attached to them which has made them easy to 
remember and talk about. It is not true that 
Lassus composed the ' Penitential Psalms ' to 
soothe the remorse of Charles IX, after the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, but it is more than 
probable, that they were sung before that un- 
happy monarch, and his musical sense must 
indeed have been dull, if he found no consolation 
and hope expressed in them. This is no every- 
day music, which may charm at all seasons or in 
all moods; but there are times when we find 
ourselves forgetting the antique forms of ex- 
pression, passing the strange combinations of 
sounds, almost losing ourselves, in a new-found 
grave delight, till the last few movements of the 
Psalm — always of a more vigorous character — gra- 
dually recall us as from a beautiful dream which 
'waking we can scarce remember.' Is this in- 
definite impression created by the music due to 
our imperfect appreciation of a style and com- 
position so remote, or is it caused by the actual 
nature of the music itself, which thus proves its 
inherent fitness for the service of religion ? So 
unobtrusive is its character, that we can fancy 
the worshippers hearing it by the hour, passive 
rather than active listeners, with no thought of 
the human mind that fashioned its form. Yet 
the art is there, for there is no monotony in the 
sequence of the movements. Every variety that 
can be naturally obtained by changes of key, 
contrasted effects of repose and activity, or dis- 
tribution of voices, are here; but these changes 
are so quietly and naturally introduced, and 
the startling contrasts, now called ' dramatic,' so 
entirely avoided, that the composer's part seems 
only to have been, to deliver faithfully a divine 
message, without attracting notice to himself. 

The production of such a masterpiece at an 
early date in his Munich life, seems to point 
clearly, through all the contested dates of birth, 
positions or appointments, to some earlier career 
of the composer. To obtain a style at once great 
and solemn, natural and easy, it seems almost 
indispensable that Lassus had occupied for seve- 
ral years the post to which Baini says he was 
first appointed in 1541, had spent these years in 
writing the great cumbrous works which had 
been the fashion of his predecessors, and then, 
like Palestrinai — whom, if he really lived at Rome 
all this time, he must have known — gradually ac- 
quired the less artificial style, by which his later 
works are characterised. 

In the years 1565-66 Lassus adds 3 more 
volumes of 'Sacrae Cantiones' Cseveral numbers 

2 Geschlchte, Ui. 363. 


of which are scored by Commer), and the first 
set of ' Sacrse lectiones, 9 ex propheta Job.' The 
first editions of these all hail from Venice, per- 
haps because Jean de Berg of Nuremberg, who 
had published the 1st volume, had died in the 
meanwhile. His successor Gerlach, however, 
publishes an edition of them in 1567, as well as 
a collection of 24 Magnificats. In the latter the 
alternate verses only are composed — a contra- 
puntal treatment of the appointed church melo- 
dies — the other verses being probably sung or 
intoned to the same melodies in their simple form. 

The year 1568 is full of interest. In February 
the Duke William marries the Princess Renata 
of Lorraine; there is a large gathering of dis- 
tinguished guests at Munich, and music has a 
prominent place in the fortnight's festivities. 
Among the works composed specially for the 
occasion was a ' Te Deum ' (a 6), and three masses 
(a 6, 7, and 8 respectively), also two motets 
' Gratia sola Dei' and ' Quid trepidas, quid musa 
times ? ' But here we must stop, for though it 
has a real interest to read how • their Highnesses 
and Excellencies and the Duchess Anna attended 
by Madame Dorothea returned home greatly 
pleased with the sweet and delightful mass they 
had heard,' and to follow all the occurrences of 
14 consecutive days of Orlando's life, still we 
must refer the curious reader to the pages of 
Massimo Trojano, and can only stop to mention 
that, towards the end of the time, he was the 
life and soul of an impromptu play suggested by 
the Duke, in which he not only acted one of the 
principal parts, but introduced various pieces of 
music on the stage with the aid of a band of 
picked singers. 

In the same year we have two most important 
publications: (1) ' Selectissimse Cantiones a 6 
et pluribus' and (2) the same a 5 et 4. The 
first book opens with a massive work in 4 move- 
ments, ' Jesu nostra redemptio,' in the grand 
gloomy style of the old masters, followed by 
shorter and simpler pieces, such as the prayer in 
the garden of Gethsemane, with a melodious 
prelude on the words 'In monte Oliveti oravit ad 
patrem,' followed by a simple strain of devotional 
music carrying the hearer quietly and expres- 
sively, but not dramatically, through the Saviour's 
agony and resignation. The volume is not con- 
fined to religious music. There are some pieces 
with secular words, such as an ode to Albert ' Quo 
properas facunde nepos Atlantis,' but there are 
also some capital drinking songs, and the 'Jam 
lucis orto sidere,' with its 2nd part 'Qui ponit 
aquam in Falerno,' is a fine specimen of a part-song 
for two choirs singing alternately, a kind of music 
much in vogue at the time, the introduction of 
which is said to be due to Adrian Willaert. 

The other volume is confined to music a 5 and 
a 4, and is proportionately simple. Commer has 
printed 8 or 9 of the sacred numbers in score, 
and they are not difficult either to understand or 
to appreciate. Among the secular pieces there 
is a comic setting of the psalm ' Super flumina 
Babylonis,' each letter and syllable being sung 
separately as in a spelling lesson : — 



P E It per su - per F 

L C flu per flu etc. 

at which rate it takes two long movements to 
get through the first verse. This might well be 
a parody on the absurd way in which the older 
masters mutilated their words. But there are 
beautiful as well as curious numbers among the 
secular part-songs in this book, and the 'Forte 
soporifera ad Baias dormivit in umbra, blandus 
Amor etc. ' is one of the quaintest and prettiest 
songs that we have come across in the old music 
world. In this book is also a very characteristic, 
though rather complicated and vocally difficult 
setting of the well-known song of Walter Mapea 
— if ■ Walter Mapes' it be — 'Si bene perpendi, 
causae sunt quinque bibendi.' Dean Aldrich may 
have taken the words from this very book (for he 
had a library of Lassus' works) when he made 
his well-known translation : 

' If all be true that I do think, 
There are five reasons we should drink : 
Good wine, a friend, or being dry, 
Or lest you should be by and by, 
Or any other reason why." 

In a subsequent edition of the same ' Cantiones' 
appears another portion of the same work, 
' Fertur in conviviis,' a 4, in five movements set 
to music full of character and effective contrasts. 2 
The music was so much liked that other words 
were twice set to it, once in a French edition 
which aimed at rendering the chansons ' hon- 
nestes et chrestiennes ' to the words 'Tristis 
ut Euridicen Orpheus ab orco ' — though how the 
adapter succeeded in his object by the change is 
not very apparent ; and again a second time 
after his death in the edition of his works by his 
son, to the stupid words ' Volo nunquam,' which 
aimed at turning it into a temperance song by 
the insertion of a negative in each sentiment of 
the original. The old edition has fortunately 
survived, and the words of the last two verses, be- 
ginning ' Mihi est propositum,' are still used for 
their original purpose. These spirited words, of 
which Orlando was evidently so fond, and to the 
quantities of which he paid such careful regard, 
seem to have inspired him with a marked rhythm 
and sense of accent, which is very exceptional in 
works of the time. 

In the year 1 569, Adam Berg, the court pub- 
lisher at Munich, brings out ' Cantiones aliquot 
a 5/ containing 14 numbers, and 2 books of 
•Sacrae Cantiones,' partly new, are issued at 
Louvain. The year 1570 is more productive, 23 
new Cautiones a 6 ; 2 books of chansons con- 
taining 18 new ones ; and a book of 29 madri- 
gals, published in Munich, Louvain and Venice 
respectively ; while France is represented by 
an important edition of chansons — 'Mellange 

• Some doubt has lately been thrown on the authorship of these 

2 In what collection this song nude Its fir it appearance Is not 




d'Orlande de Lassus' — often quoted but contain- 
ing little new matter. At the close of the year, 
at the diet of Spires, the Emperor grants letters 
of nobility to Lassus. 1 At the time this honour 
was conferred upon him, Lassus was probably on 
his way to the court of France, where we find him 
during the greater part of the year 1571. Some 
circumstances of his stay there may be gathered 
from the ' Primus liber modulorum a 5/ published 
by Adrian Le Hoy, in whose house he lodged 
during the visit (Paris, August 15 71). The pub- 
lisher's dedication to Charles IX. states that — 

'When Orlando di Lassus lately entered your presence, 
to kiss your hand, and modestly and deferentially greet 
your majesty, I saw, plainly as eyes can see, the honour 
you were conferring on music and musicians. For to say 
nothing of the right royal gifts which you have bestowed 
on Orlando— the look, the countenance, the words with 
which you greeted him on his arrival (and this I was not 
the only one to notice) were such, that he may truly boast 
of your having shown to few strangers presented to you 
this year, the same honour, courtesy and kindness you 
showed him. And even I, Adrian, your subject and royal 
printer, did not fail to share with him some of that cour- 
tesy and consideration on your part. For inasmuch as I 
accompanied him into your presence, (because he was 
my guest,) You, seeing me constantly by his side all the 
time we were in your court, asked me more than once 
about music,' etc., etc. 

Ronsard, the French poet, also speaks of the 
special welcome with which the King received 
the composer. Delmotte suggests that the visit 
to Paris may have had to do with a new Academy 
of music, for the erection of which Charles had 
issued letters-patent in November 1570. Several 
editions of Orlando's former works were issued at 
Paris during his stay there with Le Roy, but the 
only new work of the year he does not design for 
his newly made French friends. He sends it 
home to his kind master Duke Albert, and thus 
addresses him (May 1871): — 'When I reached 
Paris, the city which I had so long, and so ardently 
wished to see, I determined to do nothing, until 
T had first sent to you from this, the capital of 
France, some proof of my gratitude.' 

This book was the ' Moduli quinis vocibus,' 
which however was written at Munich before 
his departure, and only published at Paris. His 
travels naturally interrupted his composition, and 
there is nothing ready to print in the next year 
(1572) but another set of 15 German songs. 

Once again settled in Munich, Lassus is soon 
at work, Adam Berg is busy providing 'specially 
large and entirely new type,' the Dukes are full 
of grand ideas to bring honour on themselves, 
and make the most of their renowned Chapel- 
master, and July 1573 sees the result in the issue 
of the 1st volume of the ' Patrocinium Musices.' 
[See Berg, Adam.] The work was undertaken 
on the responsibility of Duke William, and a 
portrait of that handsome prince, afterwards 

■ A facsimile copy of this grant Is kept Id the Brussels library (Bibl. 
de Bourgogne, 14,405). The part referring to the coat of arms Is worth 
quoting : — * Llnea autem ilia Candida seu argentea, quae medium scutiq. 
aream constltult, ordlne recto contlneat tria slgna musica, aureo 
colore tlucta, quorum prlmum Diesis vulgo nuncupatum. quod emol- 
liemite vocis Indltium est, dextram, alteram vero, Q durum scilicet 
sinlstram illius partem, tertlam autem videlicet b molle centrum 
clypel occupet." Delmotte, In copying this In his book, has substituted 
the word ' becarre ' for the sign 3 . which Is curious, because the In- 
terest of the quotation centres round a symbol which appears in the 
composer's coat of arms, but seldom appears in his music. He gen- 
erally contradicted his flats with sharps, and riot vena. 


known as 'William the Pious,' appears as a 

The originators of this publication appear to 
have intended to continue the series until it be- 
came a selection of all the best music necessary 
for the services of the church. Orlando, in the 
preface to the 1st volume, hints at the work 
being undertaken in emulation of the service 
lately rendered to the church by Philip of Spain 
in bringing out a new 2 edition of the Scriptures, 
and speaks half apologetically of the 1st volume 
(which contains only motets), as if it scarcely 
came up to the object of the publication. 
The books might almost be called ' scores,' the 
separate parts appearing together on the two 
opposite pages. Few publications of this kind 
had as yet appeared. The music takes up a great 
deal more space than it would if printed in sepa- 
rate part-books, and on this account, as well as by 
reason of the magnificent type, the volumes hold 
less than many a smaller and less pretentious 
edition. The series stops short in 1576, and of 
the second series (1589- 1590) Orlando contributes 
only the 1st volume. With the exception of the 
' Vigiliae Mortuorum ' in the 4th volume — 
which had already appeared in 1565 under the 
title 'Lectiones ex propheta Job,' — and some of 
the Magnificats in vol. 5, all the contents of the 
volumes appear for the first time. 

The and volume 3 is dedicated (Jan. 1, 1574) 
to Gregory XIII ; and it is no doubt in return for 
this mark of respect that Orlando receives from 
the Pope on April 7 the knighthood of the Golden 
Spur. The 4th volume contains an interesting 
setting of the ' Passion ' according to St. Matthew, 
in 41 very short movements, part of the narrative 
being recited by the priest, and the character 
parts sung as trios or duets. 

In the year 1574 Lassus started on another 
journey to Paris. Whether the French King had 
invited him for a time to his court, or whether 
Lassus actually accepted a permanent position 
there, we do not know, but whatever the object 
of the journey, it was frustrated by the death of 
Charles (May 30), and Lassus hearing of this 
when he had reached Frankfort, returned at once 
to Munich. 

The year 1576, besides finishing the 1st series 
of the ' Patrocinium Musices,' sees the publica- 
tion of the 3rd part of the 'Teutsche lieder,' 
containing 22 nos., and the 'Thresor de musique,' 
a collection of 103 chansons, most of which had 
been printed in the Mellange (1570), but appear 
here with new words to satisfy the growing 
taste for psalm-singing in France. 1577 brings 
a small work of interest, a set of 24 cantiones 
(a 2), 12 being vocal duets, and the other 12 for 
instruments. The style of music is precisely the 
same in both cases, the absence of words in the 
latter 12 alone making any difference; and this 
proves, if there be any doubt on other grounds, 
that the notice frequent on title pages of this 

» The so-called ■ Antwerp Folyglot Bible,' published In 1569-72 at the 
expense of Philip. 

» In the original edition the second mass in vol. 11. Is printed with 
Its wrong title. It should be Nissa super ' Scarco di doglia,' as It 
appears In subsequent editions. 


period, ' apt for viols and voyces,' did not mean 
that the voices and instruments were to perform 
them together, though this they undoubtedly did 
at times, but that the music of the chansons and 
motets formed the principal repertoire of the 
instrumentalists, and that they converted them 
into ' songs without words ' with the concurrence 
of the composer. What other kinds of music the 
instrumentalists at Munich performed, it does 
not come within our province to discuss, since 
Lassus took no part in the direction of it. The 
duets having apparently found favour, Orlando 
goes on to publish a set of trios for voices or 
instruments, and as if this was a new and special 
idea, the first one is set to the words ' Haec quae 
ter triplici,' and the book dedicated to the three 
Dukes, William, Ferdinand and Ernest. The most 
important publication of the year is ' Missae variis 
concentibus ornatae,' a set of 18 masses, of which 
1 3 are new, printed at Paris by Le Roy, in score. 
During the years 1578-80 we know of no 
important publications. The illness of Duke 
Albert, and his death (Oct. 1579). are probably 
sufficient to account for this. He had done a 
last act of kindness to Lassus in the previous 
April by guaranteeing his salary (400 florins) 
for life. We like to think that the new set of 
•Vigiliae Mortuorum' — to the words of Job as 
before — were Lassus' tribute to the memory of 
his master. They were published a year or two 
after the Duke's death as having been recently 
composed. They are more beautiful than the 
earlier set, in proportion as they are simpler ; 
and so simple are they, that in them human 
skill seems to have been thrust aside, as out of 

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hi 1 ii mii - li'i 

Hi - hil e 


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j * ' I j» ' r I Ml (" ' ill 


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iii-fi-cas e - um aut quidap-po- niser - ga e 

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place for their purpose. Such music as this 
might Handel have had in his mind, when he 
wrote to the words • Since by man came death.' 

Passing on to the year 1581 we find a 'Liber 
Missarum,' printed by Gerlach, containing 4 new 
masses. Of these Commer has printed one on 
the tune ' La, la, Maistre Pierre.' To the same 
date belongs a ' Libro De Villanelle, Moresche, 
et altre Canzoni' (a 4, 5, 8), from Paris, con- 
taining 23 numbers. 

There is much new music ready for 1582, and 
on the 1st of January Orlando dedicates a book 
to the bishop of Wiirtzburg, containing the 2nd 
set of ' Lectiones ex libris Hiob,' already referred 
to, and 1 1 new l motets. At the end of the book, 
and without connexion with its other contents, a 
short tuneful setting of the curious words 

' Quid facies, facies Veneris cum veneris ante, 
Ne sedeas sed eas, ne pereas per eaa.' 

Then again, on Feb. 1, 'jampridem summa 
diligentia compositum,' 26 Sacrae cantiones a 5 ; 
of which however we only know the last; a 
beautiful setting of the hymn to John the Bap- 
tist, 'Ut queant laxis,' the tenor singing the 





TJtque-ant la - xis Re -son -a - - - re fib 

AA „ -^ A.A-AA + 









ris Mi - ra ges - to - rum Fa - mu - li tu - o - rum 

J. J J -^ -^ ♦ fa 




n 1 

"— fc = r7=r = g=^ 


Sol - ve pol - lu - tis La - bi - is re - a • 

= A ■& ^ -& AA & ;s 



< These are all lying in modern score aud read; for publication iu 
the 1'etis library at Brussels, 




notes of the scale with their names, and the other 
parts taking up the remaining words of each line, 
the music very interesting as a specimen of an 
old treatment of the scale, though scarcely so 
old-fashioned as might be expected. The next 
month, March, brings a set of Motets (a 6), 
'singulari authoris industria,' for voices or in- 
struments. These books which follow so closely 
on each other are not collections of old work, but, 
as we learn from the title-pages, had all been 
recently composed. The last set exists also in 
modern notation in the Brussels library among 
many such scores, prepared by the ' singular in- 
dustry' of another native of Mons, M. Fe'tis, 
who was appointed by the Belgian government 
to bring out a complete edition of his fellow- 
townsman's works, but was stopped by death 
from carrying out one more of the many great 
tasks he had accomplished and was intending 
to accomplish. 

The successful adaptation of German words to 
some of Orlando's earlier French chansons leads 
him in the following year, 1583, to write 33 
original ones to sacred and secular German words 
' Neue teutsche Lieder, geistlich und weltlich' — 
short pieces of great beauty in 4-part counterpoint. 
Several of them have been printed by Commer. 
The most important publication of 1584 is the 
* Penitential Psalms.' This is the work we have 
already spoken of under the year 1565. 

A violent storm occurred at Munich on the 
Thursday of the Fete-Dieu in this year, and the 
Duke gave orders that the customary procession 
round the town from the church of St. Peter should 
be confined to the interior of the building. But 
no sooner had the head of the procession reached 
the porch of the church, and the choir was heard 
singing the first notes of Lassus' motet ' Gustate, 
videte,' than a sudden lull occurred in the storm, 
and the ceremony was performed as usual. This 
was looked upon as a miracle, and the people of 
Munich ' in their pious enthusiasm looked upon 
Lassus as a divine being.' Afterwards, whenever 
fine weather was an object, this motet was chosen. 
1585 brings a new set of madrigals a 5, and a 
book containing besides motets the 'Hieremise 
prophetae Lamentationes.* Besides these we have 
a volume of 'Cantica sacra' (24 nos.), and another 
of 'Sacrse cantiones' (32 nos.), both, according 
to the title-pages, recently composed. The first 
contains a setting of the ' Pater noster,' a 6, and 
an ode to Duke Ernest, Archbishop of Cologne, 
and the latter a ' Stabat mater ' for two 4-part 
choirs singing alternate verses. 

For some years back, all the editions bear on 
the frontispiece some testimony to the wonderful 
industry of the composer. 1586 seems to bring 
the first warning of declining strength. It is 
a blank as far as publications are concerned, and 
the opening of 1587 brings with it the gift from 
Duke William of a country house at Geising on 
the Ammer, probably as a place of occasional 
retirement. Then he comes back to work, and 
in gratitude, no doubt, for better health, on 
April 15 dedicates 23 new madrigals to the 
court physician, Dr, Mermann. In August a new 


volume of the'PatrociniumMusices'appears, con- 
taining 1 3 magnificats. Two masses, a • Locutus 
Sum' and 'Beatus qui intelligit,' bear the same 
date. Towards the close of the year Orlando is 
begging for rest from his arduous duties as 
chapel-master. Portions of the Duke's decree in 
answer to this request are interesting. 

' The good and loyal services of our well-beloved and 
faithful servant Orland de Lassus, .... lead us to 
show our favour and gratitude to him, by allowing his 
honourable retirement from his duties as master of our 
chapel, seeing that such duties are too onerous for him, 
and we permit him to pass some portion of each year at 
Geising with his family .... In consideration of this his 

appointments will be reduced 200 florins annually 

But, on the other hand, we appoint his son Ferdinand as 
a member of our chapel at a salary of 200 florins, and at 
the same time to his other son, Rudolph, who has recently 
humbly asked our permission to marry, we grant his re- 
quest and confer upon him the place of organist with a 
salary of 200 florins, on condition that he undertake the 
education in singing and composition of the young gen- 
tlemen of the choir. 

The composer does not seem to have been satis- 
fied with this arrangement, and again returns to 
his post. In 1588, in conjunction with his son 
Rudolph, he brings out 50 ' Teutsche Psalmen.* 
Commer prints the 25 nos. contributed by Or- 
lando — and very beautiful and interesting they 
are — 3 part hymns, the melody occuring, according 
to his fancy, in either of the 3 parts. 

The volume of the ' Patrocinium Musices' for 
1598 contains 6 masses, the last number being 
the ' Missa pro defunctis,' which we may consider 
the last important publication of his life. Its 
lovely opening is an inspiration which finds no 
parallel in any other of his compositions that we 
have seen. As his end approaches, he has here 



I etc. 



one of those glimpses into the coming world of 
music which Ambros (Geschichte, iii. 356) traces 
in others of his works. It is however only in 
the first page or two that we find the music so 
astonishingly near our own idea of the opening 
of a Requiem. 

And here his life's work seems to end ; in the 
next volume of the 'Patrocinium Musices' we find 
other names, and nothing bears Orlando's but 1 2 
German part-songs. Then an utter blank. The 
fresh effort to work had completely prostrated 
him, but death did not come at once to his 
relief. His wife Regina finds him one day so 
ill that he fails to recognise her. The Princess 
Maxmiliana sends Dr. Mermann, at once, and 
there is a temporary recovery, but the mind is 
still at fault. 'Cheerful and happy no longer,' 
says Regina, ' he has become gloomy and speaks 
only of death.' Promises of the Duke's further 
bounty have no effect upon his spirits. He even 
writes to his patron, complaining that he has never 
carried out his father Albert's intentions towards 
him, and it needs all that Regina and the Prin- 
cess Maxmiliana can do to soften the effect of 
this act. He died at Munich in June 1594. 
This date is taken from a letter written after- 
wards by his wife. The two publications ' La- 
grime di S. Pietro,' signed May 24, 1594, and 
'Cantiones Sacrae' (Feast of S. Michael, 1594), 
may imply that his death did not take place 
till 1595, and that he had so far temporarily 
recovered as to take an interest in the publication 
of some old works, or perhaps even to write new 
ones ; but it is natural to prefer the date given by 
his wife, in which case we must suppose these 
works to have been edited by other hands. He 
was buried in the cemetery of the Franciscans 
at Munich. When the monastery was destroyed, 
the monument which had been erected over his 
grave was removed, and kept in the possession of 
a private family. It was set up in the present 
century in the garden of the 'Academie des 
Beaux Arts,' at Munich. Many more details of 
all these things are given by Delmotte, to whom 
we refer the reader. 

After Orlando's death his sons edited many of 
his works. Thus Rudolph the organist edited 
' Prophetae Sibyllarum (a 4) chromatico more ' in 
1600, and Ferdinand the chapel-master printed 
4 of his own Magnificats with 5 of his father's 
in 1 60 2 . In 1 604 they together issued ' Magnum 
opus musicum 0. de Lasso,' by which work they 
have immortalised themselves, preserving in 6 
volumes of a moderate size, most clearly and 
beautifully printed, no less than 516 sacred and 
secular motets. The addition of bars is all that 
is required to give the work a completely modern 
form. Dehn is said to have transcribed the 
whole of it. Ferdinand, the elder brother, died 
in 1609 at about 50 years of age, leaving several 
children, one of whom, also called Ferdinand, 
was sent to Italy for his musical education, and 
was afterwards Chapel-master to duke Maxi- 
milian I. Rudolph, after his brother's death, 
edited '6 Missae posthumae O. di Lasso' (16 10) 
and 100 Magnificats (1619), most of them 



hitherto unpublished. The two Ferdinands and 
Rudolph were all eminent composers, and it is said 
that when the King of Sweden, Gustavus Adol- 
phus, entered Munich in 1632, he visited Rudolph 
at his house and ordered compositions from him. 

We have mentioned the principal works pub- 
lished by Lassus in his lifetime or edited after- 
wards by his sons. Counted in separate numbers 
Eitner 1 brings their total to over 1300. This 
does not include many detached pieces published 
in collections of music by various composers. 
Again, the unpublished MSS. are very numerous. 
When all these are counted, the sacred and secular 
works are said to amount to about 1600 and 800 
respectively, the chief items being 51 masses, 
about 1200 sacred motets and cantiones, 370 
chansons, and over 230 madrigals. Of such 
works as have appeared in modern notation by 
the labours of Commer, Proske, Dehn, Van 
Maldeghem, etc., we may say roughly that they 
represent about an eighth part of the composer's 
complete works. 

Lassus was the last great Netherland master. 
His native land for 200 years had been as 
prominent in music as Germany has been in 
later times. Italy, a second home to every great 
Belgian musician since the time of Dufay, was 
at length to receive the reward for her hospitality, 
and to produce a composer to compete with the 
proudest of them. Josquin and Orlando were 
to find their equal in the Italian pupil of their 
countryman Goudimel. 

Palestrina is often said to have overturned the 
whole fabric of existing church music in a few 
days by writing some simple masses for Pope 
Marcellus. For the truth of this story we refer 
the reader to the article on Palestrina. It 
serves well enough as a legend to illustrate 
the reformation which music had been under- 
going since Josquin's time. The simpler church 
music did not indeed take the place of the older 
and more elaborate forms of the Josquin period 
at a few strokes of Palestrina's pen. Even in the 
writings of Josquin himself the art can be seen 
gradually clearing itself from meaningless and 
grotesque difficulties ; and there were plenty of 
good composers, two very great ones.Gombert and 
Clement, coming between Josquin and Lassus or 
Palestrina. The simplicity of Lassus' church 
music as early as 1565 shows that the story of 
the causes of Palestrina's revolution must not be 
accepted too literally. The Belgian brought up in 
Italy, andtheltalianpupilof a Belgian, were byno 
means so widely separated as their too eager friends 
sometimes try to prove them. Side by side in 
art, they laboured alike to carry on the work of 
the great Josquin, and make the mighty contra- 
puntal means at their disposal more and more 
subservient to expressional beauty. It seems 
that the simple forms of expression which Lassus 
and Palestrina were so often content to use, 
owed something to the influence of secular music, 
even though the composers may not have been 
conscious of drawing directly from such a source. 

I Verzeichuiss der gedrackten Werke tod 0. de Lassus (Tnutwein, 




But a stronger influence acting on the two 
musicians is to be found, we think, in the history 
of the religious movements of the time. Palestrina 
lived in Home at a time when zealous Catholics 
were engaged in vigorous internal reforms as 
a defence against the march of Protestantism. 
Lassus too was at a court the first in Europe to 
throw in its lot with this counter-reformation. 
The music of the two composers breathes a 
reality of conviction and an earnestness which is 
made necessary by the soul-stirring spirit of the 
time. To Lassus, it is said, strong offers were 
made by the court of Saxony to induce him to 
come over to the work of the Protestant Church. 
Fortunately for the art he remained true to his 
convictions, and was spared from being spoilt, as 
many of his fellow-countrymen were, by devoting 
themselves to those slender forms of composition 
which were thought suitable to the reformed 

Lassus himself saw no violent break separating 
his music from that of his predecessors, as we 
may infer from the list of composers whose works 
were performed in the Munich chapel. In that 
list the name of Josquin appears in capital 
letters, for it meant then what the name of Bach 
means now ; and Lassus, with his softer and more 
modern grace, looked up with reverence and 
imitated, as well as his own individuality w r ould 
allow him, the unbending beauty of the glorious 
old contrapuntist in the same way as Mendelssohn 
in later times looked up to and longed to imitate 
the Cantor of the Thomas-schule. 

Orlando spent his life in Germany, then by no 
means the most musical country or the one most 
likely to keep his memory alive. Palestrina, 
whose life of suffering and poverty contrasts 
strongly with Orlando's affluence and position, 
had at least the good fortune to plant his works 
in the very spot where, if they took root at all, 
time would make the least ravages on them. The 
name and works of Palestrina have never ceased 
to live in the Eternal City ; and while the name of 
Lassus is little known among musical amateurs, 
every one is acquainted with the works of his 
contemporary. How much is really known of 
Palestrina's music we do not venture to question, 
but the more the better for Lassus. As soon as 
the world really becomes familiar with the 
music of the Italian, the next step will lead to 
the equally interesting and beautiful works of 
the Netherlander. Then by degrees we may 
hope for glimpses into that still more remote 
period when the art of counterpoint, in the hands 
of Josquin, first began to have a living influence 
on the souls of men. [J. R.S.-B.] 

version, by Prof. Taylor, of Spohr s oratorio 
' Die letzten Dinge.' Produced at Norwich Fes- 
tival Sept. 24, 1S30. Given by the Sacred 
Harmonic Society, July 11, 1838, also July 23, 
1 S47, Spohr conducting. [G.] 

LATROBE, Rev. Christian Ignatius, eldest 
son of Rev. Benjamin Latrobe, superintendent 
of the congregations of the United (Moravian) 
Brethren in England, was born at Fulnec, Leeds, 

Yorkshire, Feb. 12, 1758. In 1771 he went to 
the college of the United Brethren at Niesky, 
Upper Lusatia, returned to England in 1784, 
took orders in the same church, became secretary 
to the Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, 
and in 1 795 was appointed secretary to the 
Unity of the Brethren in England. Although 
Latrobe never followed music as a profession he 
cultivated it assiduously from an early age. His 
earlier compositions were chiefly instrumental; 
three of his sonatas, having met with the ap- 
proval of Haydn, were published and dedicated 
to him. His other published compositions in- 
clude Lord Roscommon's translation of the 'Dies 
Ine,' 1799; 'The Dawn of Glory,' 1803; Anthem 
for the Jubilee of George III., 1809; Anthems, 
by various composers, 181 1 ; Original Anthems, 
1823 ; ' Te Deum, performed in York Cathedral'; 
'Miserere, Ps. 51'; and 'Six Airs on serious 
subjects, words by Cowper and Hannah More.' 
He edited the first English edition of the Mora- 
vian Hymn Tunes. But his most important 
publication was his 'Selection of Sacred Music 
from the works of the most eminent composers 
of Germany and Italy,' 6 vols. 1806-25, through 
the medium of which many fine modern compo- 
sitions were first introduced to the notice of the 
British public. He died at Fairfield, near Liver- 
pool, May 6, 1836. 

Rev. John Antes Latrobe, M.A., his son, 
born in London in 1792, became organist at 
Liverpool, and was composer of several anthems. 
He took orders in the Church of England, and 
was incumbent of St. Thomas's, Kendal, and hon- 
orary canon of Carlisle. He was author of ' The 
Music of the Church considered in its various 
branches, Congregational and Choral,' London, 
1S31. He died at Gloucester Nov. 19, 1878. 

The following are the contents of Latrobe'a 
valuable Selection, arranged alphabetically. The 
pieces are all in vocal score, with compressed ac- 
companiments ; some to the original text, some 
to translated words. 

Abos. Stabat Mater. • T. from 

Alberii. D. Salve Redemptor, C— 
Do. O Cod, be not. far. A.— Do. 
1)0. O Jesu, Salvator! C— Do. 
Astorga, O quaui tristis, T.— Sta- 
Do. Quls est homo. D.— Do. 
Do. Blessed bo the power, C. — 

Do. Fac me penltentum, D.— 

Do. Recordare. A.— Do. 
Do. Cum sltlam, ('.—Do. 
Each. 0. P. E. O come, let us 
worship, C— Anthem. 
Do. O Lord, hide not. A.—' Is- 
Do. He opened the rock. C— Do. 
Bassani. Sanctus, C— Requiem, j 

Do. Recordare, 0. * S.-Do. 
Eoccherlni. Fac ut portem. A.—' 
Do. Stabat Mater. A.-Da 
Do. Recordare, T.— Do. 
Do. Iiilaninintus, A.— Do. 
l'.orrl, B. I.audamus Te, A.— Ma 
Do. Domiiie.T.— Do. 

Borri, B. Quoniam, T. from Mass. 

Do. Chrlste, C.-Do. 
Brussettt. Braise the Lord, I'.— 

Cafaro. P. Stabat Mater, D.A ('.— 

Caldara. Benedlctus, T.— Mass. 

Do. Et incarnatus. A.— Do. 

Do. Annus, D.— Do. 

Do. Et Incarnatus, C— Mass. 

Do. Cruclfixus. I).— Do. 

Do. Et resurrexit, C.-Do. 

Do. Annua, C.-Do. 
Ciampt, F. O my God, A.— Mise- 

Do. Ecce enlm, D.— Da 
Do. Cor mundum, D.— Do. 
DanzL Salve Redemptor. 0— Salve. 

Do. Agnus Del, C— Mass. 
Durante. I will call, A. — I.a- 
Do. O remember, C— Do. 
Do. Omnis populus, C— Service 

for 1'assion Week. 
Do. Quaerens me. D.— Requi'-m. 
Da Agnus, C— Litany. 
Felici. Orcheenate, D.— Oratorio. 
GaluppL Sacro horrore, D.— Ora- 

1 A. -Aria: D.-Duet ; T.-Terzetto : Q.-=Quartet: Qu.=Quintet; 
'.-Coro; Cb.— Chorale; M. = Motet ; Of. Offertoriumj S.-Solo. 


G&nsbacher. Quid sum miser, C. Haydn. J. N'on parml, A. from 



from Requiem. 
Gluck. Be profundis, C— De Pro- 
Gossec Lachrymo«a, D. — Re- 
Do. Pie Jesu, C— Do. 
Graun. TeDeum,0.— TeDeunv, 
Do. Te gloriosus, 0.— Do. 
Do. Tu Rex glorlae, C— Da 
Da Tu ad llberandum, A— Do. 
Do. Tu ad dexteram, C— Do. 
Do. Te ergo quaesumus, D.— Do. 
Do. Et rege, C— Do. 
Do. Dlgnare Domine, A.— Do. 
Do. O ZIon, mark, C— Tod Jesu. 
Da He was despised, C— Do. 
Do. Thou hast brought me, C— 

Do. Sing to Jehovah, C— Do. 
Do. Astonish'd Seraphim, R.— 

Do. Weep, Israel, Ch.— Do. 
Do. Behold us here, C— Do. 
Do. Behold the Lamb of God. 

C— Passione. 
Do. He was despised, C— Do. 
Do. God, my strength, D— Do. 
Do. Bless the Lord, A.— Do. 
Do. Let us run, C— Do. 
Do. In songs of joy, Ch.— Do. 
Do. Bow down. A.— Do. 
Haser. Against thee only, C— 

Hasse. Insplro Dens, C— Au- 

Do. Laudate ccell Fatrem, C— 

Do. Dtl furentibus, A.— Do. 
Do. Jesu mea pax, D.— Magda- 

Do. O portent a. A.— Do. 
Do. Mea tormenta, A.— Do. 
Do. Ad te clamamus, A.— Salve. 
Do. O give thanks, 0.— Caduta. 
Do. Finche solro. A.— Do. 
Do. Blow the sacred trumpet, 

Do. Lauda, Qu. AC.— Pellegrini. 
Da Viva fonte. A.— Do. 
Da D'Asprl legatl. A.— Do. 
Do. Senti 11 mar, A.— Do. 
Do. Pellegrino e I'uomo, C— Do. 
Do. Defende populum, C.— Giu- 
seppe ric. 
Do. Die quaeso, A.— Do. 
Da Plebes inepte consilia, C— 

Do. Agnus Dei, D.— Litany. 
Da O Lord, save tby people, A 

— Depositlone. 
Do. Bex tremendae, C. A A.— 

Da Miserere mel Deus, C— 

Haydn, J. Tu di grazia, C. — 

Do. Padre celeste, C —Do. 
Do. Kyrie, C.—MassNo.I, in Bb. 
Da Gloria, C— Do. 
Do. Et incarnatus, C— Do. 
Da Banctus, C— Do. 
Do. Qui tollis, A. AC. — Mass 

No. II, in C. 
Do. Gloria, C— Mass No. Ill, in D. 
Do. Et incarnatus, A. A C— Da 
Da Quoniam, A.— Mass No. V. 
Da Cum sancto. C— Do. 
Do. Et Incarnatus. S. AD.— Do. 
Da Agnus, A.— Da 
Do. Kyrie.C— MassNo.VII.inG, 
Da Et incarnatus, S. A Qu.— Do. 
Do. Sanctus, C— Da 
Da Benedlctus, Q.— Da 
Da Sanctus, C— Mass Na VIII, 

Da Benedlctus, A.— Do. 
Da Agnus Del, C— Do. 
I'o. Kyrie, C— Mais No. XIL 
Da Stabat Mater, C.-Stabat. 
Da Vldit suum. A.— Da 
Do. Qui est homo, 0.— Da 
Da Pro peccatls, A.— Do. 
Da Flammis orci. A.— Da 
Do. Fao me cruce, A.— Do. 
Da Quando corpus, C— Do. 
Do. Salve Kedemptor, C— Salve. 
Ho. Pleta d'un infelice, C. — 


O di le nostre, C— Do. 
My soul shall cry, Q,— Mo- 

Haydn, M. Lord, grant us thy, Ch.— 

Service for Country Church. 
Da O full of all, Ch.— Do. 
Da While conscious, Ch.— Do. 
Do. Blest Jesus, gracious, Ch.— 

Do. O Love, all love excelling, 

Ch.— Da 
Do. While with her fragrant, 

Ch.— Do. 
Do. Worship, honour, Ch.— Da 
Do. Tenebrae, C— Tenebrae. 
Do. Sanctus, C— Bequiem. 
Da Agnus, C— Do. 
Da Oro supplex, C— Do, 
Do. Lauda Slon, Q.— Litany. 
Hummel. Holy, Holy, C— Mass. 
Jomelll. Bex tremendae, D.— Ke- 
Da Kyrie, D— Mass. 
Da Agnus, D.— Da 
Leo. Dal nuvoloso monte. A.— 

S. Elena. 
Do. Dal tuo sogllo, D.— Da 
Do. Christus factus est, S.— 

Da Jesu, A.— Salve. 
LottL Qui tollis, C— Mass. 
Da Gloria, C— Do. 
Da Kt In terra, Qu.— Do. 
Da Miserere mei, C— Miserere. 
Marcella Save, O save, D. — 

MorarL Agnus Del, T.— Mass. 
MoriarL Cum sancto, 0.— Do. 
Mozart. Becordare, Q.— liequiem. 
Da Sanctus, C— Mass No. I. 
Da Benedictus, Q.— Da 
Da Agnus, A.— Do. 
Da Gloria, C— Mass No. H. 
Da Benedlctus, Q.— MassNo. III. 
Do. Agnus, C— Do. 
Da Agnus, D — Mass Na VI. 
Da Bless the Lord • Kyrie , D. 

-Mass No. X. 
Do. Benedictus, A. A C— Do. 
Do. Agnus, C— Do. 
Do. Benedictus, Q.— Maw No. XI. 
Da O God, when thou appear- 

est, C— Motetto I. II. 
Do. Ne pulvis, C— Do. 
Do. Kyrie, D— Litany I. 
Do. Jesu Domine, A. — Do. 
Da Jesu Chrlste, D.— Litany II. 
Do. Verbum caro, C— Do. 
Do. Enter into his gates, A.— Do. 
Da Kyrie, C— Do. 
Do. Agnus, D.— Do. 
Da Tho' by threatening storms. 
A— Davidde. 
Naumann. Chrlste, T.— Mass No. I. 
Do. Kyrie, C— Do. 
Do. Et Incarnatus, D.— Do. 
Do. Agnus, D.— Do. 
Do. Quoniam, D— Mass No. II. 
Do, Cum sancto, C— Do. 
Da Benedlctus, D. A C— Do. 
Do. Agnus, 0.— Da 
Do. Qui tollis, C— Mass No. 111. 
Do. Et Incarnatus, A.— Do. 
Do. Sanctus, C— Do. 
Do, Et incarnatus, A,— Mass No. 

Da Agnus, D. A C— Da 
Do. Lauda Sion, C — Onerto- 

Da Le porte a nol, Q.— Pelle- 
Do. O ye kindreds, C— Psalm 
j Negri. Qui sedes, A.— Mass. 
Neukomm. Bex tremendae, C— 

I Do. Sanctus, D.— Do. 
| PergolesL Kyrie, D.— Grand Mass. 
I Do. Gloria, D— Do. 
I Do. Laudamus, D.— Da 
Do. Gratias, C— Do. 
Da Domine, D.— Do. 
! Do. Qui tollis, C.— Da 
Do. Quoniam, A.— Do. 
Do. Cum Sancto, C— Do. 
Da Hear my prayer, D.— Salve. 
Do. Ad te suspiramus, C— Do. 

PergolesL O Jem Salvator, D. 
from Salve. 
Do. Asperges, C— Miserere I. 
Da Bedde mini, D.— Do. 
Do. Domine labia. A.— Do. II. 
Do. Quoniam si voluisses, C— 

Do. Sacrificium Deo, T.— Do. 
Ricel. Becordare, A.— Dies Irae. 
Bighini. Qui tollis, C.-Mass. 
Do. Benedlctus, Q.— Do. 
Da O Lord, who shall not, Q. 
— Genu. lib. 
Bolle. In thee, O Lord, C— Death 
Do. Out of the deep, A.— Do. 
Da Great God, to Thee, C — 


Do. O Lord, most holy, D.— Do. 

Sabbatini. God be merciful, T. A 

0.— Dixit Dominus. 

Da In my distress, D.— Da 

Da Dominus a dextris, A.— Do. 

Bala. Qui tollis. A.— Mass. 

Salvatore. Tenebrae, C— Tenebrae. 

Salvatore. Becesslt Pastor, C. from 
Do. In monte Oliveto, C— Do. 
Sartl. Miserere, D.— Miserere. 

Do. Ampllus, T.— Do. 
SerlnL O fallaces, A.— Motetto. 

Do. Sum in medio. A.— Do. 
Stroll. Praise the Lord, D.— Mis- 
Suidell. Orucifixus, D.— Mass. 
Telemann. Mercy, Judgment, A. 

— Orat. Passion. 
TOrck. Heavenly Branch, D. — 

Christm. Oratorio. 
Vogler. Agnus Del, C— Requiem. 
Winter. O quam trlstis, C. A Q.— 
Stabat Mater. 
Da Quando corpus, C— Do. 
Da Quid sum miser. A.— Re- 
Wolf. Saints and Angels, C. — 
Funeral Anthem. 
Do. The Prince of Life, D.— 
Easter Anthem. 
N. N. Tantum ergo. D.— Chorale. 


LAUB, Febdinand, one of the most re- 
markable violin-players of our day, was born 
Jan. 19, 1832, at Prague, where his father was 
a musician. His talent shewed itself very early ; 
at six he mastered Variations by De Beriot, 
and at nine performed regularly in public. At 
eleven he attracted the notice of Berlioz and 
Ernst, and shortly after was taken up by the 
Grand Duke Stephen, and by him sent to Vienna 
in 1847. After this he visited Paris, and, in 
185 1, London, where he played at the Musical 
Union, and, in 1853 succeeded Joachim at Wei- 
mar. Two years later we find him at Berlin as 
Kammervirtuos and Concertmeister of the Court 
band, and leader of quartet-concerts of his own. 
At length, after considerable wandering, he 
settled at Moscow in 1866 as head Professor 
of the Violin in the Conservatorium, and first 
violin at the Musikgesellschaft, with great 
liberty of action. But Russia did not agree 
with him, and the state of his health compelled 
him in 1874 to take the baths at Karlsbad. 
The benefit however was but temporary, and on 
March 17, 1875, he died of a disordered liver, at 
Gries, near Botzen, in the Tyrol. Laub was cer- 
tainly one of the greatest violin-virtuosos of recent 
times. He had a fine and very powerful tone 
and a brilliant technique, and played with much 
feeling and passion. His repertoire was very 
large, comprising all the important classical works 
and a great many modern compositions. His fre- 
quent performances of Joachim's Hungarian Con- 
certo deserve special mention. He had also much 
success as a quartet-player, but his style, espe- 
cially in latter years, has not unjustly been re- 
proached with mannerism and a tendency to 
exaggeration. [P. D.] 

LAUDA SION. The name of a Sequence, 
sung, at High Mass, on the Feast of Corpus 
Christi, between the Gradual — Oculi omnium — 
and the Gospel for the Day. [See Sequentia.] 
The text of the Lauda Sion, written, about 
the year 1 261, by S. Thomas Aquinas, has always 
been regarded as a masterpiece of mediaeval 
scholarship; and differs, in at least one very 
important point, from the four other Sequences 
still retained in use by the Roman Church. Not 
only does the rhythmic swing of its rhymed 



Trochaic Dimeters — strengthened by the intro- 
duction of a large proportion of Spondees — stamp 
it, at once, with the character of a glorious 
Hymn of Praise ; but it serves, also, as a vehicle 
for the exposition of some of the most abstruse 
problems of dogmatic Theology, which are every- 
where defined with an exactness as close as that 
shown in the statements of the 'Athanasian 
Creed." And, strange to say, some of the verses 
which exhibit this lucidity of definition in the 
most marked degree, are precisely those in 
which the swing of the metre seems least en- 
cumbered by extraneous trammels. [See Metee ; 

This jubilant swing is finely brought out by 
the Plain Chaunt to which the Sequence is 
adapted — a fiery Melody, in Modes VII and 
VIII combined, exhibiting considerable variety 
of treatment and expression, and, in all proba- 
bility, coaeval with the text of the Sequence 
itself. Several readings of this Melody are ex- 
tant, all agreeing in general contour, though 
differing in a few unimportant details. The 
purest version is probably that revised by the 
editors of the new Ratisbon Gradual; though 
the Mechlin form contains some passages which 
are, at least, entitled to careful consideration, 
more especially those in which the necessity for 
the introduction of a B b is avoided by a ligature 
extending to C. 

Lau - da Si - on Sal- va- to -rem, Lau-da ducem, et 
Quan- turn po-tes tan turn au-de, Qui - a major om- 

gzW=gz= g: 


ni lau-de, 

In hymnis et can - tl - cis. Laudis 

Nee lau-da - re suf - fi - cis. Quern in 

tbe-ma spe-cl - a - - 
sa • cne mensa ccen 

■ Us, Fa-nis vi-Tuset vi-ta-lls, 
a. Turban fratrum du-o-de-nse, 

Bo • - di - e pro-po - nl - tur. 
Da - - turn nou am-bi - gi - tur. 

The entire Melody is divided, like the portion 
we have selected as our example, into short 
strains, consisting of three, or more lines, accord- 
ing to the requirements of the metre : and the 
whole concludes with an Amen. Alleluia, of un- 
usual beauty. 

The poetry of the Lauda Sion has been many 
times subjected to polyphonic treatment of a very 
high order. Palestrina has left us two settings 
of the Sequence for eight voices, arranged in a 
double Choir, and a shorter one for four. The 
first, and best known, was printed, in 1575, by 
Alex. Gardanus, in the Third Book of Motets for 
5, 6, and 8 Voices ; and is one of the earliest 
examples of that peculiar combination of two 
Choirs, consisting of unequally balanced Voices, 
which Palestrina has made so justly famous — the 
Voices selected being, in this case, Cantus I and 


H, Altus, and Bassus, in the first Choir, and 
Altus, Tenor I and II, and Bassus, in the second. 
Its style is, in many respects, analogous to that 
of the celebrated Stabat Mater. As in that great 
work, several of the verses — from Bone Pastor, 
to In terra viventium, inclusive — are written in 
Triple Measure. But — as may be seen from the 
following example — the Lauda Sion is also re- 
markable for its close adherence, as a general 
rule, to the Plain Chaunt Melody. 








J ^ 

r=¥f Y[Tjt^m & ^£f& 

->- -J, 


** £ * 


A reprint of this beautiful composition will be 
found in vol. iii. of the complete edition of 
Palestrina' s works now in course of publication 
by Messrs. Breitkopf & Hartel of Leipzig. The 
other 8 -part setting, in Triple Measure through- 
out, hitherto known only through the medium 
of a MS. in the Library of the Collegio Romano, 
at Rome, has been recently published in vol. vii. 
of the same series. 

Mendelssohn has also chosen the text of the 
Lauda Sion as the framework of a delightful 
Cantata, for four Solo Voices, Chorus, and 
Orchestra, composed in 1846, and first performed, 
in that year, at Liege, on the Feast of Corpus 
Christi (June 11). Though less elaborate in 
form than the 'Lobgesang' and some of its 
fellow cantatas, this fine production is strikingly 
characteristic of its author's best style. It would 
be difficult to find a happier example of his 
treatment of the Arioso than that exhibited in 
Caro cibus. In Sit laus plena every phrase 
dictated by the Soprano solo is immediately 
repeated in chorus, in a way which forcibly 


reminds us of the well-known movement, 'The 
enemy shouteth,' from ' Hear my prayer.' In Docti 
sacris, a fragment of the Plain Chaunt is treated 
after the manner of a Chorale, — but changed 
from the Eighth into the Tenth Mode, and, there- 
fore, invested with a totally new character. In 
Sumit units the dramatic element is introduced, 
with almost startling effect : and the whole con- 
cludes with a noble Chorus, adapted to the words 
Bone Pastor, and the concluding verses of the 
Hymn. The student will find it interesting to 
compare this essentially modern adaptation of 
the text with the purely ecclesiastical treatment 
adopted by Palestrina. [W. S. R.] 

LAUDI SPIRITUAL!. A name given to 
certain collections of Devotional Music, compiled 
for the use of the 'Laudisti' — a Religious Con- 
fraternity, instituted, at Florence, in the year 
1 310, and afterwards held in great estimation by 
S. Charles Borromeo, and S. Philip Neri. 

The poetry of the 'Laudi' — some ancient 
specimens of which are attributed, by Crescen- 
tini, to S. Francis of Assisi — was originally 
written entirely in Italian, and bears no trace of 
classical derivation. The music to which it is 
adapted — inclining rather to the character of the 
Sacred Canzonet, than to that of the regular 
Hymn — was, at first, unisonous, and extremely 
simple ; though, after a time, the Laudisti culti- 
vated part-singing with extraordinary success. 

A highly interesting MS. volume, once be- 
longing to a company of ' Laudisti,' enrolled, in 
the year 1336, at the Chiesa d'Ogni Santi, at 
Florence, is now preserved in the Magliabecchi 
Library : and, from this, Dr. Burney (Hist. ii. 328) 
quotes a very beautiful example — ' Alia Trinita 
beata ' — which, of late years, has become popular 
in this country, though, in all the English edi- 
tions we have seen, the melody is sadly muti- 
lated, and strikingly inferior in character to the 
original reading. The earliest printed collection 
is dated 1485. This, however, would seem to 
have been either unknown to, or unrecognised 
by, the disciples of S. Philip Neri : for, in 1565, 
Giovanni Animuccia, who acted as his Maestro 
di Capella, published a volume entitled ' II primo 
libro delle Laudi,' followed by a • Secondo libro,' 
of more advanced character, in 1570. These 
Sacred Songs, which formed the germ of the per- 
formances afterwards called Oratorios, became 
so popular among the youths who flocked to 
S. Philip for instruction, that, in 1588 — seventeen 
years after the death of the saintly Animuccia 
— P. Soto thought it desirable to edit a third 
volume, containing unacknowledged works, for 
three and four Voices, by some of the greatest 
Composers of the age. In 1589, the same zealous 
editor published an amended reprint of the three 
volumes, consolidated into one ; succeeded, in 
I 59 I > by a fourth volume, dedicated to the 
Duchessa d Aquasparta. Serafino Razzi published 
a large collection, in 1608, and many others 
followed — for, at this period, almost every large 
town, and even many an important parish, had 
its own Company of Laudisti, who sang the 
poetry of Lorenzo de' Medici, Poliziano, Pulci, 



Bembo, Ludovico Martelli, Giambellari, Filicaia, 
and other celebrated writers, with undiminished 
interest, though, as time progressed, the charac- 
ter of the music sensibly deteriorated. 

In the year 1770, Dr. Burney heard the Company 
of Laudisti attached to the Church of S. Maria 
Maddalena de' Pazzi, in Florence, sing, with ex- 
cellent effect, in some street Processions, as well 
as in some of the Churches, from a book then 
just published for their use : and, however true 
it may be that part-singing in Italy is not what 
it was some centuries ago, representatives of 
the Confraternity are said to be still in exist- 
ence, striving to do their best in a more modern 
style. [W.S.R.] 

LAUDS (Lat. Laudes). The name given to 
that division of the Canonical Hours which 
immediately follows Matins. 

The Office of Lauds opens, according to the 
Ritual of the Western Church, with the series of 
Versicles and Responses beginning, 'Deus in 
adjutorium meum intende,' followed by seven 
Psalms and a Canticle, sung, in five divisions, 
with five proper Antiphons. These are succeeded 
by the 'Capitulum' (or 'Little Chapter'); the 
Hymn for the Day, with its proper Versicle and 
Response; and the 'Benedictus,' which, with its 
Antiphon, is sung while the Officiating Priest 
and his Ministers are engaged in incensing the 
Altar. The Service then concludes with the 
Collect, or Collects, for the Day ; the Commemo- 
rations (as at Vespers); and the 'Antiphon of 
the Blessed Virgin ' proper for the Season. 

On certain Festivals, the Antiphons, at Lauds, 
are doubled, as at Matins : and, like Matins, the 
Office is usually sung 'by anticipation.' The 
Plain Chaunt Music adapted to it will be found 
in the ' Antiphonarium Romanum,' and the 
' Directorium Chori.' [See Matins ; Antiphon.] 

In the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI, 
the name of ' Mattins' is given to the combined 
Offices of Matins, and Lauds. [W. S. R.] 

LAUTERBACH, Johann Chbistoph, dis- 
tinguished violinist, was born July 24, 1832, at 
Culmbach in Bavaria. His education he re- 
ceived at the school and gymnasium of Wiirz- 
burg, where he also learnt music from Bratsch 
and Prof. Frohlich. In 1850 he entered the 
Conservatoire at Brussels as pupil of De Beriot 
and Fetis, in 1851 received the gold medaL 
and during Leonard's absence took his place as 
Professor of the Violin. In 1853 he became 
Concertmeister and Professor of the Violin at 
the Conservatorium of Munich ; in i860, on the 
death of Lipinski, was appointed second Con- 
certmeister of the royal band at Dresden, and in 
1873 succeeded to lie first place. Since 1861 
he has also held the post of principal teacher of 
the violin in the Conservatorium of Dresden, 
with great and increasing renown. He has tra- 
velled much and always with success. He spent 
the seasons of 1 864 and 65 in England, appear- 
ing at the Philharmonic on May 2 of the 
former, and May 15 of the latter year, and 
playing also at the Musical Union. In Paris 
he played at the last concert at the Tuileries 



before the war ; and received from the Emperor 
Napoleon a gold snuff-box set with diamonds. 
He is decorated with many orders both of North 
and South Germany. In the summer of 1876 he 
met with a serious mountain accident in Switzer- 
land, by which several of his companions were 
killed and he himself severely wounded. He has 
however completely recovered. Lauterbach's style 
unites the best peculiarities of the Belgian school, 
great polish and elegance, with the breadth of 
tone and earnestness of the Germans. [P>D.] 

LAVENU, Louis Henry, son of a flautist 
and music-seller, born in London in 181 8. He 
was a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, 
where he studied composition under Bochsa and 
Potter. Before leaving the Academy he was 
engaged as a violoncellist at the Opera and the 
Westminster Abbey Festival of 1834. He was 
also in business as a music-seller in partnership 
with his stepfather, Nicholas Mori, the eminent 
violinist, after whose death, in 1 839, he continued 
the business alone for a few years. During this 
time he published a few songs and short piano- 
forte pieces composed by himself. His opera 
* Loretta, a Tale of Seville,' words by Bunn, was 
produced at Drury Lane Nov. 9, 1846, with 
success. Dissatisfied with his position, Lavenu 
emigrated to Australia, obtained the post of 
director of the music at the Sydney Theatre, 
and died at Sydney, Aug. 1, 1859. [W.H.H.] 

LAVIGNE, Antoinb Joseph, born at Be- 
sancon March 23, 181 6, received his early 
musical education from his father, a musician in 
an infantry regiment. On Jan. 24, 1830, he was 
admitted a pupil of the Conservatoire at Paris, 
where he studied the oboe under Vogt, but was 
obliged to leave on May 3, 1835, on account of 
his father's regiment being ordered from Paris. 
He resumed his position on Oct. 17, 1836, and 
obtained the first prize in 1837. He was for 
several years principal oboe at the Theatre 
Italien at Paris. In 1841 he came to England, 
and appeared as oboe soloist at the Promenade 
Concerts at Drury Lane, and has now for some 
years been a member of Mr. Charles Halle's 
orchestra at Manchester. He addressed himself 
with great earnestness to applying to the oboe 
the system of keys which Boehm had contrived 
for the flute, and devoted several years to per- 
fecting the instrument. This admirable player 
has great execution and feeling ; but what he 
is most remarkable for is his power and length 
of breath, which by some secret known to 
himself enables him to give the longest phrases 
without breaking them. [W. H. H.] 

LAWES, Henby, son of William Lawes, was 
born at Dinton, Wiltshire, probably in Dec. 
1595, as he was baptized Jan. 1, 1595-6. He 
received his musical education from Giovanni 
Coperario. On Jan. 1, 1625-6 he was sworn 
in as epistler of the Chapel Royal, and on Nov. 
3 following, one of the gentlemen, and afterwards 
became clerk of the cheque. In 1633 he joined 
his brother William and Simon Ives in com- 
posing the music for Shirley's masque, 'The 


Triumphs of Peace,' and in the same year 
furnished music for Thomas Carew's masque, 
' Coelum Britannicum,' performed at Court, Feb. 
18, 1633-4. In 1634 he composed the songs for 
Milton's masque, ' Comus,' produced at Ludlow 
Castle on Michaelmas night, in that year, Lawes 
performing the part of the Attendant Spirit. 
(Both Hawkins and Burney have printed ' Sweet 
Echo,' one of the songs in ' Comus.' The whole 
of the songs are in the British Museum, Add. 
MS. 11,518.) It is probable that the friendship 
between Milton and Lawes had its origin in 

Henry Lawes taught music to Lady Alice 
Egerton — 'The Lady' of the masque. In 1637 
appeared 'A Paraphrase vpon the Psalmes of 
David. By G[eorge] S[andys]. Set to new Tunes 
for private Devotion. And a thorow Base, for 
Voice or Instrument. By Henry Lawes ' ; and in 
1648 ' Choice Psalmes put into Musick for Three 
Voices .... Composed by Henry and William 
Lawes, Brothers and Servants to His Majestie. 
With divers Elegies set in Musick by several 
friends, upon the death of William Lawes. And 
at the end of the Thorough Base 1 are added nine* 
Canons of Three and Four Voices made by William 
Lawes.' A copper-plate portrait of Charles I, 
believed to be the last published in his life time, 
accompanies each part, and amongst the com- 
mendatory verses prefixed to the work is the 
sonnet, addressed by Milton to Henry Lawes in 
Feb. 1 645-6, commencing ' Harry, whose tuneful 
and well measured song.' Lawes composed the 
songs in the plays and poems of William Cart- 
wright, and the Christmas songs in Herrick's 
• Hesperides.' In 1653 he published ' Ayres and 
Dialogues for One, Two and Three Voyces,' with 
his portrait, from which the above is taken, 
finely engraved by Faithorne, on the title. 
This was received with such favour as to in- 
duce him to issue two other books with the- 

* The work is in separate pans. 

2 Really ten. 


same title in 1655 and 1658. In 1656 he was 
engaged with Capt. Henry Cooke, Dr. Charles 
Colman and George Hudson in providing the 
music for Davenant's 'First Day's Entertain- 
ment of Musick at Rutland House.' On the 
Restoration in 1660 Lawes was reinstated in his 
Court appointments. He composed the anthem 
' Zadok the Priest,' for the coronation of Charles 
II. He died Oct. II, 1662, and was buried Oct. 
25 in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. Many 
of his songs are to be found in ' Select Musicall 
Ayres and Dialogues,' 1652, 1653 and 1659, and 
1 The Treasury of Musick,' 1669. 

Henry Lawes was highly esteemed by his con- 
temporaries, both as a composer and performer. 
Milton praises him in both capacities, and 
Herrick in an epigram places him on a level 
with some of the most renowned singers and 
players of his time ; but later writers have 
formed a lower estimate of his abilities as a com- 
poser. Burney declares his productions to be 
'languid and insipid, and equally devoid of 
learning and genius'; and Hawkins speaks of 
his music as deficient in melody and 'neither 
recitative nor air, but in so precise a medium 
between both that a name is wanting for it.' 
But both appear to judge from a false point of 
view. It was not Lawes's object to produce 
melody in the popular sense of the word, but to 
Bet ' words with just note and accent,' to make 
the prosody of his text his principal care ; and it 
was doubtless that quality which induced all the 
best poetical writers of his day, from Milton and 
"Waller downwards, to desire that their verses 
should be set by him. To effect his object he 
employed a kind of 'aria parlante,' a style of 
composition which, if expressively sung, would 
cause as much gratification to the cultivated 
hearer as the most ear-catching melody would to 
the untrained listener. Lawes was careful in the 
choice of words, and the words of his songs 
would form a very pleasing volume of lyric poetry. 
Hawkins says that notwithstanding Lawes ' was 
a servant of the church, he contributed nothing 
to the increase of its stores'; but, besides the 
coronation anthem before mentioned, there are 
(or were) in an old choir book of the Chapel 
Royal fragments of 8 or 10 anthems by him, 
and the words of several of his anthems are given 
in Clifford's 'Divine Services and Anthems,' 
1664. A portrait of Henry Lawes is in the Music 
School, Oxford. 

John Lawes, a brother of Henry, was a lay 
vicar of Westminster Abbey. He died in Jan. 
1654-5, an( l was buried in the Abbey cloisters. 

Rev. Thomas Lawes, commonly but errone- 
ously stated to be the father, but probably the 
uncle, of William and Henry Lawes, was a vicar 
choral of Salisbury Cathedral. He died Nov. 7, 
1640, and was buried in the north transept of 
the cathedral. 

William Lawes, elder brother of Henry, 
received musical instruction from Coperario at 
the expense of the Earl of Hertford. He became 
a member of the choir of Chichester Cathedral, 
which he quitted in 1602, on being appointed a 



gentleman of the Chapel Royal. He was sworn 
in Jan. 1, 1602-3. I Q 161 1 he resigned his 
place in favour of Ezekiel Waad, a lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey, but on Oct. 1 following was 
re-admitted ' without paie.' He was also one of 
the musicians in ordinary to Charles I. In 1633 
he composed part of the music for Shirley's 
'Triumphs of Peace.' An anthem by him is 
printed in Boyce's Cathedral Music ; songs and 
other vocal compositions in 'Select Musicall 
Ayres and Dialogues,' 1653 and 1659, 'Catch 
that catch can,' 1652, 'The Treasury of Musick,' 
1669, and 'Choice Psalms,' 1648; and some of 
his instrumental music in 'Courtly Masquing 
Ayres,' 1662. The autograph MSS. of his 
music for several Court masques are preserved 
in the Music School, Oxford. ' The Royal Con- 
sort' for viols and some 'Airs' for violin and 
bass are in the British Museum, Add. MS. 
10,445, an d some of his vocal music is in Add. 
MS. 11,608. On the breaking out of the CiviL 
War he joined the Royalist army and was made 
a commissary by Lord Gerrard, to exempt him 
from danger, but his active spirit disdaining that 
security, he was killed by a stray Bhot during 
the siege of Chester, 1 645. [W. H. H.] 

LAY. A Provencal word, originally prob- 
ably Celtic, meaning at first a sound or noise, 
and then a song, especially the tune, as the 
quotations from Spenser, Milton and Dryden 
in Johnson's Dictionary prove. Beyond this 
general sense the term has no application to 
music. The German ' Lied ' is another form of 
the word. [G.] 

LAY VICAR or LAY CLERK, a singer in 
Cathedral Choirs. [See Vicab Choral.] 

LAYS, FBAN901S, a famous French singer, 
whose real name was Lay, born Feb. 14, 1758, 
at La Barthe de Neste"s in Gascony. He learned 
music in the monastery of Guaraison, but before 
he was 20 his fame as a singer had spread, and 
in April 1779 he found himself at Paris to be 
tried for the Grand Opera. His name first 
appears in Lajarte's catalogue of first repre- 
sentations, as Petrarque, in a ' pastoral hero'ique' 
by Candeille, called ' Laure et Pe'trarque,' July 
a, 1 780, and is spelt Lais. His next • mention 
is in the 'Iphigenie en Tauride' of Piccinni, 
Jan. 23, 1 78 1, where he has the rdle of a cory- 
phee. After that he appears frequently in com- 
pany with Madlle. Saint-Huberti, a famous 
soprano of that day. He was also attached to 
the concerts of Marie Antoinette, and to the 
Concert Spirituel. He was a poor actor, unless 
in parts specially written for him; but the 
splendour of his voice made up for everything, 
and he preserved it so well as to remain in the 
company of the Grand Opera till October 1822. 
Lays was a violent politician on the popular 
side, which did not please his colleagues, and 
some quarrels arose in consequence, but with no 
further result than to cause him to write a 

' The role of the ' Seigneur blenfalsant ' Is said by Fetis to hare been 
written for him. but his name does not appear in the company at the 
first performance of that piece. 



pamphlet, and to force him, after the 9th Ther- 
midor, to appear in parts distasteful to him, and 
to sing before the Bourbons after the Restoration. 
He was professor of singing at the Conservatoire 
from 1795 to 1799, when he retired from the 
post; and from 1819 to 1826 held the same 
office in the 'Ecole royale de chant et de de- 
clamation.' He had been principal singer in the 
chapel of Napoleon from 1801 tUl the fall of the 
Emperor, but was cashiered by Louis XVIII. 
After leaving the Ecole he retired to Ingrande 
near Angers, where he died March 30, 1831. 
We have said that he was not a good actor, but 
Fe"tis pronounces him not even a good singer, say- 
ing that his taste was poor, and that he had several 
bad tricks ; but he had warmth and animation, 
and the beauty of his voice so far atoned for all, 
that for a long time no opera could be successful 
in which he had not a part. [G.] 

LAZARUS, Henbt, a native of London, 
commenced the study of the clarinet when a 
boy under Blizard, bandmaster of the Royal 
Military Asylum, Chelsea, and continued it 
under Charles Godfrey, sen., bandmaster of the 
Coldstream Guards. After fu lfilli ng engage- 
ments in various theatrical and other orchestras 
he was, in 1838, appointed as second to Willman 
at the Sacred Harmonic Society. On the death 
of Willman in 1840 Lazarus succeeded him as 
principal clarinet at the Opera and all the 
principal concerts, festivals, etc. in London and 
the provinces, a position he has since retained 
■with great and ever-increasing reputation. In 
both orchestral and solo playing the beauty 
and richness of his tone, his excellent phrasing, 
and his neat and expressive execution, are alike 
admired. He attributes his present high re- 
putation mainly to the excellent advice he has 
during his career received from Sir Michael 
Costa. He has been a professor of his instrument 
at the Royal Academy of Music Bince 1854, and 
at the Military School of Music, Kneller Hall, 
near Hounslow, since 1858. [W.H.H.] 

LAZZARINI, Gustavo, was born (as some 
biographers say) at Padua, or (according to 
others) at Verona, about 1765. His debut was 
made at Lucca in 1789, in Zingarelli's ' Ifigenia 
in Aulide,' with great eolat. In the two follow- 
ing years he appeared in London, Binging both in 
serious and comic operas, such as Bertoni's 
■ Quinto Fabio ' and the ' Locanda' of Paisiello, 
in the former with Pacchierotti, but taking the 
principal r61e in the latter. Lord Mount-Edg- 
cumbe thought him ' a very pleasing singer with 
a sweet tenor voice.' During the Carnival of 
1 794 he sang at Milan, with Grassini and Mar- 
chesi, in Zingarelli's ' Artaserse ' and the ' Demo- 
foonte ' of Portogallo, and bore the comparison 
inevitably made between him and those great 
singers. He sang there again in 1 795, and once 
more in 1 79S, appearing on the latter occasion in 
Cimarosa's 'Orazzi' and Zingarelli's 'Meleagro,' 
with Riccardi and Crescentini. In 1801 he was 
one of the Opera Buffa troupe at Paris, where he 
was again heard to advantage by Lord Mount- 
Edgcumbe (1802), singing in company with La 


Strinasacchi and Georgi Belloc. But his voice 
had now lost much of its freshness, though the 
great style remained. Lazzarini published two 
volumes of Italian airs, and a Pastoral, both at 
Paris (Carli). His portrait was engraved there 
by Nitdt Dufr£ne, an operatic singer. [J. M.] 

LEACH, James, born at Rochdale, Yorkshire, 
in 1 762, was a tenor singer and hymn-tune writer. 
He published a ' New Sett of Hymns and Psalm 
Tunes etc.' (Preston, London 1 789) ; and a 
' Second Sett ' of the same, probably about 1 794. 
His tunes are found in several of the American 
collections, as the Easy Instructor (Albany, New 
York 1798), the Bridgewater Collection (Boston 
1802). The David Companion or Methodist 
Standard (Baltimore, 1810) contains 48 of his 
pieces. For more details see a letter signed 
G. A. C. in the Musical Times for April 1878, 
p. 326. In the Rev. H. Parr's 'Church of Eng- 
land Psalmody ' will be found Mount Pleasant, 
Oldham, and Smyrna, by him, which used to be 
favourites in certain congregations. Leach died 
in 1797. [G.] 

LEAD, TO, in fugues or imitative music is to 
go off first with a point or subject, which is 
afterwards taken up by the other parts succes- 
sively. Thus in the Amen Chorus in the Mes- 
siah the bass 'leads,' the tenor taking up the 
subject at the 6th bar, the alto at the 10th, and 
so on. In the separate voice parts the fact is 
often stated (' Tenors lead,' etc.), that the singers 
may be on their guard, and the part is then said 
' to have the lead.' [G.] 

LEADER. The chief of the first violins is the 
leader of the orchestra, the Concertmeister of the 
Germans, and Chef d'attaque of the French. He 
is close to the conductor's left hand. The posi- 
tion is a most important one, as the animation and 
'attack* of the band depend iu great measure 
on the leader. The great precision and force of 
the Gewandhaus orchestra, for instance, is said to 
have been mainly due to David being for so long 
at the head of them. [G.] 

LEADING NOTE (Fr. Note sensible ; Germ. 
Leitton). In modern music it is absolutely in- 
dispensable for all harmonic progressions to have 
an appreciable connection with a tonic or key- 
note, and various lines converge to indicate that 
note with clearness ; among these an important 
place is occupied by the Leading Note, which is 
the note immediately below the keynote, and 
separated from it by the smallest interval in 
the system, namely a semitone. Helmholtz has 
pointed out that in actual relationship to the 
tonic it is the most remote of all the notes in the 
scale, since the supertonic, which also appears to 
be very remote, at least comes nearer in being 
the fifth to the dominant, while the leading note 
is only the third. For this reason, and also from 
its not being capable of standing as a root note 
to any essential diatonic chord in the key, it 
seems to have no status of its own, but to exist 
mainly as preparatory to the tonic note, for which, 
by reason of its close proximity, it seems to pre- 
pare the mind when it is heard ; and the melodic 


tendency to lead up to the most important note 
in the scale is the origin of its name. 

In many scales, both of civilised and barbarous 
peoples, it has found no place. In most of the 
mediaeval ecclesiastical scales, as in the Greek 
scales from which they were derived, the note 
immediately below the tonic was separated from 
it by the interval of a whole tone, and therefore 
had none of the character of a leading note ; but 
as the feeling for tonality gained ground in the 
middle ages hand in hand with the appreciation 
of harmonic combinations, the use of the leading 
note, which is so vital to its comprehension, 
became more common. Ecclesiastics looked upon 
this tampering with the august scales of antiquity 
with disfavour, and Pope John XXII passed an 
edict against it in 1322; consequently the acci- 
dental which indicated it was omitted in the 
written music : but the feeling of musicians was 
in many cases too strong to be suppressed, and it 
seems that the performers habitually sang it 
wherever the sense of the context demanded it, 
nor do we learn that the ecclesiastics inter- 
fered with the practice as long as the musicians 
did not let the world see as well as hear what 
they were doing. Notwithstanding this common 
practice of performers, the scales maintained their 
integrity in many respects, and there resulted 
a curious ambiguity, which is very characteristic 
of mediaeval music, in the frequent interchange 
of the notes a tone and a semitone below the 
tonic. Musicians were long beguiled by the 
feeling that the true scales should have the note 
below the tonic removed from it by the interval 
of a tone, and that it was taking a liberty and 
pandering to human weakness to sharpen it ; 
and the clear realisation of those principles of 
tonality upon which modem music is based was 
considerably retarded thereby, so that works both 
vocal and instrumental are characterised by 
a vagueness of key-relationship, which the use 
of the leading note alone can remove, till far on 
into the seventeenth century; by the time of 
Bach and Handel however the ancient scales had 
been fused into the major and minor modes of the 
modern system, and the leading note assumed 
the office it has ever since occupied. The gradual 
realisation of the importance of the leading note 
and the influence it had upon the development 
of modern music is traced in the article Har- 
mony, and reference may also be made to chap, 
xiv of the Third Part of Helmholtz's great work 
on ' The Sensations of Tone,' etc. [C. H. H.P.] 

LEBHAFT, i. e. lively, the German equivalent 
for Vivace. Beethoven uses it, during his tempo- 
rary preference for German terms, in Sonata 
op. 1 01, where we find the two directions ' Etwas 
lebhaft ' etc. and ' Lebhaft, marschmassig,' which 
is exactly equivalent to 'Vivace a la marcia.' 
Schumann uses it constantly ; ' Ausserst lebhaft ' 
is Vivacissimo. [G.] 

LEBRUN, Francesca, the daughter of Danzi 
the violoncellist, was born at Mannheim in 1 756. 
Endowed by nature with a voice remarkable 
alike for its purity and extent, ranging as high 
as F in alt without difficulty, she improved her 



natural advantages by careful study, and became 
one of the best singers that Germany has pro- 
duced. She made her first appearance ( 1 771) when 
scarcely 16 years old, and charmed the court : in 
the next year she was engaged at the Mannheim 
Opera. Fe'tis says that in 1775 she became the 
wife of Lebrun the oboist, whom she accom- 
panied to Italy, singing first at Milan (1778) in 
Salieri's 'Europa riconosciuta.' The Milanese 
were delighted with her clear and beautiful voice 
and easy vocalisation, in spite of the intrigues of 
La Balducci, the prima donna of La Scala, who 
endeavoured to set them against her young rival. 
This account must, however, be corrected ; for, 
whereas Fe'tis says that she only came to Eng- 
land in 1 78 1, there is no doubt that she was 
here five years earlier, then unmarried, arriving 
with Boncaglia, with whom she sang in Sac- 
chini's ' Creso.' ' Though her name was Italian 
[called in the cast, Francesca Danzi, Virtuosa di 
Camera di S.A.S. l'Elettore Palatino], she was 
a German, and had never been in Italy. She was 
young, well-looking, had a voice of uncommon 
clearness and compass, capable of the most aston- 
ishing execution, and was an excellent musician. 
Yet her performance was considered unsatisfac- 
tory, being too much alia Tedescha, and more like 
that of an instrument than of a human voice. 
She soon after married M. Lebrun, an eminent 
player on the hautbois, which confirmed her in 
the bravura style, as she was in the habit of 
singing songs with an obbligato accompaniment 
for that instrument, in which the difficulties per- 
formed by both were quite astonishing, each 
seeming to vie with the other which could go 
highest and execute the most rapid divisions. 
After performing in * Erifile,' also by Sacchini, 
and other operas, she left England after one 
season, but was re-engaged for the next but one ' 
(Lord Mount-Edgcumbe). It is therefore clear 
that she did not marry Lebrun until after 1777. 
She reappeared in London as Mme. Lebrun in 
1779, being again the prima donna for serious 
opera, and continued with Pacchierotti to sing in 
London for two or three seasons ; she then went 
away, ' nor was her place ever well filled during 
the remainder of Pacchierotti's stay ' (Idem.). 

She sang in 1 785 at Munich, after which she 
returned to Italy, achieving the same brilliant 
success at Venice and Naples as elsewhere. In 
1 788 and 1 789 she appeared at Munich in Mo- 
zart's 'Idomeneo,' Prati's 'Armida,' and the 
• Castor and Pollux ' of Vogler. She started for 
Berlin in Dec. 1 790 to fulfil an engagement, but 
on her arrival lost her husband, and herself died 
May 14, 1 791. 

Mme. Lebrun, beside being a great singer, 
was an accomplished pianiste, and composed well 
for that instrument. She published at Offen- 
bach (1783) some sonatas with violin accom- 
paniment, and some trios for piano, violin, and 
cello, which contain pretty melodies and are 
written with facility. 

Of her two daughters, the elder, SOPHIE, better 
known as Mme. ' Dulcken, was born in London 
> Not to be confounded with the later artiste of that name. 



June 20, 1781, and became celebrated as a 
pianiste. She was remarkable for quick and true 
feeling, as well as a good style of execution, and 
made successful concert tours through France, 
Italy, and Germany. On April 18, 1799, she 
married Dulcken, a famous maker of pianos at 
Munich. She composed, but never published, 
some sonatas and other pieces for the piano. 

Rosine, her younger sister, was born at Mu- 
nich, April 13, 1785. She was at first taught 
by Streicher for the piano, but afterwards studied 
singing under her uncle, Danzi, the Kapellmeister. 
She made a successful debut ; but, having mar- 
ried Stenzsch, an actor of the Court Theatre, 
Nov. 30, 1 801, gave up the opera to play in 
comedy, in which she displayed a fair amount 
of talent. [J.M.] 

LECLAIR, Jean-Marie, l'aine" (so called to 
distinguish him from his brother Antoine-Remi), 
an eminent violin-player, and composer for his 
instrument, was born at Lyons in 1697. Al- 
though his father was a member of the royal 
band, he began his public life not as a musician 
but as a dancer at the Rouen theatre. Later on 
he went to Turin, as ballet master, where Somis 
was so much pleased with some ballet-music of 
his, that he induced him to take up the violin, 
which up to this time he had cultivated as a 
secondary pursuit only, and to place himself under 
his tuition for two years. At the end of that 
period Somis declared that he had nothing more 
to teach him. Nevertheless Le"clair appears to 
have continued his studies for a considerable time 
before going to Paris in 1729. In Paris his suc- 
cess was never great ; whether from want of 
ambition and a retiring disposition, or, as has 
been suggested, owing to the jealousy of the vio- 
linists of the French school, we have no means 
of deciding. As a fact we know that Leclair, 
although he can hardly have had a worthy rival 
among the players of that time, got nothing 
better than the insignificant post of ripieno- 
violinist at the Opera. During this period 
he studied composition under Che'ron. In 1731 
he became a member of the royal band, but 
owing to a dispute with Guignon as to the 
leadership of the 2nd violins, gave up his post 
again, and soon also retired from the Opera. 
For the rest of his life he appears to have been 
exclusively occupied with the composition and 
publication of his works and with teaching. He 
was already an old man when he made a journey 
to Holland, for the sole purpose of hearing and 
meeting Locatelli, of whose powers as a violinist 
he, led by the extraordinary and novel difficulties 
presented in the caprices of that artist, had 
probably formed a great idea. On Oct. 22, 1764, 
soon after his return from Holland, he was 
assassinated late at night close to the door of 
his own house. Neither motive nor author of 
the crime have ever been discovered. 

Owing to the merit of his compositions for the 
violin, Le"clair occupies a prominent place among 
the great classical masters of that instrument. As 
to his powers as a performer we have but the in- 
direct evidence of the difficulties presented in bis 


compositions. These are very considerable ; and. 
barring Locatelli's eccentricities, greater than any 
that we find in the works of his predecessors or 
contemporaries. He very freely employs — in fact 
not seldom writes whole movements in — double- 
stops ; and altogether, even according to the 
modern standard of technique, his music is 
exacting both for the left hand and the bow. 
As a composer, judging him after his best 
works, Leclair must be accorded the first place 
among French writers for the violin. It has 
been justly remarked, that a great deal of what 
he wrote is antiquated ; but much remains that 
is truly charming. He is no mere imitator of 
the Italians, but there is a distinct individuality 
in many of his movements ; and also a definite 
national French element. On the whole, grace- 
fulness and vivacity are more prominent than 
depth of feeling; his frequent employment of 
double-stops, already mentioned, giving much 
richness and brilliancy of sound. 

The two Sonatas of his, edited by Ferd. David 
(Hohe Schule des Violinspiels), are good ex- 
amples of his higher powers, especially the 
pathetic one, surnamed ' Le tombeau.' On the 
other hand a Saraband and Tambourin, often 
played with great success by Joachim and others, 
are good specimens of his lively style. This is a 
list of his works, as appended to his op. 1 2 : — 

Op. 1. Sonatas for violin with a Op. & Trios. Continuation of 

bass. (1st book.) 
2. Sonatas. (2nd book.) 
& Sonatas for 2 violins. 
4. Sonatas en trio. 
& Sonatas for violin with bass. 

(Srd book.) 

6. Trios (faciles), 2 violins and 


7. Concertl gross!. 

op. 6. 

a Sonatas. (4th book.) 

10. Concert! gross!. 

11. Glaucus et Scylla. Op?ra. 

12. Sonatas for 2 violins. (2nd 


13. Overtures and sonatas en 


14. Sonate posthume. 

As a rule his works were engraved by his 
wife, who, up to 1750, was a singer at the 
Opera. [P. D.] 

LECOCQ, Alexandre Charles, born in Paris 
June 3, 1832 ; entered the Conservatoire in 49, 
and in 50 obtained the first prize for harmony and 
accompaniment. He took the second prize for 
fugue in Hale*vy's class in 1852, and at the 
same time greatly distinguished himself in the 
organ class. After this however he obtained no 
further scholastic distinctions, and either because 
he tired of Hale'vy's want of method, or because 
he was anxious to come before the public, left 
the Conservatoire towards the close of 1854. He 
found the usual difficulty in obtaining access to 
the stage, and would probably have had to wait 
a long time, but for a competition for an operetta 
opened by Offenbach in 1 856. He was bracketed 
with Bizet, and ' Le Docteur Miracle ' was pro- 
duced at the Bouffes Parisiens April 8, 1857. The 
operetta was evidently the work of a clever 
musician, who understood how to write for the 
voice. Notwithstanding this good beginning the 
small theatres still closed their doors to him, 
and Lecocq was driven to teaching for a 
livelihood. He then tried a different line, 
publishing in conjunction with Besozzi a collec- 
tion of sacred songs for women's voices called 
'La Chapelle au Couvent' (1865) — less incon- 
gruous when we remember that he was a good 


organist; but the stage was irresistible, and 
a little one-act piece 'Le Baiser a la Porte' 
(1864) was followed by 'Les Ondines au Cham- 
pagne' (1865), 'Le Myosotis' (1866), ' Le 
Cabaret de Ramponneau' (1867), and 'Fleur de 
The,' 3 acts (1868). This last piece was a bril- 
liant success. Lecocq at last found himself 
established with the public, and produced in 
rapid succession 'L' Amour et son carquois,' 
2 acts (1868); 'Gandolfo' and 'Le Eajah de 
Mysore,' both in one act (1869); 'Le beau 
Dunois,' 1 act (1870) ; ' Le Barbier de Trouville' 
and 'Le Testament de M. de Crac,' both in 
1 act (1871) ; 'Sauvons la caisse,' 1 act, and 
' Les Cent 'Vierges,' 3 acts (1872) ; 'La Fille de 
Mme. Angot,' 3 acts (1873) 2 which ran for 500 
nights consecutively; 'Les 3 Pres St. Gervais' 
and 'Girofle-*Girofla' both in 3 acts (1874); 
'Les Jumeaux de Bergame,' 1 act, and ' Le 
Pompon,' 3 acts (1875); 'La petite Mariee,' 3- 
acts (1876) ; ' Kosiki ' and ' La Marjolaine,' both 
in 3 acts (1877) ; ' Le petit Due' and ' Camargo,' 
both in 3 acts (1878) ; and finally 'La petite 
Mademoiselle,' 3 acts (1879). To this long list 
must be added detached songs and other trifles 
thrown off by his rapid and untiring pen. 
Lecocq has profited by the false system mo- 
mentarily in the ascendant among French 
musicians. Our learned composers, encouraged 
by some of the managers, overload their operas 
with orchestral writing and substitute the lyric 
for the dramatic element — to the ruin of French 
opera comique. But Lecocq realizes that what 
the public really like are light, gay, sparkling 
melodies. His aim has been to dethrone Offen- 
bach, and as he has the advantage of writing 
correctly, he has had little trouble in attaining 
a popularity even greater than that formerly 
possessed by the composer of ' Orphee aux En- 
ters.' His style is not a very elevated one, and 
makes no demand on the poetry or the intellect 
of the composer; but it requires tact, ease, free- 
dom, and above all, animation. These qualities 
are conspicuous in Lecocq's operettas, which have 
become universally popular, owing to the life, brio, 
and easy gaiety which pervade them. [G.C.] 
LEDGER LINES are the short lines drawn 
above and below the staff for those notes which 
exceed its limits. The origin of the term is not 
known. It is proposed to derive it from the 
French Uger, light, or from the Latin legere, to 
read, or as if it were equivalent to layer — addi- 
tional lines laid on above or below ; but neither 
of these is quite satisfactory. The term came 
into use about the year 1 700 (see Mr. C. J. Evans 
in the Musical Times for June 1879). In French 
they are called ' lignes postiches,' or ' supplemen- 
taires ' ; and in German ' hilfslinien,' or ' neben- 
linien,' A, C. etc. being said to be ' durch den 
Kopf,' and B, D, etc. ' durch den Hals ' — ' ein, 
zwei, drei, gestrichene,' etc. [G.] 

1 In London, at St James's Theatre (French), June 2L 73. 

1 Ditto, at St. James's Theatre (French), May 17, 73 ; at Royal 
rhllharmonlc Theatre (English, llyron), Oct. 4, 73. 

» Ditto, at Criterion Theatre (English, Keece), KoT. 28, 74. 

« Ditto, at Opera Comique (French), June 6, 74; at Koyal rbilhar- 
mouic Theatre (English), Oct. 3, 74. 



LEE, George Alexander, son of Harry Lee, 
a pugilist and landlord of the Anti-Gallican 
tavern, Shire Lane, Temple Bar, was born in 1802. 
When a boy he entered the service of Lord 
Barrymore as ' tiger,' being the first of the class 
of servants known by that name ; but on the 
discovery that he had a fine voice and a natural 
taste for music, he was withdrawn from that 
position and placed under a master for instruc- 
tion. In 1825 he appeared as a tenor singer at 
the Dublin theatre, and in 1826 in London at 
the Haymarket theatre, and soon afterwards 
commenced business as a music-seller in the 
Quadrant. In 1829, with Melrose, the tenor 
singer, and John Kemble Chapman, he entered 
upon the management of the Tottenham Street 
Theatre, and gave performances of popular Eng- 
lish operas. Lee seceded in 1830 and became 
lessee of Drury Lane Theatre. He was soon 
afterwards joined by Capt. Polhill, but at the 
end of the season he withdrew, leaving Polhill 
sole manager. In 1831 he undertook the man- 
agement of the Lenten oratorios at both Drury 
Lane and Covent Garden. In 1832 he was com- 
poser and music director at the Strand Theatre, 
and in 1845 the same at the Olympic. Lee 
composed the music for several dramatic pieces, 
amongst which were 'The Sublime and Beauti- 
ful,' and ' The Invincibles,' 1828; 'The Nymph 
of the Grotto' and 'The Witness,' 1829 ; 'The 
Devil's Brother ' (principally from Auber's ' Fra 
Diavolo') and 'The Legion of Honour,' 1831; 
'Waverley' (with G. Stansbury), 1832; 'Love 
in a Cottage,' 'Good Husbands make good 
Wives,' 'Sold for a Song,' and 'Auld Robin 
Gray,' the last composed about 1838 but not 
performed until 1858. He was also composer of 
many songs and ballads, highly popular in their 
day ('Away, away to the mountain's brow,* 
'Come where the aspens quiver,' 'The Macgre- 
gors' Gathering,' etc.) and author of a 'Vocal 
Tutor.' Lee married Mrs. Waylett, the popular 
singer and actress, whose death (April 19, 1851) 
so seriously affected him that he died the 8th of 
the following October. [W. H. H] 

of these meetings took place in 1858, Sept. 7-10, 
in the new Town Hall, after the opening of that 
building by the Queen — conductor, Sir (then 
Professor) Sterndale Bennett, whose May Queen 
was performed (Sept. 8) for the first time. They 
are now triennial. The second was held in 1874, 
Oct. 14-17 ; and the third in 1877, Sept. 19-22, 
Macfarren's ' Joseph," first performed on the 
2 1st; conductor, on both occasions, Sir Michael 
Costa. The proceeds of the festivals go to the 
hospitals of the Town. [G.] 

LEEVES, Rev. William, born 1748, became 
in 1779 rector of Wrington, Somerset, the birth- 
place of John Locke, the philosopher. He com- 
posed much sacred music, but will be remembered 
only as the author of the air of ' Auld Robin 
Gray' (words by Lady Anne Barnard, born 
Lindsay of Balcarres) written in 1770, but not 
known as his before 1 81 2. He died at Wrington. 
May 25, 1828. [W.H.H.] 



LEFEBUREWELY, Lodis James Alfred, 
born in Paris Nov. 13, 181 7, son of Antoine 
Lefe"bvre, organist and composer, who took the 
name of Lefe'bure-We'ly, and died 1831. He 
learned his notes before the alphabet, and as 
soon as he could speak showed a marvellous 
aptitude for music. At eight he was his father's 
deputy at the organ, accompanying the plain- 
song and playing short pieces. Though only 
15 when his father died, he was appointed 
his successor at St. Koch through the influence 
of Queen Marie Ame"lie. Feeling the need of 
solid study, he entered the Conservatoire in 1832, 
and obtained the second prizes for pianoforte and 
organ in 1834, and the first for both in the fol- 
lowing year. He then took lessons in counter- 
point from HaleVy, and in composition from 
Berton, but, not satisfied with these professors, 
studied privately with Adolphe Adam, and with 
Se'jan, the organist, who initiated him in the art 
of improvising and in the management of the 
stops. He told the author of this article that he 
owed much to both these men, widely different 
as they were, and he often sought their advice 
after he had left the Conservatoire in order to 
marry. To support his young family he took 
to teaching, and composed a quantity of piano- 
forte pieces, some of which were popular at 
the time. But it is as an organist that he 
will be remembered. His improvisations were 
marvellous, and from the piquancy of his har- 
monies, the unexpectedness of his combinations, 
the fertility of his imagination, and the charm 
which pervaded all he did, he might justly 
be called the Auber of the organ. The great 
popularity in France of the free-reed instruments 
of Debain and Mustel is largely owing to him ; 
indeed, the effects he produced on the instru- 
ments of the harmonium class were really aston- 
ishing. Endowed with immense powers of 
work, Lefebure-Wely attempted all branches of 
composition — chamber music; symphonies for full 
orchestra ; masses ; an opera-comique in 3 acts, 
'Les Becruteurs' (Dec. 13, 1861); etc. Among 
his best works are his 'Cantiques,' a remarkable 
' O Salutaris,' his ' Offertoires, many of his fan- 
tasias for harmonium, and his organ-pieces. He 
received the Legion of Honour in 1850, being at 
the time organist of the Madeleine, where he 
was from 1847 to 1858. After this he had for 
some time no regular post, but in 1863 accepted 
the organ of St. Sulpice, so long held with suc- 
cess by his friend and master Se'jan. Here he 
remained till his death, which took place, of 
consumption, in Paris on Dec. 31, 1869. [G. C] 

LEFFLER, Adam, born in 1808, son of 
James Henry Leflier, bassoon player and or- 
ganist of St. Katherine's Hospital by the Tower, 
the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy, and 
Streatham Chapel, who died suddenly in the 
street in 1819 — was soon after his father's death 
admitted a chorister of Westminster Abbey. 
On attaining manhood he was endowed with a 
bass voice of exceptionally fine quality and ex- 
tensive compass, from E below the stave to G 
above it, — and a natural gift for singing. He 


first attracted notice in October 1829 at a Fes- 
tival at Exeter, when the casual absence of 
another performer gave him the opportunity of 
appearing as a principal singer. He acquitted 
himself so satisfactorily that he was immediately 
appointed a deputy at Westminster Abbey, and 
shortly afterwards took and maintained a good 
position on the English operatic stage and in the 
concert room. But for a constitutional careless- 
ness and neglect of close study he might, with 
his natural and acquired qualifications, have oc- 
cupied the highest place in his profession. He 
died of apoplexy, March 28, 1857. [W.H.H.] 
LEGATO (Ital., sometimes written ligato; 
Ger. gebunden ; Fr. IU), ' connected ' ; the sound 
of each note of a phrase being sustained until the 
next is heard. In singing, a legato passage is 
vocalised upon a single vowel, on stringed instru- 
ments it is played by a single stroke of the bow, 
and on the pianoforte or organ by keeping each 
finger upon its key until the exact moment of 
striking the next. On wind instruments with 
holes or keys, a legato passage is played in one 
breath, the notes being produced by opening or 
stopping the holes ; but a wind instrument on 
which the different sounds are produced by the 
action of the lips alone, as the horn, trumpet, 
etc., is incapable of making a true legato, except 
in the rare cases in which one of the notes of the 
phrase is produced by stopping the bell of the 
instrument with the hand, as in the following 
example from the Scherzo of Beethoven's 7th 
Symphony — 

The sign of legato is a curved line drawn above 
or beneath the notes. In music for wind or 
stringed instruments the curve covers as many 
notes as are to be played with a single breath, or 
a single stroke of the bow ; thus — 

Beethoven. Symphony No. 5. 


Beethoven. Symphony Xo. 9. 

Celli Sr Basti. 

Wt WT =r 

1 rrr l r rrir-e^ 

In vocal music the same sign is often used, as in 
Handel's chorus, 'And he shall purify,' but it is 
not necessary, since the composer can always en- 
sure a legato by giving a single syllable to the 
whole passage, and it is in fact frequently omitted, 
as in the air ' Every valley.' 

In pianoforte music, all passages which are 
without any mark are played legato, inasmuch 
as the notes are not detached ; the curved line is 
therefore used more for the sake of giving a 
finished appearance to the passage than from any 
practical necessity. Nevertheless, passages are 


sometimes met with in which it appears to have 
a special significance, and to indicate a particu- 
larly smooth manner of playing, the keys being 
struck less sharply than usual, and with slightly 
increased pressure. Such a passage occurs in the 
Allegro of Beethoven's Sonata in Ab, op. 26, in 
which the quavers alone are marked legato, the 
semiquavers being left without any mark, thus — 

g^^ffi-R^P^^M J ' l-j'- 

r7 r r IP 

The same plan is followed on each recurrence of 
the phrase throughout the movement, and since 
this regularity can scarcely have been accidental, 
it appears to indicate a corresponding variety of 

Instead of the sign, the word legato is some- 
times written under the passage, as in Bee- 
thoven's Bagatelle, Op. 119, No. 8, or Variation 
No. 30 of Op. 1 20. When the word is employed 
it generally refers to the character of the whole 
movement rather than to a single passage. 

In playing legato passages wholly or partly 
founded upon broken chords, some masters have 
taught that the principal notes of the harmony 
should be sustained a little longer than their 
written length. Thus Hummel, in his Piano- 
forte School, gives the following passages (and 
many others) with the intimation that the notes 
marked with an asterisk are to be sustained some- 
what longer than written, 'on account of the better 
connexion ' — 


This method of playing passages, which is some- 
times called legatissimo, would doubtless add to 
the richness of the effect, especially upon the light- 
toned pianofortes of Hummel's day, but it is not 
necessary on modern instruments, the tone of 
which is so much fuller. Nevertheless it is some- 
times of service, particularly in certain passages 
by Chopin, which without it are apt to sound 
thin. In Klindworth's new edition of Chopin 
the editor has added a second stem, indicating a 
greater value, to such notes as require sustain- 
ing, and a comparison of his version with the 
original edition will at once show the intended 
effect ; for example— 
VOL. 11. 


Chopin, Valse, Op. 64, No. 2, Original Edition. 

JL_ . rP-» , 


An example of legatissimo touch, in which the 
notes are written of their full value, may be 
found in No. 5, Bk. ii. of Cramer's Studies. 

The opposite of legato is staccato — detached 
[see Staccato] , but there is an intermediate touch 
between legato and staccato, in which the notes, 
though not connected, are separated by a barely 
perceptible break. When this effect is intended 
the passage is marked non legato. An example 
occurs in the first movement of Beethoven's 
Sonata in C minor, Op. 1 1 1, in the passage im- 
mediately following the first appearance of the 
short Adagio phrase. [F.T.] 

LEGGIERO(Ital., also Leggieramente), lightly. 
The word is usually applied to a rapid passage, 
and in pianoforte playing indicates an absence of 
pressure, the keys being struck with only suffi- 
cient force to produce the sound. Leggiero pass- 
ages are usually, though not invariably, piano, 
and they may be either legato or staccato; if 
the former the fingers must move very freely 
and strike the keys with a considerable amount 
of percussion to ensure distinctness, but with the 
slightest possible amount of force. Examples of 
legato passages marked leggieramente are found 
in the 25th variation of Beethoven's Op. 120, and 
in the finale of Mendelssohn's Concerto in G 
minor (which also contains the unusual com- 
bination of forte with leggiero) ; and of staccato 
single notes and chords in the finale of Mendels- 
sohn's Concerto in D minor. 

On stringed instruments leggiero passages are 
as a rule played by diminishing the pressure of 
the bow upon the strings, but the word generally 
refers rather to the character of the movement 
than to any particular manner of bowing. The 
Scherzo of Beethoven's Quartet in E b, Op. 74, is 
marked leggiermente, although it begins forte, 
and the same indication is given for the 2nd 
variation of the i^dante in the Kreutzer Sonata, 
which is piano throughout. [F. T.] 

LEGRENZI, Giovanni, composer and con- 
ductor, born about 1625 at Clusone near Ber- 
gamo ; in which town he learned music, and 
received his first appointment, that of organ- 
ist to the church of St. Maria Maggiore. He 
next became maestro di capella of the church of 
the Spirito Santo at Ferrara, where he still was 
in 1664. When Krieger, Capellmeister to the 
Duke of Weissenfels, visited Venice in 1672, he 
found Legrenzi settled there as director of the 
Conservatorio dei Mendicanti. In 1685 he also 
became maestro di capella of St. Mark's, and 
exercised both functions till his death in July 
1690. He entirely reorganised the orchestra of 



St. Mark's, augmenting it to 34 performers, thus 
disposed — S violins, 11 violette, 2 viole da brae- 
cio, a viole da gamba, 1 violone, 4 theorbos, 
2 cornets, I bassoon, and 3 trombones. He 
composed industriously, and left specimens of 
his skill in most departments of music— motets, 
masses, psalms, instrumental music of various 
kinds, and 17 operas, of which the most re- 
markable are 'Achilla in Scyro,' his first 
(1664); 'La Divisione del Mondo' (1675); 'I 
due Cesari' (1683) mentioned in the Paris 
'Mercure Galant' (March 1683); and 'Perti- 
nace* (1684), his last. They were nearly all 
produced in Venice. Like Scarlatti, and other 
composers of his time, he did not attempt to 
banish the comic element from his serious 
operas. One of his orchestral compositions is in 
7 real parts, and all are important. His best 
pupils were Lotti and Gasparini. 

Legrenzi's name will be handed down to pos- 
terity by Bach and Handel, both of whom have 
treated subjects from his works, the former in 
an organ fugue in C minor on a 'Thema Le- 
grenzianutn elaboratum cum subjecto pedaliter' 
(Griepenkerl & Roitsch, 1 iv. No. 6) ; and the 
latter in the phrase 'To thy dark servant light 
and life afford,' in the Chorus '0 first-created 
beam' from Samson. This is taken from a motet 
of Legrenzi's — ' Intret in conspectu,' of which 
a copy in Handel's handwriting is to be found 
among the MSS. at Buckingham Palace (Chry- 
sander, ' Handel ' i. 1 79). [F. G.] 

LEIDESDORF, Max Josef, a musician and 
music-seller of Vienna, who appears to have lived 
there from about 1804 to 1827, and then to have 
left it for Florence, where he died Sept. 26, 1840, 
He will go down to posterity embalmed in a 
little note 2 of Beethoven's, apparently written at 
the earlier of the two dates just given above, 
sending Ries for some easy 4-hand pieces — ' and 
better still let him have them for nothing ' — 
beginning with a pun on his name, 'Dorf des 
Leides ! ' and ending ' Beethoven minimus.' 
Leidesdorf was one of those who signed the 
address to Beethoven in 1824, praying him to 
produce the Ninth Symphony and the Mass in D, 
and to write a second opera. [See p. 1966.] He 
was one of Schubert's publishers. [G.] 

LEIGHTON, Sib William, Knight, one of 
the band of Gentlemen Pensioners of Elizabeth 
and James I, published in 1 614 'The Teares or 
Lamentacions of a Sorrowfvll Soule; Composed 
with Musicall Ayres and Songs both for Voyces 
and Divers Instruments.' The work consists of 
54 metrical psalms and hymns, 1 7 of which are 
for 4 voices, with accompaniments, in tableture, 
for the lute, bandora and cittern; and 13 for 4 
voices and 24 for 5 voices without accompani- 
ment. The first 8 pieces are of Leighton's own 
composition, and the rest were contributed by the 
following composers : — Dr. John Bull, William 
Byrde, John Coperario, John Dowland, Alfonso 

1 This Is the fugue about the autograph of which Mendelssohn 
writes. June 18, 183a. No. 8 of the same voL is a fugue on a subject by 

» Kohl, Briefe Beethoven's, No. 35. 


Ferrabosco, Thomas Ford, Orlando Gibbons, 
Nathaniel Giles, Edmond Hooper, Robert John- 
son, Robert Jones, Robert Kindersley, Thomas 
Lupo, John Milton, Martin Pearson, Francis 
Pilkington, Timolphus Thopul (a pseudonym), 
John Ward, Thomas Weelkes and John Wilbye. 
From the dedication to Prince Charles we learn 
that the collection was compiled while the 
worthy knight was — unjustly, as he alleges — 
incarcerated for debt. He had in the preceding 
year published the poetry alone in a duodecimo 
volume. [W.H.H.] 

LEIPZIG (i.e. the place of Lime-trees), in 
Saxony, on the junction of the Pleisse and the 
Elster, 135,000 inhabitants, has for a long time 
been the most musical place in North Germany. 
When Rochlitz visited Beethoven 3 at Vienna in 
1822, the first thing which the great composer 
did was to praise Leipzig and its music — ' If I 
had nothing to read but the mere dry lists of 
what they do, I should read them with pleasure. 
Such intelligence ! such liberality ! ' The main 
ostensible causes of this pre-eminence have been 
(1) the long existence of the St. Thomas school 
as a musical institution with a first-class musician 
as its Cantor; (2) the Gewandhaus concerts; 
(3) the presence of the great music-publishing 
house of Breitkopfs, almost equal in importance 
to a public institution ; (4) the existence for 
fifty years of the principal musical periodical 
of the country — the 'Allgemeine musikalische 
Zeitung' ; (5) in our own times, the long 
residence there of Mendelssohn, and the found- 
ation by him of the Conservatorium, with its 
solid and brilliant staff of professors — a centre, 
for many years, of the musical life not only of 
Germany, but of other countries ; and lastly (6) 
several very remarkable private musical insti- 

1. The Thomas-schule, or School of St. Thomas, 
is an ancient public school of the same nature as 
our cathedral and foundation grammar-schools, 
but with the special feature that about 60 of the 
boys are taught music, who are called A lumni, 
and are under the charge of a Cantor, forming 
the ' Thomaner-Chor.' This body is divided into 
4 choirs, with a Prefect at the head of each, and 
serve the Churches of St. Thomas, St. Nicholas, 
St. Peter, and the Neukirche or New-Church. 
On Sundays the first choir joins the town orchestra 
for the morning service at St. Thomas or St. 
Nicholas ; and on Saturday afternoons at 1.30 
the whole four choirs unite in a performance 
under the direction of the Cantor. The boys are 
remarkable for the readiness and correctness with 
which they sing the most difficult music at sight. 
The Cantob, in German towns and villages, 
corresponds to the Precentor or leader of the 
choir in English cathedrals and churches, 
and the Cantor of the St. Thomas School at 
Leipzig has for long been acknowledged as the 
head and representative of them all. For more 
than two centuries the office has been filled by 
very distinguished musicians, as will be seen 

• ' Fflr Freunde der Tonkunst ,' It. 354. 


from the following list, taken from Mendel's 
Conversations-Lexicon der Tonkunst : — 



Johann Urban ... 
Martin Klotsch ... 
Ludwig Gotze . . . . 
George Khaw .... 
Johannes Herrmann . 
Wolfgang Jiinger . . 
I'lrich Lange .... 
Wolfgang Flgulus . . 
Melchior Hager ... 
Valenten Otto ... 
Bethus Calrtsius . . . 
Joh. Herrmann Scheln 
Tobias Michael ) 
Joh. Bosenmuller ) 












Sebastian Knflpfer . . 
Johann Scbelle . . . 
Johann Kuhnau . . . 
Joh. Sebastian Bach . 
Gottlob Hasser . . . 
Joh. Friedrlch Doles . 
Joh. Adam Hlller . . 
A. Eberhard Mailer . 
Joh. Gottfried Schlcht 
Chrlstoph Theodor 


Moritz II auptmann . . 
Ernst Friedrlch KIchter 












2. The Gewandhaus Concerts have been 
already described under their own head. [See vol. 
i. p. 5926.] Mendelssohn conducted them from Oct. 
4> I 835, till the end of the series 1842-43, when he 
■was compelled to leave Leipzig for Berlin, and 
they were then transferred to Ferdinand Hiller. 

3. For the great publishing establishment of 
Breitkopf & Hartel, we refer the reader to 
the former volume of this work [p. 272], merely 
adding here, that since that article was written 
the edition of Mendelssohn has been completed ; 
that of Mozart (a truly immense undertaking) is 
progressing satisfactorily ; a complete edition of 
Chopin (in 14 vols.) is nearly finished ; and that 
an entire edition of the works of Palestrina, both 
printed and MS., in continuation of that begun 
by Witt, Rauch, and Espagne, extending in all 
to 29 folio volumes, was announced by these in- 
defatigable publishers on January 27, 1879. In 
addition to these they began in 1878 a cheap 
edition of classical music, a collection of Libretti, 
and a publication of music paper and music MS. 

4. The 'Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung,' 
or ' General Musical Times,' was begun by the 
firm just mentioned in 1798, on October 3 of 
which year the first number was published. It 
was in 4to ; 8 pages weekly, numbered in 16 
columns, to which were added occasionally pieces 
of music in type (and admirable type too), copper- 
plates, and advertisement sheets. Each volume 
had a portrait as frontispiece. With 18 10 the 
volumes began with the beginning of the year. 
The Zeitung contained articles on musical subjects 
of all kinds, biographical notices, reviews of new 
pieces, reports from foreign towns, etc. etc., and 
though seriously defective in many points, was an 
honest and good attempt at a musical periodical. 
Among the editors were Rochlitz (1 798-1818), 
Fink (1827-41), Hauptmann (1843), Lobe 
(1846-48). With the 50th vol. (for 1848) the 
first series came to an end. There is an excellent 
Index in 3 parts. Since that date the Zeitung 
has been continued by Rieter-Biedermann under 
various editors, of whom the most considerable is 
Dr. Chrysander. 

5. The idea and the foundation of the Coxser- 
vatorium were entirely due to Mendelssohn, by 
whom the King of Saxony was induced to allow 
a sum of 20,000 thalers, bequeathed by a certain 
Hof kriegsrath Bliimner ' for the purposes of art 
and science,' to be devoted to the establishment 
of a 'solid musical academy at Leipzig.' The 
permission was obtained in Nov. 1842, the ne- 

cessary accommodation was granted by the cor- 
poration of the town in the Gewandhaus — a 
large block of buildings containing two Halls, 
a Library, and many other rooms — and the Con- 
servatorium was opened on April 1, 1843. 
Mendelssohn was the first chief, and the 
teachers were : — harmony and counterpoint, 
Hauptmann ; composition and pianoforte, Men- 
delssohn and Schumann ; violin, Ferdinand 
David ; singing, Pohlenz ; organ, Becker. There 
were ten scholarships, and the fees for the 
ordinary pupils were 75 thalers per annum. In 
1846, at Mendelssohn's urgent entreaty, Mos- 
dheles left his London practice, and became 
professor of the pianoforte at the modest salary 
of £1 20 ; and at that date the staff also embraced 
Gade, Plaidy, Brendel, Richter (afterwards 
Cantor), and others whose names have become 
inseparably attached to the Conservatorium. 
The management of the institution is in the 
hands of a board of directors chosen from the 
principal inhabitants of the town, and not pro- 
fessional musicians. The first name inscribed 
in the list of pupils is Theodor Kirchner, and it 
is followed by those of Otto Goldschmidt, Bargiel, 
Grimm, Norman, etc. Amongst Englishmen are 
found J. F. Barnett, Sullivan, Walter Bache, 
Franklin Taylor, etc., and the American names 
include Dannreuther, Willis, Mills, Paine, and 

6. Of the private institutions we may men- 
tion : — (1) the 'Riedelsche Verein,' a choral 
society founded in 1854 by Carl Riedel, its con- 
ductor, and renowned throughout Germany for its 
performances of sacred music of all periods, from 
Palestrina and Schiitz down to Brahms and 
Liszt. (2) The ' Euterpe,' an orchestral concert 
society, which, though its performances cannot 
come into competition with those of the Gewand- 
haus, is yet of importance as representing a more 
progressive element in music than prevails in 
the exclusively classical programmes of the older 
institution. The names of Berlioz, Liszt, Raff, 
Rubinstein and others, appear prominently in the 
concerts of the Euterpe. Verhulst, Bronsart, and 
other eminent musicians, have been its conductors. 
(3) The ' Paulus,' an academical choral society 
of male voices, deserves mention as one of the 
best of its kind in Germany. [G.] 

LEIT-MOTIF, i.e. 'guiding theme.' The 
principle of ' Leit-motive ' is so simple and ob- 
vious that it would seem strange that they 
have so lately found recognition in music, 
were it not remembered that music in general 
has progressed but slowly towards a sufficiently 
logical condition to admit of their employment. 
They consist of figures or short passages of 
melody of marked character which illustrate, or 
as it were label, certain personages, situations, or 
abstract ideas which occur prominently in the 
course of a story or drama of which the music is 
the counterpart ; and when these situations recur, 
or the personages come forward in the course of 
the action, or even when the personage or idea is 
implied or referred to, the figure which consti- 
tutes the leit-motif is heard. 




Their employment obviously presupposes unity 
and continuity in the works in which they occur. 
For as long as it is neeessary to condescend to 
the indolence or low standard of artistic percep- 
tion of audiences by cutting up large musical 
works into short incongruous sections of tunes, 
songs, rondos, and so forth, figures illustrating 
inherent peculiarities of situation and character 
which play a part throughout the continuous 
action of the piece are hardly available. Musical 
dramatic works of the old order are indeed for 
the most part of the nature of an 'entertain- 
ment,' and do not admit of analysis as complete 
and logical works of art in which music and 
action are co-ordinate. But when it becomes ap- 
parent that music can express most perfectly the 
emotional condition resulting from the action of 
impressive outward circumstances on the mind, 
the true basis of dramatic music is reached ; and 
by restricting it purely to the representation of 
that inward sense which belongs to the highest 
realisation of the dramatic situations, the princi- 
ple of continuity becomes as inevitable in the 
music as in the action itself, and by the very 
same law of artistic congruity the ' leit-motive ' 
spring into prominence. For it stands to reason 
that where the music really expresses and illus- 
trates the action as it progresses, the salient 
features of the story must have salient points 
of music, more marked in melody and rhythm 
than those portions which accompany subordi- 
nate passages in the play ; and moreover when 
these salient points are connected with ideas 
which have a common origin, as in the same 
personage or the same situation or idea, these 
salient points of music will probably acquire a 
recognisable similarity of melody and rhythm, 
and thus become ' leit-motive.' 

Thus, judging from a purely theoretical point 
of view, they seem to be inevitable wherever 
there is perfect adaptation of music to dramatic 
action. But there is another important con- 
sideration on the practical side, which is the 
powerful assistance which they give to the 
attention of the audience, by drawing them on 
from point to point where they might otherwise 
lose their way. Moreover they act in some 
ways as a musical commentary and index to 
situations in the story, and sometimes enable a 
far greater depth of pregnant meaning to be con- 
veyed, by suggesting associations with other 
points of the story which might otherwise slip 
the notice of the audience. And lastly, judged 
from the purely musical point of view, they 
occupy the position in the dramatic forms of 
music which 'subjects' do in pure instrumental 
forms of composition, and their recurrence helps 
greatly towards that unity of impression which it 
is most necessary to attain in works of high art. 

As a matter of fact 'leit-motive' are not 
always identical in statement and restatement ; 
but as the characters and situations to which 
they are appropriate vary in their surrounding 
circumstances in the progress of the action, so 
will the 'leit-motive' themselves be analogously 
modified. From this springs the application of 


variation and 'transformation of themes' to 
dramatic music; but it is necessary that the 
treatment of the figures and melodies should be 
generally more easily recognisable than they need 
to be in abstract instrumental music. 

Leit-motive are perfectly adapted to instru- 
mental music in the form known as ' programme 
music,' which implies a story, or some definite 
series of ideas; and it is probable that the 
earliest distinct recognition of the principle in 
question is in the Symphonie Fantastique of 
Berlioz (written before 1830), where what he 
calls an 'idee fixe' is used in the manner of a 
leit-motif. The ' ide*e fixe ' itself is as follows : — 





It seems hardly necessary to point to Wagner's 
works as containing the most remarkable ex- 
amples of 'leit-motive,' as it is with his name 
that they are chiefly associated. In his earlier 
works there are but suggestions of the principle, 
but in the later works, as in Tristan and the 
Niblung series, they are worked up into a most 
elaborate and consistent system. The following 
examples will serve to illustrate some of the 
most characteristic of his 'leit-motive' and his 
use of them. 

The curse which is attached to the Rheingold 
ring is a very important feature in the develop- 
ment of the story of the Trilogy, and its 'leit- 
motif,' which consequently is of frequent oc- 
currence, is terribly gloomy and impressive. Its 
first appearance is singularly apt, as it is the 
form in which Alberich the Niblung first de- 
claims the curse when the ring is reft from him 
by Wotan, as follows : — 

m- "U\ r rcsF' -^ 

WiedurchFIuch er mir ge-rieth, ver- 

Among the frequent reappearances of this 
motif, two may be taken as highly charac- 
teristic. One is towards the end of the Rhein- 
gold. where Father kills his brother giant Fasolt 
for the possession of the ring, and the leit-motif 


being heard, reminds the hearers of the doom 
pronounced on the possessors of the ring by 

A yet more pregnant instance is in the Gotter- 
dammerung, the last of the series. When Sieg- 
fried comes to the Hall of the Gibichungs on the 
Rhine, with the ring in his possession, having 
obtained it by slaying Fafner, who had taken 
the form of a dragon to preserve it, the first per- 
son to greet him is Hagen, the son of Alberich, 
who looks to compass Siegfried's death, and re- 
gain the ring for the Niblungs by that means. 
As Hagen says 'Heil Siegfried, theurer Held,' 
the greeting is belied by the ominous sound of 
the leit-motif of the curse, which thus foretells 
the catastrophe in the sequel of which Hagen is 
the instrument and Siegfried the victim, and 
lends a deep and weird interest to the situation. 
Siegfried himself has ' motive ' assigned to him 
in different circumstances and relations. For in- 
stance, the following figure, which he blows on 
the silver horn made for him by Mime, is the 
one which most frequently announces his coming. 
It implies his youthful and light-hearted state 
before he had developed into the mature and 
experienced hero. 

This figure is frequently subjected to consider- 
able development, and to one important trans- 
formation, which appears, for instance, in the 
death march as follows : — 



r^ j ya^ 



■*■• ^ 

■g «i -+ 




r ^rr+r 

In his character as mature hero he is notified by 
the following noble figure, 


which occurs as above in the last act of the 
Walkiire, when Wotan has laid Briinnhilde to 
sleep on the ' Felsenhbhe,' with a wall of fire 
around her; and the sounding of the motif 
implies that Siegfried is the hero who shall pass 
through the fire and waken Briinnhilde to be his 
bride. A happy instance of its recurrence is 
when, in the first act of Siegfried, the youthful 
hero tells how he had looked into the brook and 
saw his own image reflected there. 

In the above examples the marked character 
of the figure lies chiefly in their melody. There 
are others which are marked chiefly by rhythm, 
as the persistent motif of Mime imitating the 
rhythmic succession of blows on an anvil — 

which points to his occupation as a smith. This 
motif occurs in connection with the rattling 
blows of the hammers of the Niblung smiths 
underground, at the end of the second scene of 
the Rheingold, and thus shows its derivation. 

Other 'motive' again are chiefly conspicuous 
by reason of impressive and original progressions 
of harmony. Of this kind that of the Tarnhelm 
is a good example. It occurs as follows, where 
Alberich first tests the power of the helm at the 
beginning of the third scene of the Rheingold : — 

Another instance where a strongly marked 
melodic figure is conjoined with an equally strik- 
ing progression of harmony, is the ' death motif 
in Tristan and Isolde, which first appears in the 
second scene, where Isolde sings as follows : — 

j|gj | B=fj§ p g 

ge - weiht-es Haupt! 


jrf v 





P I 


A figure which it is difficult to characterise, 
but which has a marvellous fascination, is the 
motif of the love-potion in Tristan and Isolde. 

The love-potion is the key to the whole story, 
and therefore the musical portion of the work 
appropriately commences with its leit-motif. 
Among the numerous examples of its recurrence 
one is particularly interesting. When King 
Marke has discovered the passionate love which 
existed between Tristan and Isolde he is smitten 
with bitter sorrow that Tristan, whom he had so 



loved and trusted, should have so betrayed him, 
and appeals to Tristan himself. Then as Tristan 
slowly answers him the motif is heard, and, without 
its being so expressed (for Tristan does not excuse 
himself), conveys the impression that Tristan 
and Isolde are not to blame, but are the victims 
of the love-potion they had unwittingly shared. 

Among more important contemporary com- 
posers, Professor Macfarren has made use of the 
device in his cantata 'The Lady of the Lake,' 
and to a certain extent in his oratorio ' Joseph.' 
The following characteristic examples from the 
cantata will illustrate his mode of employing the 
device. In a soliloquy in the earlier part of the 
work Fitz-James refers to Douglas, and sings 
the following figure : — 

A-u^^- -j ^#P 

The Douglas Is the theme 

This recurs appropriately when Douglas refers to 
himself and his daughter as all that remained of 
his clan, under the type of the Bleeding Heart, 
which was their badge. 

Roderick Dhu's motif is as follows : — 





This is happily used in the accompaniment to 
the vocal phrase in which he appeals to Douglas 
to grant him Ellen for his wife, as follows : — 

mh - r Sj4 ^-^r 

Grant me this maid 

gr '>i ' rifcrjV 


The prophecy of Brian the Seer is enunciated 
as follows : — 

Which spllb the foremost foeman's life, That par -ty 

m& wm i 

and this is reintroduced when the Chorus describes 
how Red Murdoch is slain by Fitz-James, and 
clearly implies that he is the first foeman whose 
life is taken, and that the victory in the strife 
between Roderick and Fitz-James will rest with 
the latter in fulfilment of the prophecy. It also 
recurs when Fitz-James warns Roderick that 
Murdoch is dead and that therefore the prophecy 
is against him. 

Prior to contemporary composers, though sub- 
sequent to the idit fixe of Berlioz, a few hints 
of the spirit of leit-motive may be found in 
various quarters : for instance, in Meyerbeer's 
' Prophete,' when the prophet in the early part of 
the work speaks of the dream of future splendour 
in store for him, the first strain of the processional 
march is heard. Again, the system of giving a 


particular instrumental tone to the accompani- 
ment of particular characters which is clearly 
analogous, is notable in the string accompani- 
ment of Christ's words in Bach's ' Passion,' and 
in the sounding of the trombones when the Com- 
mendatore appears in 'Don Giovanni,' and the 
adoption of a similar quality of tone or definite 
phrase as the accompaniment to special utterances 
of Elijah in Mendelssohn's oratorio, and to the 
appearance of Don Quixote in his opera of 
Camacho's Hochzeit (1825). [C.H.H.P.] 

LE JEUNE, Claude, or Claudin, born at 
Valenciennes probably about 1530, for we first 
find his name as a composer in 1554. The only 
part of his life of which we have any record 
was spent in Paris. Thus in 1581 he attended 
the marriage of Henry Ill's favourite the Due de 
Joyeuse, and noted the magical effect of his own 
music. 1 About this time also, Leroy printed 
5 vols. 2 of chansons (a 4), 39 of them by Le Jeune, 
and the publisher, himself a first-rate musician, 
seems to have valued them highly, placing the 
author by the side of Lassus, and filling the last 
2 vols, with their works alone. Still the Hugue- 
not composer met with slender encouragement 
for many years, and there is a pathetic story of 
his attempted flight at the siege of Paris in 1588, 
when bowed down by the weight of his un- 
published MSS., he was caught by the Catholic 
soldiers, and would have seen his treasures com- 
mitted to the flames, but for the timely aid of 
Mauduit, a Catholic musician, who saved the 
books and aided the escape of his brother artist. 

Better times came late in life. In Henry IV's 
reign, Leroy printed ' Recueil de plusieurs chan- 
sons et airs nouveaux,' par CI. le J. (Paris 1594), 
and in 1598 Haultin, at La Rochelle, the 'Do- 
decacorde, 12 psalms written according to Gla- 
rean's 1 2 Church modes. On the title-page of the 
latter we see for the first time ' compositeur de la 
musique de la chambre du roy,' so perhaps the per- 
mission to print such a work, and the possibility 
of holding the appointment, was a result of the 
Edict of Nantes in the same year. In any case 
the appointment was quite a recent one, and 
Le Jeune did not long enjoy it, for the next pub- 
lication, ' Le Printemps ' (dedicated to our king 
James I s ), was posthumous, and on the 4th page 
an ode appears ' Sur la musique du defunct Sieur 
CI. le J.,' the second stanza of which begins thus, 

* Le Jeune a faict en sa viellesae, 
Ce qu'un bien gaye jeunesse, 
N'auseroit avoir enterpria.' 

The 6th page contains a general essay on 
music, claiming for Le Jeune the honour of uniting 
ancient rhythm to modern harmony. ' Le Prin- 
temps' contains 33 chansons with 'vers mesurez,' 

> The story goes that an officer was so excited by an air of the com- 
poser's that he cried out, with oaths, that he must attack some one. 
and was only pacified when the character of the strain was altered. 
Whatever truth there may be In the story, the effect was more 
probably produced by some martial rhythm In the music than by any 
superior Intelligence which Claude possessed In the use of the modes, 
to which It Is attributed by the narrator. 

> The last 5 of 25 rols. of chansons published between the years 1569 
and 1587. 

* See Hawkins's History (Chap. 110). The copy we hare seen had 
the first page torn out, on which this dedication probably appeared, 
and tbe words ' roy ' and ' majesty ' erased on the second, 


followed by longer settings of 'vers rimez.' 
Amongst the latter is Jannequin's 'Chant de 
l'Alouette' (a 4) with a 5th part added by 
Le Jeune, 'Le chant du Rossignol in 6 nos.,' 
'Ma mignonne in 8 nos.,' and a Sestine (a 5) 
* Du trist Hyver.' 

The prefaces give no full explanation of ' vers 
mesurez.' On p. 6 we read that ' the wonderful 
effects produced by ancient music, as described in 
the fables of Orpheus and Amphion, had been 
lost by the modern Masters of Harmony, that 
Le Jeune was the first to see that the absence of 
Rhythm accounted for this loss ; that he had 
unearthed this poor Rhythm, and by uniting it 
to Harmony, had given the soul to the body; 
that ' Le Rrintemps' was to be an example of 
this new kind of music, but on account of its 
novelty, might fail to please at first. 

The editor next tells us (p. 7) that M. Baif * 
and M. Le Jeune had meant to print the words 
with suitable spelling and without superfluous 
letters, and to make the scanning as clear in the 
French poetry as it would be in Latin. But that 
he (the editor) had been advised to abandon this 
as too great a novelty. We are therefore left un- 
certain as to the method which the authors meant 
to employ, and have little to guide us as to the 
interpretation of such a passage as this (the bars 
drawn and quavers joined as in original) : — 




tirf-fT r n» J gjg jj jfll l 

Voicy le veril A beau may con-vi-vant a tout soulas 

We have, however, above the ode ' Sur la 
musique mesure"e de CI. le J.' on p. 3 of this same 
book a scheme of the quantities of the 4 lines in 
each stanza. The first line of this scheme being 
— \ju — w — — wu -vu- ; the corresponding line 
of the ode would then be accented 

I Malnts muzl | cifins de c6 | temps cl II par 169 a | cors 
grave I doQs. 

and any music set to this would take the same 
accents. And so we might suppose that by some 
suitable directions as to the scanning of the words 
he might intend the above passage to be sung 
thus — 

Hi' i r r \WW& 1 1 1 1 j ruii 

J ?flj|f I 

using the bars in the original as a mere division 
of the lines in the poem, where there should 
always be a pause and the measure completed. 
In any case this is only an adaptation to French 
music of what had been already done by Lassus 
and others in using the metres of Latin verses, 
though their efforts at Rhythm may have been 
accidental, while Le Jeune had a set purpose. 
It is interesting, at least, to see the importance 
of Rhythm being recognised, and some attempt 
at a notation to express it. It also seems clear 
from what is said in the preface, of making the 

> Toet and musician, 1W2-1589. 

French lines like the Latin, that the authors saw 
the impetus which the Latin odes had given to 
music in this direction. 

The music (a 3) to the Psalms (Paris 1607) was 
apparently not reprinted, being doubtless cast in 
the shade by the more important setting (a 4 and 5 ) 
of Marot and Beza's Psalms, printed at La Ro- 
chelle by Haultin, and dedicated by Cecile Le 
Jeune, 2 in pursuance of the composer's expressed 
wishes, to the Duke of Bouillon, a great Protestant 
champion. This work, on which Le Jeune's great 
reputation entirely rests, went through many 
editions in France, found its way into Germany 
with the translation of Lobwasser, and except in 
Switzerland, was soon used universally in all 
Calvinistic churches. 'It went through more 
editions, perhaps, than any musical work since 
the invention of 3 printing.' The melodies in the 
Tenor are the same a3 those used by Goudimel, 
and earlier still by Guillaume Franc. 4 The other 
parts are written in simple counterpoint, note 
against note. The simplicity of the style, and 
its consequent fitness for congregational use, was 
not the only cause of its supplanting earlier works 
of the kind. There is real beauty in the music, 
which modern critics do not cease to recognise. 
'Claude Le Jeune, ' says Burney, speaking specially 
of this work, ' was doubtless a great master of 
harmony.' Ambros finds ' the discant so me- 
lodious that it might be mistaken for the principal 
5 part.' ' These psalms,' thinks Fe"tis, ' are better 
written than Goudimel's.' • 

Other posthumous publications are the 'Airs a 
3, 4, 5, 6 (Paris, Ballard, 1608), and a collection 
of 36 chansons, 3 on each of the 1 2 modes, under 
the title ' Octonaires de la vanite et inconstance 
du monde' (id. 1610). 

Lastly, in 161 2, Louis Mardo, Le Jeune's 
nephew, published a 2nd book of Meslanges, in 
which, judging from the miscellaneous contents, 
he must have collected all that he could still find 
of his uncle's works, French chansons 34, 5,8, 
canons, psalms, a magnificat, a fantaisie, Latin 
motets, and Italian madrigals. 

In the higher branches of composition Le Jeune 
never met with great success. The Belgian and 
Italian masters would not look at his writings. 7 
Burney regarded him as a man of study and 
labour, rather than of genius and facility, but this 
judgment was only passed on some of his very 
earliest works. 8 Fe"tis, on the other hand, con- 
sidered him naturally gifted, but without the 
education of a great master; and this opinion 
seems to be borne out by the success of his simpler, 
and the failure of his more elaborate works. 

1 All doubt as to Le Jeune being a family name seems to be dispelled 
by the sister's signature as above. 
» Burney's History, HI. 46. 

• The belief which at one time existed In England that Le Jeune was 
the author of the melody of the 'Old 100th Psalm,' and which gains 
some support from the vague terms in which Burney ihi. 47) speaks of 
It, has no foundation in fact. It is now well known that that melody 
first appeared in Beza's Genevan Psalter of 1654. [See OLD HUN- 

» Geschicbte der Musik. 111. 344. 

• Blographle, T.261. 

' Mersenne, Harm. Univ. Iv. 197, and Burney 111. 273. 

• Kxcept a canon, the pieces of Le Jeune's In Dr. Burney's MS. note- 
books are among the composer's first publications Id 1554. 



Le Jeune is generally regarded as a Frenchman, 
though his birthplace did not become part of 
France till 1677. It would however be no great 
honour to be called the chief musician of an 
ungrateful country, which suffered Jannequin in 
his old age to bewail his poverty, which had 
killed poor Goudimel, and could now only boast of 
a decaying and frivolous school. It is more to his 
honour to remember him as the composer of one 
little book which was destined, after his death, 
to carry God's music to the hearts of thousands 
in many lands. [J.R.S.-B.] 

LEMMENS, Nicolas Jacques, was born Jan. 
3, 1823, at Zoerle-Parwys, Westerloo, Belgium, 
where his father was echevin and organist. His 
career was attached to the organ from the first. 
At 11 years of age he was put under Van der 
Broeck, organist at Dieste. In 1839 he entered 
the Conservatoire at Brussels, but soon left it 
owing to the illness of his father, and was absent 
for a couple of years. In the interval he suc- 
ceeded his former master at Dieste, but fortu- 
nately gave this up and returned to the Conser- 
vatoire at the end of 41. There he became the 
pupil of Fetis and was noted for the ardour and 
devotion with which he worked. He took the 2nd 
prize for composition in 44 and the first in 45, as 
well as the first for organ playing. In 46 he 
went at the government expense to Breslau, and 
remained there a year studying the organ under 
A. Hesse, who sent him back at the end of that 
time, with a testimonial to the effect that ' he 
played Bach as well as he himself did.' In 1849 
he became professor of his instrument at the 
Conservatoire, and M. Fe'tis, as the head of the 
establishment, bears strong testimony to the vast 
improvement which followed this appointment, 
and the new spirit which it infused through the 
country ; and gives a list of his pupils too long 
to be quoted here. Though distinguished as 
a pianist, it is with the organ that his name 
will remain connected. In 1857 M. Lemmens 
married Miss Sherrington, and since that time 
has resided much in England. His great work 
is his Ecole d'orgue, which has been adopted by 
the Conservatoires at Paris, Brussels, Madrid, 
etc. He has also published Sonatas, Offertoires 
etc. for the organ, and has been engaged for 
twenty years on a Method for accompanying 
Gregorian Chants, which is now on the eve 
of publication. On Jan. I, 1879, he opened a 
college at Malines, under the patronage of the 
Belgian clergy, for training Catholic organists 
and choirmasters, which is already largely at- 
tended. Madame Lemmens, ne'e Sherrington, was 
born at Preston, where her family had resided 
for several generations, Oct. 4, 1834. Her mother 
was a musician. In 1838 they migrated to 
Rotterdam, and there Miss Sherrington studied 
under Verhulst. In 52 she entered the Brussels 
Conservatoire, and took first prizes for singing 
and declamation. On April 7, 1856, she made 
her first appearance in London, and soon rose 
to the position of leading English soprano, both 
in sacred and secular music, a position which 
she has maintained ever since. In 1865 she 


appeared on the English and in 1867 on the 
Italian operatic stage, and her operas embrace 
Robin Hood, Amber Witch, Helvellyn, Afri- 
caine, Norma, Huguenots, Roberto, Don Gio- 
vanni, Domino Noir, Fra Diavolo, Marta, etc., 
etc. [See Sherrington.] [G.] 

LENTO, i.e. 'slow,' implies a pace and style 
similar to a slow Andante. Beethoven rarely 
uses it. One example is in his last Quartet 
°P- I 35» Lento assai. Mendelssohn employs it 
for the introduction to his Ruy Bias overture, 
but he chiefly uses it, like 'con moto,' as a quali- 
fication for other tempos — as Andante lento 
(Elijah No. I, and Op. 35, No. 5), Adagio non 
lento (Op. 31, No. 3), Adagio e lento (Op. 87, 
No. 3). [G.] 

LENTON, John, one of the band of music of 
William and Mary and of Queen Anne, in 1693 
published 'The Gentleman's Diversion, or the 
Violin explained,' with some airs composed by 
himself and others at the end. A second edition, 
with an appendix, and the airs omitted, appeared 
in 1702, under the title of ' The Useful Instructor 
on the Violin.' It is remarkable that in neither 
edition is there any mention of ' shifting,' and the 
scale given reaches but to C on the second ledger 
line above the stave. About 1694, in conjunc- 
tion with Thomas Toilet, he published 'A Consort 
of Musick in three parts.' Lenton composed the 
overtures and act tunes to the following plays : — 
' Venice preserved,' 1685 ; ' The Ambitious Step- 
mother,' 1700; 'Tamburlain,' 1702 ; 'The Fair 
Penitent,' 1 703 ; ' Liberty asserted ' and ' Abra 
Muley,' 1704. Songs by him are in several of 
the collections of the period, and other vocal 
pieces in 'The Pleasant Musical Companion.' 
He contributed to D'Urfey's 'Third Collection 
of New Songs,' and revised the tunes for the 
earlier editions of his ' Pills to purge Melancholy.* 
The date of his death has not been ascertained. 
He was Uving in 1711. [W.H.H.] 

LENZ, Wilhelm von, Russian councillor at 
St. Petersburg, and author of ' Beethoven et ses 
trois Btyles' (2 vola. Petersburg, 1852), in which 
the idea originally suggested by Fetis, that 
Beethoven's works may be divided into three 
separate epochs, has been carried out to its 
utmost limits. This was followed by ' Beethoven. 
Eine Kunststadie,' in 6 vols., i. — iii. Cassel 
1855, 6; iv. — vi. Hamburg i860. This is an 
entirely different work from the foregoing, and 
though often extravagant in expression, has a 
certain value from the enthusiasm of the writer 
and the unwearied manner in which he has col- 
lected facts of all kinds about Beethoven's works. 
It contains a Life, an Essay on Beethoven's style, 
a detailed analysis of every one of his works in 
order, with various Lists and Catalogues not 
without use to the student, though in regard to 
the chronology of Beethoven's works, the minute 
investigations of Thayer and Nottebohm have 
superseded many of Lenz's conclusions. He also 
published ' Die grossen Piano fortevirtuosen unserer 
Zeit' (Berlin, 1872), a collection of articles on 
Liszt, Chopin, Tausig, Henselt, and many other 




great artists, from personal knowledge, well 
translated in the Monthly Musical Record for 
1878. [F. G.] 

LEOCADIE. A lyrical drama in 3 acts, founded 
on a story of Cervantes ; words by Scribe and Me"- 
lesville, music by Auber. Produced at the Ope'ra 
Comique Nov. 4, 1824. It is the subject of a 
curious invective by Mendelssohn in his boyish 
letters from Paris (see Goethe and Mendelssohn, 
pp. 44, 45). It had however a great popularity, 
and by Apr. 1825 had had 5 2 representations. [G.j 

LEO, Leonardo, one of the most celebrated of 
Neapolitan composers, was born in 1694 at San 
Vito degli Schiavi, in the kingdom of Naples. 
His musical studies were pursued at the Conser- 
vatorioof la Pieta de' Turchini, in Naples, under 
Alessandro Scarlatti and Fago (II Tarentino) ; 
besides which it is said (in a notice of his life by 
Girolamo Chigi, chapel-master of St. John La- 
teran) that he learned counterpoint of Pitoni, at 
Home. After his return to Naples he was ap- 
pointed second master in the Conservatorio of la 
Pieta ; in 1 716 was named organist of the royal 
chapel, and the following year was elected to the 
post of chapel-master in the church of Santa 
Maria della Solitaria. His first serious opera, 
'Sofonisbe,' was produced in 1719, and met 
with great success. Not many years after this 
he quitted the Conservatorio of la Pieta for that 
of San Onofrio, to which he remained attached 
till the end of his life. He was perhaps the most 
eminent professor of his time, and the list of his 
pupils includes many distinguished composers, 
among whom may especially be named Jommelli 
and Piccinni. But he was not satisfied, as was 
Durante his contemporary, with the rdle of a 
pedagogue. 'Sofonisbe' was succeeded by 
nearly fifty other operas and dramatic cantatas, 
conspicuous among which is ' Demofoonte,' in 
which the great singer Caffarelli made his first 
appearance, and which contains an air, Misero 
Pargoletto, quoted by Piccinni, in a short bio- 
graphical sketch of his master, as pre-eminent 
among all Leo's compositions for beauty and 
dramatic expression. Mention should also be 
made of 'L'Olimpiade,' two pieces in which 
acquired a lasting popularity — the duet ' Ne' 
giorni tuoi felici,' and the air 'Non so donde 
viene,' both remarkable for melodious charm. 

His compositions for the church are very 
numerous, amounting to nearly a hundred. The 
chief of these are, the oratorio ' Santa Elena al 
Calvario ' ; the ' Ave maris stella,' for a soprano 
voice, two violins, viola, and organ ; the Mass in 
D for five voices, written for the church of San 
Giacomo degli Spani at Rome ; and the ' Mise- 
rere' for a double choir of eight voices. This 
celebrated Miserere was composed in 1 743, and 
was the work of a few days. It was written for 
the Duke of Savoy, who on hearing it, was so 
delighted as to heap presents upon the composer, 
granting him at the same time a pension of a 
hundred ounces of silver. Leo was overpowered 
by this munificence, and regarded his acceptance 
of it as tantamount to a renunciation of all pro- 

perty in his own work, so that when, on his 
return to Naples from Turin, his pupils petitioned 
for a copy of the score, he thought himself bound 
in honour to refuse them. One of them however, 
having found out where the manuscript was kept, 
contrived to possess himself of it ; he divided it 
among his companions, and, between them all, 
it was so speedily copied as to be restored to its 
place before Leo had had time to perceive its 
absence. It was rehearsed in secret, and in a 
few days the students invited the unsuspecting 
maestro to hear the performance of a new work, 
when to his astonishment his own ' Miserere ' was 
executed in his presence. His first impulse was 
one of resentment, but this feeling quickly gave 
way to emotion aroused by the enthusiasm of 
the young students, and the end of it was that 
he caused them to repeat the entire piece, so 
that he might himself add the finishing touches 
to their performance. 

He did not long enjoy his pension. The 
Marquis de Villarosa, to whose reminiscences of 
the Neapolitan composers subsequent biographers 
are indebted for many interesting details, says 
that he was engaged in writing the opera 'La 
finta Frascatana ' when he was struck down by 
apoplexy. He was found with his head resting 
on his clavichord, the score before him open at 
the bvffo air ' Voi par che gite.' He was appa- 
rently asleep, but he was dead. This was in 

In the bright constellation of Neapolitan com- 
posers Leo shines as a brilliant star. To a com- 
plete command of science and of the art of vocal 
writing he united freshness and originality of 
thought, and perhaps in no composer are the 
germs of modern fancy so happily blent with the 
purity and dignity of the old Roman writers. 
His ideas, if not sublime, are noble ; always 
sound and healthy ; occasionally tender, but with 
no tinge of sentimentality. They did not tran- 
scend the limits of contemporary form ; his art 
was therefore adequate to give them that perfect 
expression which is in itself beautiful. It is 
impossible not to feel in all his music the master's 
joy in his power over his materials ; and the 
satisfaction afforded by a study of his works ia 
mainly based on a perception of this even 
balance between thought and expression, showing 
as it does, the extent, while it defines the limits, 
of his sphere as a composer. He was not tor- 
mented, like his pupil Jommelli, by the unequal 
conflict between prophetic glimpses of new phases 
of art, far beyond the power of his own limited 
genius to grasp or realise, and a science too 
superficial to do justice to ancient forms. What 
Leo thought, he could express. 

By his tonality he belongs essentially to the 
moderns. His harmonies are for the most part 
lucid and simple, yet there is a certain uncon- 
ventionality in their treatment, while occasionally 
(as may be seen in the ' Miserere ') chromatic pro- 
gressions occur, quite startling in their effect. That 
his simplicity was the result of consummate art 
is shown by the purity of his part-writing. The 
Chorus of Pilgrims, ' Di quanta pena e frutta,' from 



the oratorio of ' Santa Elena al Calvario ' is a good 
instance of a pleasing idea absolutely inseparable 
from contrapuntal form ; shapely and coherent as 
a whole, it must be unravelled before the close- 
ness and complexity of its texture can be appre- 
ciated. His fugues are compact and massive, and 
full of contrivance which is always subordinated 
to unity of effect. It is only necessary to compare 
the contrapuntal movement which forms a Coda 
to the double-fugued 'Amen' chorus in Leo's 
'Sicut erat,' from the 'Dixit' in D (see 'Fitz- 
william Music'), with the fugue on the 'Osanna' 
in Jommelli's Requiem, the subjects in which 
are very similar — to see how the science which 
to one man was an implement or a weapon, in the 
hand of the other was no more than a crutch. 

Besides his larger works, Leo left a great 
number of instrumental compositions ; concertos, 
fugues, toccatas ; several isolated vocal airs witb 
orchestral accompaniment ; vocal duets and trios ; 
finally, six books of solfeggi and two of partimenti 
or figured basses, for the use of the students of 
San Onofrio. 

In person he was of middle height, with a 
bronzed complexion, keen eye and ardent temper- 
ament. His activity and industry were indefatig- 
able ; he was wont to pass great part of the night 
in work, and his energies never seemed to flag. 
Although uniformly genial and urbane, the pre- 
vailing tone of his mind was serious. He appre- 
ciated his own music, and loved it, but he was 
ever ready to perceive merit in others, and to do 
full justice to the compositions of his rivals. An 
enthusiast in every branch of his art, he was not 
only a great composer and a great teacher, but 
an excellent organist and a virtuoso on the 
violoncello, being indeed one of the first musicians 
to introduce this instrument into Italy. His 
powers of mind remained undiminished to the 
end, and he died in harness, universally re- 
gretted and long remembered. 

The following compositions of Leo are published, 
and accessible. 

i ioth Psalm (Dixit Dominus), for SS. A T. B., 
with solos. Halle (Kiimmel). 

Do. for S., T., B., with Orchestra. Berlin 
(Trautwein & Co.). 

50th Psalm (Miserere), SS., AA., TT., BB. 
Berlin (B. Bock). The same, edited by Choron 
(Paris, Leduc). 

Others, and portions of others, are included in 
' Cecilia,' a monthly periodical of church music, 
ancient and modern, by E. and R. van Malde- 
ghem (Brussels, Heusner), in Latrobe's Sacred 
Music, and Rochlitz's 'Collection.' A Dixit 
Dominus for 8 voices and orchestra has been 
edited (1879) Dv Mr- 01 V. Stanford from the 
autograph in the Fitzwilliam Library (Novello). 
Copious extracts from this and others are printed 
in Novello's 'Fitzwilliam Music' [see vol. i. 
PP- 530, S3l]- [F.A.M.] 

LEOLINE. The English name of ' L'Ame en 
Peine,' a ballet fantastique in 2 acts; words by 
Saint Georges, music by Flotow. Produced at 
the Grand Opera May 29, 1846. The English 
version was by Maddox and G. Linley, and the j 


piece was produced at the Princess's theatre, 
Oxford Street, Oct. 16, 1848. [G.] 

an ope"ra-comique in 2 acts; words by Bouilly, 
music by Gaveaux. Produced at the Ope"ra 
Comique Feb. 19, 1798. The book was trans- 
lated into Italian, composed by Paer, and 
produced at Dresden Oct. 3, 1804. It was also 
translated into German by Jos. Sonnleithner 
(late in 1804), and composed by Beethoven. The 
story of the transformations and performances 
of the opera in its three shapes is given under 
Fidelio (vol. i. p. 519 a) ; and it only remains 
to add that it was proposed to bring it out at 
Prague in May 1807, and that Beethoven, with 
that view, wrote the overture known as ' Leonore 
No. 1' (op. 138). The proposal however was 
not carried out, and the overture remained, 
probably unperformed, till after his death. 1 It 
was Beethoven's wish from first to last that 
the opera should be called ' Leonore ' ; and his 
edition of the pianoforte score, published by 
Breitkopfsin Oct. i8io,is entitled ' Leonore, oper 
in zwey Aufzugen von L. van Beethoven.' On all 
other occasions he was overruled by the Manage- 
ment of the theatre, and the opera has always 
been announced as Fidelio, probably to avoid 
confusion with Paer's opera. For the whole 
evidence see ' Leonore oder Fidelio ? ' in Otto 
Jahn's Gesamm. Schriften, p. 236, and Thayer's 
Chron. Verzeichniss, p. 61. 

It may be well here to give a list of the 
overtures to the opera in the order of their 


Bate and Occasion. 

Date of publica- 
tion of Score. 

Leonore No. 2, 

For production of 
opera, Nov. 20, 1805. 

Breitkopf 1842 
and 1854. 

Leonore No. 3, 

For production of 
modified opera, Mar. 
29, 1806. 

Breitkopf 1828. 

Leonore No. 1, 

For a performance of 
the opera at Prague 
in May 1807, which 
never came off. 

Haslinger 1832. 

Fidelio, in E. 

For the second and 
final revision of the 
opera ; first played 
May 26, 1814. 

Breitkopf 1864. 


LEONORE a PROHASKA, a romantic tra- 
gedy by Friedrich Duncker, for which Beethoven 
in the autumn of 181 4 composed a soldiers' chorus 
for men's voices unaccompanied; a romance with 
harp accompaniment ; and a melodram with har- 
monica, besides scoring the march in his Sonata 
op. 26. The melodram has been already printed in 
this Dictionary. [Vol. i. p. 663.] The opening 
bars of the two others are given by Thayer, 
Chron. Verzeichniss, No. 187. The march is trans- 
posed into B minor, 3 and scored for 2 flutes, 
2 clarinets, 4 horns, and either strings or brass 
instruments — it seems uncertain which. (See the 
account in Thayer, iii. 317.) The autograph 

1 Nottebohm, ' Beethoveniana.' 

1 Mr. Nottebohm gives it ' Eleonore." 

3 A ' black ley ' according to Beethoven. [See vol. i. p. 643 a.] 




is in possession of Mr. Adolph Mtiller of Vienna. 
Dr. Sonnleithner — no mean authority — believed 
that Beethoven had also written an overture 
and entr'acte for the piece. For some reason 
or other the play was not performed. [G.] 

LEROY, or LE ROY, Adrien, was a singer, 
lute player, and composer, but will be remem- 
bered as one of the most celebrated music printers 
of the 1 6th century, when printers were also 
publishers. Of the reasons of his taking to 
printing we have no account. He worked with 
the types of Le Be" (cut in 1 540), as Attaignant 
had done before him with those of Hautin. 
Fetis states that he worked by himself for some 
time, but cites no evidence. In 1551 Le Roy 
married the sister of R. Ballard, who was already 
occupying himself with music printing, and was 
attached to the court ; they joined partnership 
and obtained a patent, dated Feb. 16, 1552, as 
sole printers of music to Henri II. In 15 71 
he received Orlando Lasso as his guest, and 
published a volume of 'moduli' for him, with 
a dedication to Charles IX, which has already 
been quoted in this volume. [See p. 98a]. Leroy's 
name disappears from the publications of the firm 
in 1 589, and it may thus far be inferred that he 
died then. His Instruction-book for the Lute, 
I 557> was translated into English in two dif- 
ferent versions, one by Alford, London 1568, 
and one by 'F. K. Gentleman' (lb. 1574). A 
second work of his was a short and easy instruc- 
tion-book for the ' Guiterne,' or guitar (1578); 
and a third is a book of ' airs de cour' for the 
lute 1 5 71, in the dedication of which he says 
that such airs were formerly known as ' voix ' de 
ville.' Besides these the firm published, between 
1551 and 1568, 20 books of 'Chansons' for 4 
voices. [G.j 

LESCHETITZKY, Theodob, a distinguished 
pianist, born of Polish parents in 1831. He 
attracted notice in Vienna by his pianoforte 
playing in 1845. He was for some time a pro- 
fessor at the Conservatoriura of St. Petersburg, 
from which appointment he has retired, and now 
lives in Vienna. His compositions chiefly con- 
sist of morceaux de salon for the piano. He 
made his de"but in England at the Musical 
Union concerts in 1864, playing in the Schumann 
Quintet, and solos of his own composition, and 
has frequently since then appeared at the same 
concerts. Madame Annette Essipoff was for some 
time his pupil. [J. A. F. M.] 

LESLIE, Henry David, born in London, 
June 18, 1822, commenced his musical education 
under Charles Lucas in 1838. For several years 
he played the violoncello at the Sacred Harmonic 
Society and elsewhere. In 1 847, on the formation 
of the Amateur Musical Society, he was appointed 
its honorary secretary, and continued so until 
1855, when he became its conductor, which post 
he retained until the dissolution of the Society 
in 1861. In 1855 he formed the well-known 
Choir which bears his name, which numbers 200 
voices, is noted for its refined performance of 

1 M»y thU not be the origin of VaudmtU, a piece made up of cur- 
rant Hr»? 

motets, madrigals, and other unaccompanied part 
music, and in 1878 gained the first prize in the 
International competition of choirs at Paris. In 
1863 he was appointed conductor of the Hereford- 
shire Philharmonic Society, an amateur body at 
Hereford. In 1864 he became principal of the 
National College of Music, an institution formed 
on the principle of the foreign conservatoires, 
which, however, not receiving adequate support, 
was dissolved in a few years. In 1874 ne became 
the director and conductor of the Guild of 
Amateur Musicians. Henry Leslie's first pub- 
lished composition — a Te Deum and Jubilate in 
D — appeared in 1846. He has since produced 
a Symphony in F, 1847 ; a festival anthem, 
'Let God arise,' for solo voices, chorus and 
orchestra, 1849 '< overture, 'The Templar,' 1852 ; 
'Immanuel,' oratorio, 1853 ; ' Romance, or, Bold 
Dick Turpin,' operetta, 1857 ; 'Judith,' oratorio, 
produced at Birmingham Festival, 1858 ; ' Holy- 
rood,' cantata, i860 ; 'The Daughter of the Isles,' 
cantata, 1861 ; 'Ida,' opera, 1864: besides 
instrumental chamber music, anthems, songs, 
duets, trios, pianoforte pieces, and a large num- 
ber of part songs and madrigals composed for his 
choir. In addition to a wide range of madri- 
gals, motets, and unaccompanied music of all 
ages and countries, the following are amons; the 
larger works which have been performed by this 
excellent choir : — Bach's motets for 8 voices ; 
Samuel Wesley's ditto for ditto ; Mendelssohn's 
Psalms and motets, and his Antigone and ffidi- 
pus ; Gounod's motets and Messe Solennelle ; 
Carissimi's Jonah; Tallis's Forty -part song; 
Bourgault Ducoudray's Symphonie religieuse (un- 
accompanied). [W.H. H.] 
LESSEL, Franz, one of Haydn's three 
favourite pupils, born about 1780, at Pulawy on 
the Vistula, in Poland ; his father, a pupil of 
Adam Hiller and Dittersdorf, being Musik- 
director at the neighbouring castle of Prince 
Czartoryski. In 1797 he came to Vienna to 
study medicine, but the love of music proved 
a great distraction. Haydn eventually took 
him as a pupil, a service he repaid by tending 
him till his death with the care and devotion of 
a son. In 18 10 he returned to Poland, and lived 
with the Czartoryski family, occupied entirely 
with music. After the Revolution of 1 830 had 
driven his patrons into exile, Lessel led a life of 
great vicissitude, but being a man of varied culti- 
vation always managed to maintain himself, 
though often reduced to great straits. In 1837 
he was superseded in his post as principal of the 
gymnasium at Petrikan on the borders of Silesia, 
and feeling a presentiment of approaching death, 
he composed his requiem, and shortly after 
(March 1839) expired of the disease commonly 
called a broken heart. He left songs, chamber 
music, and symphonies ; also church music, spe- 
cially indicating gifts of no common order. Among 
his effects were some autographs of Haydn pre- 
sented by himself. Some of his works were 
published by Artaria, Weigl, and Breitkopf & 
Hartel, among them being, 3 sonatas for P. F. 
(op. 2) dedicated to Haydn; fantasia for P. F. 




(op. S"), dedicated to Clementi; another fantasia 
(op. 13) dedicated to Cecily Beidale, etc. Les- 
eel's life was a romantic one. He was believed 
to be the love-child of a lady of rank. Mystery 
also enveloped the birth of his first love, Cecily 
Beidale, and he discovered that she was liis 
s : ster only just in time to prevent his marrying 
her. One of his masses — 'Zum Ctieilientag' — 
was composed in all the fervour of this first 
passion. [C.F. P.] 

LESSON, or LEQON, a name which was 
used from the beginning of the 17th century 
to the close of the iSth, to denote pieces for 
the harpsichord and other keyed instruments. 
It was applied to the separate pieces which 
in their collected form made up a Suite. The 
origin of the name seems to lie that these pieces 
served an educational purpose, illustrating dif- 
ferent styles of playing, and being often arranged 
in order of difficulty. This is borne out by 
the fact that Domenico Scarlatti's ' 42 Les.-ons 
for the Harpsichord, edited by Mr. Roseingrave ' 
are in the original edition called 'Essercizi — 
xxx. Sonatas per Gravicembalo, ' though they 
have little of the educational element in 
them, and by the following extract from Sir 
John Hawkins's History of Music (chap. 14S; 
lie uses the word 'lessons' for 'suites of lessons') : 
' In lessons for the harpsichord and virginal 
the airs were made to follow in a certain order, 
that is to say, the slowest or most grave first, 
and the rest in succession, according as they 
deviated from that character, by which rule the 
Jig generally stood last. In general the Gal- 
liard followed the Pavan, the first being a grave, 
the other a sprightly air ; but this rule was not 
without exception. In a manuscript collection 
of lessons composed by Bird, formerly belonging 
to a lady Neville, who it is supposed was a 
scholar of his, is a lesson of a very extraordinary 
kind, as it seems intended to give the history of 
a military engagement. The following are the 
names of the several airs in order as they occur : 
''The Marche before the battell, The Souldiers 
Sommons, The Marche of foote-men, The Marche 
of horse-men : Now folowethe the Trumpets, the 
Bagpipe and the Drone, the Flute and the 
Drome, the Marche to the Fighte, Here the 
battells be joyned, The Retreate, Now folowethe 
a Galliarde for the victory." There is also in 
the same collodion a lesson called the Carman's 
Whistle.' Kameau's Lessons for the Harpsichord, 
op. 2 and 3, are not arranged in order of 
difficulty, but are connected by the relation of 
their keys. In the case of Handel's 3 Lecons, 
the first consists of a Prelude and air \\ ith varia- 
tions in Bb, the second of a Minuet in G 
minor, and the third of a Chaconne in G 
major ; so they may be presumed to be intended 
for consecutive performance. The 'Suites de 
Pieces pour le Clavecin,' in 2 Books, were called 
' Lessons' in the first edition, but in the later 
editions this name was discarded for that which 
they now bear. 

An analogous word to this is 'Etude,' which 
from originally meaning a special form of ex- 

ercise, has in many cases come to be applied to 
pieces in which the educational purpose is com- 
pletely lost sight of. [See Etudes.] Although 
in general the name was applied to pieces for 
the harpsichord alone, yet it was sometimes used 
for concerted chamber music, as in the ' Firste 
Booke of consort lessons, made by divers ex- 
quisite authors, for six Instruments to play 
together, viz. the Treble Lute, the Pandora, the 
Citterne, the Base Violl, the Flute and the 
Treble -Violl, collected by Thomas Morley, and 
now newly corrected and enlarged ' (London 
161 1), and in Mathias Yento's 'Lessons for the 
Harpsichord with accompaniment of Flute and 
Violin.' [J.A.F.M.] 

LF.STOCQ. Opera in 4 acts ; words by Scribe, 
music by Auber. Produced at the Opera Comique 
May 24, 1S34. It was produced in English at 
Covent Garden Feb. 21, 1S35, as 'Lestocq, or the 
Fete of the Hermitage.' [G.] 

LESUEUR, Jkan Francois, grandnephew of 
the celebrated painter Eustache Lesueur, bom 
Jan. 15,1 763, in the village of Drucat-Plessiel. near 
Abbeville. He became a chorister at Abbeville 
at 7. At 14 he went to the college at Amiens, 
but two years later broke off his studies to 
become, first, maitre de musique at the cathedral 
of Seez, and then sous-maitre at the church 
of the Innocents in Paris. Here he obtained 
some instruction in harmony from the Abbe 
Boze, but it was not any systematic course of 
study, so much as his thorough knowledge of 
plain-song, and deep study, that made him the 
profound and original musician he afterwards 
became. His imagination was too active, and 
his desire of distinction too keen, to allow him 
to remain long in a subordinate position: he 
therefore accepted in 17S1 the appointment of 
maitre de musique at the cathedral of Dijon, 
whence alter two years he removed to Le Mans, 
and then to Tours. In 1 7S4 he came to Paris 
to superintend the performance of some of his 
motets at the Concert Spirituel, and was re- 
appointed to the Holy Innocents as head-master 
of the choristers. He now mixed with the fore- 
most musicians of the French school, and with 
Sacchini, who gave him good advice on the art 
of composition, and urged him to write fir the 
stage. In 17S6 he competed for the musical 
directorship of Notre Dame, which he obtained, 
and immediately entered upon his duties. He 
was allowed by the chapter to engage a full 
orchestra, and thus was able to give magnificent 
performances of motets and 'messes solennelles.' 
His idea was to excite the imagination and pro- 
duce devotional feeling by means of dramatic 
effects and a picturesque and imitative style, 
and lie even went so far as to precede one or his 
masses by a regular overture, exactly .as if it had 
been tin opera. Crowds were attracted by this 
novel kind of sacred music, and his masses were 
nicknamed the 'Beggars' Opera' ('L'Opera des 
Gueux'). Tins success soon aroused opposition, 
and a violent anonymous attack was made upon 
him, under pretext of a reply to his pamphlet 
' Essai de musique sacree, ou musique motivee 


et me'thodique pour la fete de Noel' (1787). 
Lesueur's rejoinder was another pamphlet, ' Ex- 
pose" d'une musique une, imitative et particuliere 
a chaque solennite"' (Paris, Herissant, 1787), in 
which he gives a detailed sketch of an appro- 
priate musical service for Christmas, and states 
expressly that his aim was to make sacred music 
'dramatic and descriptive.' Meantime the chapter, 
finding that his projects had involved them in 
heavy expense, curtailed the orchestra, while at 
the same time strong pressure was put upon him 
by the Archbishop to take orders. He willingly 
assumed the title of Abbe", but declined the 
priesthood, especially as he was composing an 
opera, 'Telemaque,' which he was anxious to 
produce. Finding his reduced orchestra inade- 
quate for his masses he resigned, upon which an 
infamous libel was issued, accusing him, the 
most upright of men, of having been dismissed 
for fraud. Completely worn out, he retired in 
the autumn of 1788 to the country house of a 
friend, and here he passed nearly four years of 
repose and happiness. On the death of his friend 
in 1792 he returned to Paris invigorated and 
refreshed in mind, and composed a series of 3-act 
operas — 'La Caverne' (Feb. 15, 1793), 'Paul et 
Virginie' (Jan. 13, 1794), and 'Telemaque' 
(May 11, 1796), all produced at the Feydeau. 
The brilliant success of ' La Caverne ' procured 
his appointment as professor in the ' Ecole de la 
Garde Nationale' (Nov. 21, 1793), and he was 
also nominated one of the inspectors of instruction 
at the Conservatoire from its foundation in 1795. 
In this capacity he took part with Me'hul, Gossec, 
Catel, and LanglS - , in drawing up the ' Principes 
ele'mentaires de musique ' and the ' Solfeges du 
Conservatoire.' He was then looking forward 
to the production of two operas which had been 
accepted by the Acade'mie ; and when these were 
set aside in favour of Catel's 'Semiramis' his 
indignation knew no bounds, and he vehemently 
attacked not only bis colleague, but the director 
of the Conservatoire, Catel's avowed patron. His 
pamphlet, ' Projet d'un plan general de l'instruc- 
tion musicale en France ' (Paris, an IX, anony- 
mous), raised a storm, and Lesueur received his 
dismissal from the Conservatoire on Sept. 23, 
1802. Having a family to support, the loss of 
his salary crippled him severely, and he was 
only saved from utter indigence by his appoint- 
ment in March 1804 as maltre de chapelle to 
the First Consul, on the recommendation of 
Paisiello, who retired on account of his health. 
As the occupant of the post most coveted by 
musicians in France, Lesueur had no difficulty 
in securing the representation of ' Ossian, ou les 
Bardes' (5 acts, July 10, 1804). The piece 
inaugurated the new title of the theatre as 
'Acade'mie Imperiale.' Its success was extra- 
ordinary, and the Emperor, an ardent admirer 
of Celtic poems, rewarded the composer with the 
Legion of Honour, and presented him with a gold 
snuff-box inscribed ' L'Empereur des Francais a 
l'auteur des Bardes,' intended also as an acknow- 
ledgement for a Te Deum and a mass performed 
at Notre Dame on the occasion of his coronation 



(Dec. 2, 1804). During the next five years 
Lesueur undertook no work of greater import- 
ance than a share in Persuis's intermede ' L'ln- 
auguration du Temple de la Victoire' (Jan. 2, 
1807), and in the same composer's 3-act opera 
'Le Triomphe de Trajan' (Oct. 23, 1807), con- 
taining the well-known 'marche solennelle'; but 
on March 21, 1809, he produced 'La Mort 
d'Adam et son Apotheose' in 3 acts — the ori- 
ginal cause of his quarrel with the manage- 
ment of the Acade'mie and the Conservatoire. 
The scenery and decorations of the new opera 
excited the greatest admiration ; when compli- 
mented on his work, Degotti the scene-painter 
replied quite seriously, ' Yes, it certainly is the 
most beautiful paradise you ever saw in your 
life, or ever will see.' 

In 1813 Lesueur succeeded Gre*try at the 
Institut; and after the Eestoration became, in 
spite of his long veneration for Napoleon, sur- 
intendant and composer of the chapel of Louis 
XVIII. On January 1, 181 8, he was appointed 
professor of composition at the Conservatoire, 
a post which he retained till his death. His 
lectures were largely attended, and very inter- 
esting from the brilliant remarks with which 
he interspersed them. Of his pupils no less 
than 12 gained the 'prix de Eome' — namely, 
Bourgeois, Ermel, Paris, Guiraud, Hector Ber- 
lioz, Eugene Prevost, Ambroise Thomas (whom 
he called his ' note sensible,' or leading note, on 
account of his extreme nervousness), Elwart, 
Ernest Boulanger, Besozzi, Xavier Boisselot 
(who married one of his three daughters), and, 
last but not least, Gounod. Lesueur also wrote 
'Notice sur la Melope'e, la Bhythmope'e et les 
grands caracteres de la musique ancienne,' pub- 
lished with Gail's French translation of Anacreon 
(Paris, 1793). Ancient Greek music was a 
favourite subject with him, and he would with 
perfect seriousness expound how one mode tended 
to licence, and another to virtue ; unfortunately 
however some wag in the class would occasionally 
mislead his ear by inverting the order of succes- 
sion in the chords, and thus betray him into 
taking the licentious for the virtuous mode, and 
vice versa. 1 

Lesueur died in Paris on Oct. 6, 1837, 
at a patriarchal age, and in universal respect; 
even Berlioz loved and honoured him to the last 
(see chapters vi. and xx. of his Memoir es). He 
left 3 operas which had never been performed, 
' Tyrte'e,' 3 acts, composed in 1 794 ; ' Artaxerce,' 
3 acts, accepted by the Opera in 1801 ; and 
' Alexandre a Babylone,' of which the score has 
been engraved, and considerable portions per- 
formed at the Conservatoire concerts. Of his 
numerous oratorios, masses, motets, etc., the fol- 
lowing have been published: — 'L' Oratorio ou 
Messe de Noel'; 3 messes solennelles ; a low mass 
with 'Domine Salvum'; 3 'Oratorios pour le 
couronnement des princes souverains'; 3 Te 
Deums ; 2 ' Oratorios de la Passion' ; 2 ' Domine 
Salvum'; 1 Stabat; the oratorios 'Debora,' 

1 This Is said to have been a favourite amusement with Gounod as- 

a buy. 



'Rachel,' 'Ruth et Noemi,' 'Ruth et Booz'; a 
cantata for the marriage of the Emperor Napo- 
leon ; a motet for the baptism of the King of 
Rome; a Priere for the Emperor on airs of 
Languedoc ; an ' Salutaris ' ; several psalms 
and motets, among which must be specified a 
• Super flumina Babylonis.' 

The 5 operas previously mentioned, and all 
this sacred music, furnish ample materials for 
forming an estimate of Lesueur's genius. His 
most marked characteristic is a grand simplicity. 
No musician ever contrived to extract more from 
common chords, or to impart greater solemnity 
to his choruses and ensembles ; but in his boldest 
flights, and most original effects of colour, the 
ear is struck by antiquated passages which stamp 
the composer as belonging to a passe school. 
'His biblical characters are set before us with 
traits and colours so natural as to make one 
forget the poverty of the conception, the antique 
Italian phrases, the childish simplicity of the 
1 orchestration.' By another critic he was said 
to have taken the theatre into the church and 
the church into the theatre. Thus, looking at 
the matter from a purely musical point of view, 
it is impossible to consider Lesueur the equal of 
his contemporaries Me"hul and Cherubini ; though 
the novelties he introduced derive a special in- 
terest from the fact that he was the master of 
Hector Berlioz. [G.C.] 

LETZTEN DINGE, DIE, i.e. 'the Last 
Things,' an oratorio in 2 parts ; text by Rochlitz, 
music by Spohr. Composed in the autumn of 
1825, and produced in the Lutheran church, 
Cassel, on 2 Good Friday 1826. In England it 
is known as The Last Judgment. This oratorio 
must not be confounded with ' Das jiingste 
Gericht,' an earlier and less successful work. [G.] 

LEUTGEB, or LEITGEB, Josef, a horn 
player to whom Mozart was much attached. 
They became acquainted in Salzburg, where 
Leutgeb was one of the band, and on Mozart's 
arrival in Vienna he found him settled there, in 
the Altlerchenfeld no. 32, keeping a cheese- 
monger's shop and playing the horn. Mozart 
wrote 4 Concertos for him (Kochel 412, 417, 
447, 495), a Quintet (407), which he calls 'das 
Leitgebische,' and probably a Rondo (371). 
This shows that he must have been a good 
player. There must also have been something 
attractive about him, for with no one does Mozart 
appear to have played so many tricks. When 
Leutgeb called to ask how his pieces were getting 
on Mozart would cover the floor with loose leaves 
of scores and parts of symphonies and concertos, 
which Leutgeb must pick up and arrange in 
exact order, while the composer was writing at 
his desk as fast as his pen could travel. On one 
occasion he was made to crouch down behind the 
stove till Mozart had finished. The margins of 
the Concertos are covered with droll remarks — 
' W. A. Mozart has taken pity on Leutgeb, ass, 
ox, and fool, at Vienna, Mar. 2 7, 1 783, etc.' The 
horn part is full of jokes — ' Go it, Signor Asino ' 

> Berlioz, ' Memoires,' chap. tL 

* See the account In Spohr's Selbstblographle, II. 171. 


— ' take a little breath ' — ' wretched pig ' — ' thank 
God here 's the end ' — and much more of the like. 
One of the pieces is written in coloured inks, 
black, red, green, and blue, alternately. Such 
were Mozart's boyish romping ways ! Leutgeb 
throve on his cheese and his horn, and died 
richer than his great friend, Feb. 27,1811.* [G.] 

LEVERIDGE, Richard, a singer noted for 
his deep and powerful bass voice, was born in 
1670. His name appears as one of the singers 
in Dr. Blow's Te Deum and Jubilate for St. 
Cecilia's day 1695. He sang in the Anglo-Italian 
operas, 'Axsinoe,' 'Camilla,' 'Rosamond,' and 
'Thomyris,' at Drury Lane theatre from 1705 
to 1 707. In 1 708 he was engaged at the Queen's 
Theatre and sang in ' The Temple of Love,' etc., 
and in Handel's ' Faithful Shepherd' (' II Pastor 
Fido') on its production in 1712. He subse- 
quently transferred his services to Rich, and 
sang in the masques and pantomimes at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields and Covent Garden for nearly 30 
years. TTis voice remained unimpaired so long, 
that in 1730, when 60 years old, he offered, for 
a wager of 100 guineas, to sing a bass song with 
any man in England. About 1726 he opened a 
coffee-house in Tavistock Street, Covent Garden. 
In 1699 he composed part of the music for ' The 
Island Princess, or, The Generous Portuguese,' 
and in 1 716 the music for ' Pyramus and Thisbe,' 
a comic masque, compiled by him from ' A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream.' In 1727 he published 
his songs, with the music, in two small 8vo. vols. 
Many others were published singly. In his old 
age he was maintained by an annual subscription 
among his friends, promoted by a city physician. 
He died March 22, 1758. There is a good en- 
graved portrait of him by Pether, from a painting 
by Fryer. [W.H.H.] 

L'HOMME ARME, Lome Arme, or Lomme 
Arme. I. The name of an old French Chanson, 
the melody of which was adopted, by some of the 
Great Masters of the 15th and 16th centuries, 
as the Canto fermo of a certain kind of Mass — 
called the ' Missa L'Homme arme ' — which they 
embellished with the most learned and elaborate 
devices their ingenuity could suggest. 

The origin of the song has given rise to much 
speculation. P. Martini calls it a ' Canzone Pro- 
venzale.' Burney (who, however, did not know 
the words) is inclined to believe it identical with 
the famous ' Cantilena Rolandi,' antiently sung, 
by an armed Champion, at the head of the French 
army, when it advanced to battle. Baini con- 
fesses his inability to decide the question : but 
points out, that the only relique of this poetry 
which remains to us — a fragment preserved in 
the ' Proportionale Musices ' of Tinctor — makes 
no mention of Roland, and is not written in the 
Provencal dialect. 4 

'Lome, lome, lome arnie\ 
Et Kobinet tu mas 
La mort donnee, 
(Juan J tu t'en vas.' 

* See Jahn's Mozart, 2nd ed., ti. 26. 

* No more information is siren by Loquiii, ' Melodies populaires,' 
Taris, 1879. 


The Melody — an interesting example of the use 
of the Seventh Mode — usually appears, either in 
Perfect Time, or the Greater Prolation. Though 
simple, it lacks neither grace, nor spirit. As 
might have been predicted, slight differences are 
observed in the Cantifermi of the various Masses 
founded upon it ; but, they so far correspond, that 
the reading adopted by Palestrina may be safely 
accepted as the normal form. We therefore sub- 
join its several clauses, reduced to modern notation, 
and transposed into the treble clef. 



r 7 ! ^- ! 10 (^ \ ^ f i ^ p 7 

£j nr 




7 ?-^- 


Upon this unpretending theme, or on frag- 
ments of it, Masses were written, by Guglielmo 
du Fay, Antonio Busnoys, Regis, Francois Caron, 
Joannes Tinctor, Philippon di Bruges, La Fage, 
(or Faugues,) De Orto, Vacqueras, Monsieur mon 
Compere, at least three anonymous composers 
who flourished between the years 1484 and 1513, 
Antonio Brumel, Josquin des Pres, Pierre de la 
Rue, (Petrus Platensis,) Pipelare, Mathurin 
Forestyn, Cristofano Morales, Palestrina, and 
even Carissimi — a host of talented Composers, 
who all seem to have considered it a point of 
honour to exceed, as far as in them lay, the 
fertility of invention displayed by their most 
learned predecessors, and whose works, therefore, 
not only embody greater marvels of contrapuntal 
skill than any other series preserved to us, but 
also serve as a most useful record of the gradual 
advancement of Art. 

The Masses of Du Fay, and Busnoys, and 
their successors, Regis, and Caron, are written 
in the hard and laboured style peculiar to the 
earlier Polyphonic Schools, with no attempt at 
expression, but, with an amount of earnest so- 
briety which was not imitated by some of their 
followers, who launched into every extravagance 
that could possibly be substituted for the prompt- 
ings of natural genius. Josquin, however, while 
infinitely surpassing his predecessors in in- 
genuity, brought true genius also into the field ; 
and, in his two Masses on the favourite subject 
— one for four Voices, and the other for five — 
has shewn that freedom of style is not altogether 
inconsistent with science. The Fugues, Canons, 
Proportions, and other clever devices with which 
these works are filled, exceed in complexity any 
thing previously attempted ; and many of them are 

strikingly effective and beautiful — none more so, 
perhaps, than the third Agnus Dei of the Mass 
in four parts ; a very celebrated movement known 
as ' Clama ne cesses,' from the ' Inscription ' ap- 
pended to the Superius, (or upper part), for the 
purpose of indicating that the notes are to be 
sung continuously, without any rests between 
them. In this movement, the Superius sings the 
Canto fermo entirely in Longs and Breves, while 
the other three Voices are woven together, in 
Canon, and Close Fugue, with inexhaustible 
contrivance, and excellent effect. In the second 
movement of the Sanctus — the 'Pleni sunt' — for 
three voices, the subject is equally distributed 
between the several parts, and treated with a 
melodious freedom more characteristic of the 
Master than of the age in which he lived. It 
was printed by Burney in his History, ii. 495. 

It might well have been supposed that these 
triumphs of ingenuity would have terrified the 
successors of Josquin into silence : but this was 
by no means the case. Even his contemporaries, 
Pierre de la Rue, Brumel, Pipelare, and Forestyn, 
ventured to enter the lists with him ; and, at a 
later period, two very fine Masses, for four and 
five Voices, were founded on the old Tune by 
Morales, who laudably made ingenuity give 
place to euphony, whenever the interest of his 
composition seemed to demand the sacrifice. It 
was, however, reserved for Palestrina to prove 
the possibility, not of sacrificing the one quality 
for the sake of the other, but of using his im- 
mense learning solely as a means of producing 
the purest and most beautiful effects. His Missa 
'L' Homme Arme",' for five voices, first printed in 
1570, abounds in such abstruse combinations of 
Mode, Time, and Prolation, and other rhythmic 
and constructional complexities, that Zacconi — 
writing in 1592, two years before the great 
Composer's death — devotes many pages of his 
Prattica di Mmiea to an elaborate analysis of 
its most difficult 'Proportions,' accompanied by 
a reprint of the Kyrie, the Christe, the second 
Kyrie, the first movement of the Gloria, the 
Osanna, and the Agnus Dei, with minute di- 
rections for scoring these, and other movements, 
from the separate parts. The necessity for 
some such directions will be understood, when 
we explain, that, apart from its more easily intel- 
ligible complications, the Mass is so constructed 
that it may be sung either in triple or in common 
time; and, that the original edition of 1570 is 
actually printed in the former, and that pub- 
lished at Venice, in 1599, in the latter. Dr. 
Burney scored all the movements we have men- 
tioned, in accordance with Zacconi's precepts; 
and his MS. copy (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 11,581) 
bears ample traces of the trouble the process cost 
him : for Zacconi's reprint is not free from clerical 
errors, which our learned historian has always 
carefully corrected. The first Kyrie, in which 
the opening clause of the Canto fermo is given 
to the Tenor in notes three times as long as 
those employed in the other parts, is a conception 
of infinite beauty, and shows traces of the Com- 
poser of the ' Missa Papae Marcelli' in every bar. 



In the edition of 1570 it stands in triple time; 
and, in order to make it correspond with that of 
1599, it is necessary to transcribe, and re-bar it, 
placing four minims in a measure, instead of 
six : when it will be found, not only that the 
number of bars comes right in the end, but, that 
every important cadence falls as exactly into the 
place demanded for it by the rhythm of the piece 
as it does in the original copy. It is said that 
Palestrina himself confided this curious secret to 
one of his disciples, who, five years after his 
death, superintended the publication of the Vene- 
tian edition. If it be asked, why, after having 
crushed the vain pedants of his day by the 
' Missa Papae Marcelli,' the ' Princeps Musicae ' 
should, himself, have condescended to invent 
conceits as quaint as theirs, we can only state 
our conviction, that he felt bound, in honour, 
not only to shew how easily he could beat them 
with their own weapons, but to compel those 
very weapons to minister to his own intense 
religious fervour, and passionate love of artistic 
beauty. For examples of the music our space 
compels us to refer the student to Dr. Burney's 
MS. already mentioned. 

The last ' Missa L'Homme Arme ' of any im- 
portance is that written, for twelve Voices, by 
Carissimi : this, however, can scarcely be con- 
sidered as a fair example of the style ; for, long 
before its production, the laws of Counterpoint 
had ceased to command either the obedience, or 
the respect, indispensable to success in the Poly- 
phonic Schools of Art. 

The original and excessively rare editions of 
Josquin's two Masses, and that by Pierre de la 
Rue, are preserved in the Library of the British 
Museum, together with Zacconi's excerpts from 
Palestrina, and Dr. Burney's MS. score, which 
will be found among his ' Musical Extracts.' 
None of these works, we believe, have ever been 
published in a modern form. 

II. The title is also attached to another melody, 
quite distinct from the foregoing — a French 
Dance Tune, said to date from the 15th century, 
and printed, with sacred words, by Jan Fruytiers, 
in his ' Ecclesiasticus,' published, at Antwerp, 
1565. The Tune, as there given, is as follows : — 

jfc^rr" l ('^(- l f-frH-'^ 

5Mjj l .)«H f rrr r "nri-"i 

It will be seen, that, though strictly Dorian in 
its tonality, this interesting melody exceeds the 
compass of the First Mode by two degrees. The 
regularity of its phrasing savours rather of the 
1 6th than the 15 th century. Possibly Fruytiers 
may have modified it, to suit his own purposes. 
Instances, however, are not wanting, of very 


regular phrases, in very antient melodies : as, for 
instance, in the delightful little Romance, ' Lau- 
trier par la matinie,' by Thibaut, King of Navarre 
(ob. 1254), quoted by Dr. Burney, ii. p. 300, the 
rhythm of which is scarcely less distinctly marked 
than that of Fruytiers' adaptation. [W. S. R.] 
LIBRETTO is the diminutive form of the 
Italian word libro, and therefore literally means 
'little book.' But this original significance it 
has lost, and the term is used in Italian, as well 
as in other languages, in the technical sense of 
book of an opera. Its form and essential differ- 
ence from spoken comedy or tragedy will best 
be explained by a short historic survey of its 
origin and development. In the most primi- 
tive form of opera, as it arose in Florence in 
the 1 6th century, that difference was compara- 
tively trifling, the libretto iifthose days consisting 
mainly of spoken dialogue with a few interspersed 
songs and choral pieces. But the rapid rise of 
music and the simultaneous decline of poetry in 
Italy soon changed matters. Certain musical 
forms, such as the aria and the various species of 
concerted music, were bodily transferred to the 
opera, and the poet had to adapt his plot to the 
exigencies of the superior art. Thus he was ob- 
liged not only to provide primo uomo and prima 
donna with a befitting duet in a convenient place, 
but other characters had also to be introduced to 
complete the quartet or the sestet, as the case 
might be, and, in addition to this, the chorus 
had to come in at the end of the act to do duty 
in the inevitable finale. However legitimate 
these demands may appear to the musician, it is 
obvious that they are fatal to dramatic con- 
sistency, and thus the poet, and unfortunately 
the public also, had to submit to the inevitable, 
the former by penning and the latter by serenely 
accepting the specimens of operatic poetry with 
which we are all but too well acquainted. The 
most perfect indifference to the dramatic part of 
the entertainment can alone explain the favour 
with which such profoundly inane productions 
as 'Ernani,' or 'Un Ballo in Maschera' as 
transmogrified by the Italian censorship, are 
received by English audiences. That this con- 
dition of things should in its turn detrimentally 
react on music is not a matter for surprise ; 
for singers naturally would take little trouble 
to pronounce words which nobody cared to listen 
to, and with the proper declamation of the words 
intelligent musical phrasing is inseparably con- 
nected. In the Italian school, where vocalisation 
was carried to the highest pitch of perfection, 
the libretto accordingly sank to the lowest level. 
In France, on the other hand, where the declam- 
atory principle prevailed, and where dramatic 
instinct is part of the character of the nation, a 
certain regard for story and dialogue was never 
lost, and the libretti of Lully's and Rameau's, 
and after them of Gluck's operas, share the classic 
dignity, although not the genius, of Corneille and 
Racine. In the same sense the marvellous skill 
and savoir faire of the contemporary French 
stage is equally represented in the lyrical drama, 
in more than one instance supplied by the same 


hands. The same cannot be said of Germany, 
where few dramatists of repute have condescended 
to co-operate with the musician, and where, till 
quite lately, even the finest dramatic subjects 
(e.g. Beethoven's Fidelio) were defaced by the 
execrable doggrel believed to be particularly 
suitable for operatic purposes. In all these 
respects a deep change has been wrought by 
Wagner's reform. In that great poet and greater 
musician the two faculties are inseparably 
blended, and in his work therefore the reci- 
procity between music and poetry may be 
studied in its most perfect form. His own words 
on the subject will be of interest. ' In Rienzi, 1 
he says, ' my only purpose was to write an opera, 
and thinking only of this opera, I took my sub- 
ject as I found it ready made in another man's 
finished production. . . . With the Flying Dutch- 
man, I entered upon a new course, by becoming 
the artistic interpreter of a subject which was 
given to me only in the simple, crude form of 
a popular tale. From this time I became, with 
regard to all my dramatic works, first of all a 
poet ; and only in the ultimate completion of the 
poem was my faculty as a musician restored to 
me. But as a poet I was again from the be- 
ginning conscious of my power of expressing 
musically the import of my subjects. This power 
I had exercised to such a degree, that I was 
perfectly certain of my ability of applying it 
to the realisation of my poetical purpose, and 
therefore was at much greater liberty to form 
my dramatic schemes according to their poeti- 
cal necessities, than if I had conceived them 
from the beginning with a view to musical 

t treatment.' 
The result of this freedom of workmanship is 
easily discoverable in Wagner's later music- 
dramas, such as 'Tristan' or 'The Valkyrie.' 
§They are to all intents and purposes dramatic 
poems full of beauty and interest, quite apart 
from the aid of musical composition. For the 
latter, indeed, they appear at first sight un- 
adapted, and he must be a bold man who would 
think of resetting the ' Niblung' Trilogy, as Ros- 
sini reset the ' Barber of Seville ' after Paisiello. 
The ordinary characteristics of the libretto, such 
as the aria, or the duet, as distinguished from 
the dialogue, have entirely disappeared, and 
along with these have gone those curious reitera- 
tions by various persons of the same sentence, 
with a corresponding change only of the personal 
pronoun. In this and other respects Wagner's 
music-dramas must be considered by them- 
selves, and the strict imitation of their form in 
ordinary libretti, written for ordinary musicians, 
would be simply fatal. At the same time his 
work has been of great influence on the struc- 
ture of the dramatic poem in modern opera. 
Musicians have become more critical in their 
choice of subjects, and the librettists accordingly 
more careful in providing them, especially as the 
natural sense of the public also seems to be 
awakening from its long slumber. It is indeed 
a significant fact that the three most successful 
operas of recent years, Gounod's 'Faust,' Bizet's 



'Carmen,' and Goetz's 'The Taming of the 
Shrew,' are all founded on stories of intense 
human interest, more or less cleverly adapted to 
operatic purposes. It is true that in France and 
Germany the dramatic interest was never at so 
low an ebb as in Italy or in this country. 
Numerous operas might be named which owe 
their permanent success to a bright and sparkling 
libretto, and others in which the genius of the 
musician has been weighed down by the dulness 
of the operatic bard; 'Martha,' 'Fra Diavolo,' 
and ' Le Postilion de Longjumeau,' belong to 
the former class; 'Cosl fan Tutte,' 'La Cle- 
menza di Tito,' and 'Euryanthe,' nicknamed 
' Ennuyante' by the despairing 2 composer, to the 
latter. Jt is also a significant fact that by far 
the finest music Rossini ever wrote occurs in 
the 'Barber,' and in 'William Tell,' and that 
'Faust' remains Gounod's unsurpassed master- 
piece, the inspiration of the composers being in 
each case distinctly traceable to the dramatic 
basis of their music. Instances of a similar 
kind from the works even of the most ' absolute ' 
musicians might be multiplied ad libitum. The 
lesson thus taught has indeed been fully recog- 
nised by the best composers. Beethoven was 
unable to fix upon a second subject after Fidelio ; 
and Mendelssohn, in spite of incessant attempts, 
found only one to satisfy his demands ; and that, 
alas ! too late for completion. The libretto of 
his unfinished opera ■ Loreley,' by Emanuel 
Geibel the well-known poet, was afterwards set 
by Max Bruch, and performed with considerable 
success. The importance of the libretto for the 
artistic as well as the popular success of an opera 
is therefore beyond dispute, and modern com- 
posers cannot be too careful in their choice. To 
assist them in that choice, or to lay down the law 
with regard to the construction of a model libretto, 
the present writer does not feel qualified. A few 
distinctive features may however be pointed out. 
In addition to the human interest and the truth 
of passion which a libretto must share with every 
dramatic poem, there ought to be a strong infusion 
of the lyrical element, not to be mistaken for the 
tendency towards ' singing a song' too rampant 
amongst tenors and soprani. The dramatic and 
the lyrical motives ought on the contrary to be 
perfectly blended, and even in ordinary dialogue 
a certain elevation of sentiment sufficient to ac- 
count for the sung instead of the spoken word 
should be maintained. This again implies 
certain restrictions with regard to the choice of 
subject. One need not share Wagner's absolute 
preference for mythical subject-matter to perceive 
that the scene of an opera ought to be as far as 
possible removed from the platitudes of common 
life, barring, of course, the comic opera, in 
which the contrast between the idealism of 
music and the realities of every-day existence 
may be turned to excellent account. With re- 
gard to the observance of musical form opinions 
of course will differ widely ; but that the poet 
ought to some extent to conform to the musician's 
demands no reasonable person will deny. The 

» Weber's Lire, by his sod, 11 519. 



case of Wagner, as we have already said, is unique 
in history, and in ordinary circumstances music 
and poetry in the opera co-exist by means of a 
compromise; but this compromise ought to pro- 
ceed from mutual love, not from mere toleration. 
In other words, the poet should undoubtedly 
supply opportunities for musical display, both of 
a vocal and an orchestral kind, but no finale, or 
march, or wedding chorus, ought to interfere 
with the economy of the drama. To state such 
a problem is of course easier than to solve it, but 
even the mere statement of the difficulty may 
not be entirely without use. 

Before concluding this notice, it is desirable 
to mention the names of a few of the more cele- 
brated librettists. The most famous amongst 
them is Metastasio (1698-1782), the author of 
'La Semiramide reconnosciuta,' Ti RePastore,' 
and ' II Trionfo di Clelia,' amongst whose musical 
collaborators were the most celebrated masters of 
the 1 8th century. [Metastasio.] Calzabigi de- 
serves mention as the author of ' Orfeo,' and other 
works of Gluck's Viennese period, the French 
collaborator of the master being Le Bailli du 
Rollet. Amongst more modern Italian libret- 
tists it must suffice to nani3 Felice Romano, the 
friend and artistic companion of Bellini. The 
father of French librettists was the Abbe Perrin, 
who broke the supreme rule of the hexameter by 
writing what he terms 'paroles de musique ou 
des vers a chanter,' and who in conjunction with 
Cambert produced the first French opera properly 
so called (' La Pastorale,' first performed in 
1659). Quinault was the poetic assistant of 
Lully. In modern France the name of Scribe 
towers above his rivals; Barbier, Meilhac and 
Halevy supply the contemporary market. Sar- 
dou also has tried his hand at lyrical drama, 
but without much success. The failure of the 
English version of ' Piccolino ' at Her Majesty's 
Theatre in 1879 was due at least as much to 
Sardou's libretto as to Guiraud's music. In 
Germany, Goethe and Wieland appear amongst 
aspirants to lyrical honours, but without success. 
Of the professional librettists in that country 
none deserves mention. In connection with so- 
called ' English opera ' the names of Gay, the 
author of the ' Beggar's Opera,' and, in modern 
times, of Alfred Bunn and of Edward Fitzball, 
both fertile librettists, ought to be mentioned. 
To the latter belongs the merit of having by one 
of his pieces supplied Heine, and through him 
Wagner, with the idea of a dramatised ' Flying 
Dutchman.' Mr. Planche", the author of Weber's 
' Oberon,' also must not be forgotten. Mr. W. S. 
Gilbert's witty comediettas, which Mr. Sullivan 
has fitted to such charming and graceful tunes, 
can be called libretti only in a modified sense. 

A few words should be added with regard to the 
libretto of the Oratorio and the Cantata. ^Esthetic 
philos iphers have called the oratorio a musical 
epic, and, in spite of its dramatic form, there is 
a good deal of truth in this definition ; for, not 
only does the narration take the place of the 
action on the stage, but the descriptive parts, 
generally assigned to the chorus, allow of greater 


breadth and variety of treatment than is possl ble in 
the opera. A reference to the choruses in ' Israel 
in Egypt' and other works by Handel will be 
sufficient to illustrate the point. In accordance 
with this principle, what has been urged above 
with regard to the operatic libretto will have to 
be somewhat modified. But here also terse dic- 
tion and a rapid development of events should in 
all cases be insisted upon. The matter is con- 
siderably simplified where the words have been 
selected from Scripture, for here sublimity of 
subject and of diction is at once secured. Handel's 
'Messiah' and 'Israel' — which also contain his 
finest music — Mendelssohn's 'St. Paul,' ' Elijah/ 
and ' Hymn of Praise,' owe their libretti to this 
source. Haydn's ' Creation ' is based on the Bible 
and Milton, though the source is difficult to 
recognise under the double translation which it 
has undergone. Gay's 'Acis and Galatea,' Mil- 
ton's 'Allegro' and 'Penseroso,' Dryden's 'Alex- 
ander's Feast,' and Pope's 'St. Cecilia's Ode' 
have a literary value of their own ; but in other 
cases Handel has been less happy ; and some ter- 
rible couplets might be quoted from the works of 
his collaborators Morell and Humphreys. The 
transition from the oratorio proper to the cantata, 
or ' Worldly Oratorio ' as the Germans quaintly 
call it, is made by Liszt's ' St. Elizabeth.' The 
libretto by Otto Roquette, although not without 
good points, is upon the whole tedious, and can- 
not be recommended as a model. Better is 
Schumann's ' Paradise and the Peri,' which may 
stand as a specimen of the cantata proper. Its 
libretto is essentially founded on Moore's tale, 
the ensemble of Peris mocking the heavenly 
aspirations of their sister was inserted by the 
composer himself. The story has been skilfully 
arranged, but there is the drawback that the 
dramatic battle-scene occurs in the first part, 
while the quieter, though psychologically more 
elevated motives, are assigned to the later por- 
tions. The impression of an anti-climax is thus 
inevitable. [F-H.] 

LICENSE. (It. Licenzia; Germ. Licenz; 
Fr. Licence). As long as any art has the capa- 
city for development and expansion, true genius 
and dogmatism are constantly at war. The in- 
herent disposition of the mind to stereotype 
into formulas conclusions drawn from the ob- 
servation of an insufficient number of isolated 
instances, is probably the result of much bitter 
experience of the fruits of human carelessness 
and stupidity ; against which the instincts of the 
race impel them to guard for the future by 
preparing temporary leading-strings for the 
unwise, to keep them from falling and dragging 
others with them into the mire of error. Up to 
a certain point even genius must have leading- 
strings, and these must needs be made of the 
best materials at hand till better be found. 
The laws cannot be made on principles whose 
bases are out of the ken of the wisest law-makers ; 
and genius, like ordinary intellect, must needs be 
amenable at first to such laws as preceding 
masters have been able to formulate from the 
sum total of their experience. The trouble begins 


when something is found which is beyond the 
range of the observation which served as the 
basis for a law, and seems therefore to contravene 
it ; for many men so readily mistake their habits 
for absolute truth that when they are shown a 
novelty which passes their point of realisation 
and is out of the beaten track, they condemn it 
at once as heresy, and use the utmost of their 
power to prevent its dissemination ; and where 
they find themselves unable to stem the tide 
through the acknowledged greatness of the genius 
who has originated it, or through the acceptance 
of its principle becoming general, they excuse 
themselves and stigmatize what they mistrust by 
calling it a license. 

A license, then, is the breaking of a more or 
less arbitrary law in such respects as it is de- 
fective and its basis unsound and insufficient ; 
and it is by such means that the greater part of 
expansion in musical art has been made. An 
irresistible impulse drives genius forth into the 
paths of speculation ; and when a discovery is 
made it frequently happens that a law is broken, 
anil the pedants proclaim a license. But the 
license, being an accurate generalisation, holds its 
j 'lace in the art, and the laws have to be modified 
to meet it, and ultimately men either forget that 
it was ever called a license or stand in amaze- 
ment at the stupidity of their predecessors ; while 
it must be confessed that they assuredly would 
not have been any wiser if they had been in 
their places. 

The history of music is full from end to end 
with examples — from De Muris in the fourteenth 
century bewailing in bitter terms the experiments 
in new concords, to the purists of Monteverde's 
time condemning his use of the dominant seventh 
without preparation, on to the vexation of the 
contemporaries of Mozart at the extravagant 
opening of the C major Quartet, and the amaze- 
ment of many at Beethoven's beginning his 
first Symphony (in C) with a chord ostensibly in 
F major. Even at the present day Bach's compli- 
cated use of accidentals is a stumblingblock to 
many, who fancy he breaks laws against false 
relations; while in reality this law, like that 
against consecutive fifths, is only the particular 
formula covering a deeper law which Bach had 
the power to fathom without waiting for its ex- 
pression. So again with the resolution of dis- 
cords ; the old formulas were mere statements of 
the commonest practices of the older composers, 
and did not attempt to strike at the root of the 
matter : so we find even Haydn taking license in 
this direction in relation to the lights of his 
time; while Bach's resolutions are often inex- 
plicable even at the present day as far as the 
accepted principles of resolution will go, because 
theorists have hardly got far enough yet to see 
clearly what he saw and expressed so long ago. 
At the present day, however, the increase of the 
accumulated results of observation and analysis, 
joined with a more philosophical spirit, tends to 
produce a more and more accurate determination 
of the real laws of art, and by the systematisation 
of these into a more conjn-uous and connected 



theory, a nearer approach is made to what is 
universally true, and so less room is left for 
those speculative experiments of genius which 
the denseness of mere pedants has been content 
to brand as licenses. 

This progress explains the fact that the term 
' license ' is not so frequently heard in relation to 
music as it formerly was: but there is still plenty of 
room for theorists to invent false hypotheses ; and 
the apparently growing desire of many scientists 
to force upon artists as final the results of the 
most elementary discoveries in relation to the 
material of the art, will still afford genius the 
opportunity of asserting the strength of its con- 
victions by taking so-called licenses, and will 
likewise afford dogmatists further opportunity of 
making themselves ridiculous to posterity by 
condemning the truths thus discovered. 

There is just one last consideration. Liber- 
tines are unfortunately to be met with in the art 
world as well as elsewhere, and the licenses they 
take too frequently deserve the bitter language 
of the enraged pedant. There is no need to stay 
to consider their experiments, for they will not 
take long to die of inanition. It only remains to 
remind the too hasty enthusiast that to take 
licenses with safety for the art is not the part of 
every ready believer in himself; but only of 
those in whom the highest talents are conjoined 
with unflagging patience and earnest labour ; 
who pass through the perfect realisation of the 
laws they find in force at first, and by learning to 
feel thoroughly the basis on which they rest, and 
the principles of their application by other great 
masters, finally arrive at that point where they 
can see the truths which lie beyond the formal 
expression of the law, and which the rest of 
humanity only call licenses for the nonce because 
their eyes are not clear enough nor their spirits 
bright enough to leap to the point which the in- 
spiration of genius has achieved. 

Beethoven appears to have used the term 
' licenze' in relation to construction with reference 
to the fugue in Bb in opus 106. It is difficult 
to indicate precisely in what particular the 
licenses consist. The case is similar to the 
sonatas which he called 'quasi Fantasia,' merely 
indicating that in them he had not restricted 
himself closely to the laws of form as accepted in 
his time, but had enlarged the bounds according 
to his own feelings. [C.H.H.P.] 

LICHFILD, Henry, was the composer of 
' The First Set of Madrigals of 5 parts, apt both 
for Viols and Voyces,' printed in 1613 and re- 
printed in 1614, and containing 20 madrigals. 
Nothing is known of his biography. [W.H. H.] 

LICHNOWSKY, Cabl, Fiirst (Prince), by 
Russian patent issued January 30, 1773; born 
1758, died April 15, 1814; was descended from 
an old Polish family whose estates were so 
situated that, after the partition of Poland, it 
owed allegiance to all three of the plunderers. 
The principal seat of Prince Carl was Schloss 
Griitz, near Troppau in Silesia ; but Vienna 
was his usual place of residence. He clainia 




a place in this work as the pupil and friend of 
Mozart and the Maecenas of Beethoven. 

Readers of Burney's 'Musical Tour' will 
remember his eulogies of the Countess Thun- 
Klbsterle, so celebrated for her beauty, intellect 
and culture, whose disregard for mere form gave 
her the reputation of eccentricity, but whose 
house and family had charms that attracted even 
the Emperor Joseph and his brothers thither on 
the footing of friendly visitors. Of her taste in 
music it is sufficient to say that she was a pro- 
found admirer of the compositions of both the 
young Mozart and the young Beethoven, at a 
time when such appreciation was by no means 
universal. Her daughters — Georg Forster's 
' Three Graces ' — were worthy of their mother. 
Elizabeth married Rasoumowsky ; Christine, born 
July 26, 1765, married, November 31,1 788, Lich- 
nowsky ; and the third the English Lord Guilford. 
Schbnfeld, a Viennese, writes in 1796, of Lady 
'Gilfort' as a guitar player of very high rank 
and a singer of uncommon excellence ; and of 
Princess Lichnowsky as ' a strong musician who 
plays the pianoforte with feeling and expression.' 

Lichnowsky, without pretending to rival the 
great magnates Esterhazy, Lobkowitz, and their 
peers, in maintaining a complete ' chapel ' of vocal 
and instrumental music, had within five years 
after his marriage his regular Friday quartet of 
youthful virtuosos, Schuppanzigh, Sina, Weiss, 
and Kraft, all of whom became famous, and 
also gave musical entertainments on a scale 
requiring a full orchestra. 

His relations to the Prussian court compelled 
him occasionally to appear there; and he thus 
found opportunity to give Mozart — only two years 
his senior — a practical and substantial proof of 
his affection, by inviting him, in those days of 
tedious and expensive travelling, to join him on 
one of these occasions free of expense. This \\ as 
the journey in the spring of 1 789, during which 
the King of Prussia offered Mozart the then 
noblest musical position in Germany, but which 
a kind word from the Emperor, after his return, 
led him to reject, without securing an equivalent. 
There seems to be no doubt that Lichnowsky, 
deeply moved by the distressing condition of 
his teacher and friend, had taken him to 
Berlin in the hope of improving his circum- 
stances, and that the King's offer was partly due 
to his influence. Two and a half years later 
poor Mozart was dead, leaving a void in the 
Lichnowsky-Thun circle which there was no one 
to fill. Another two years and young Beethoven 
had come from Bonn. 

The relations between him and the Lichnow- 
skys are sufficiently indicated in the article 
Beethoven; but a current error must be cor- 
rected ; namely, that the breach caused by the 
quarrel at Gratz in 1806 was final. Lichnowsky 
lived in a large house over the Schotten gate — 
both house and gate disappeared long since — and 
in the storey below him dwelt Beethoven's 
friends, the Erdbdys. The Schotten and Mblker 
bastions were contiguous, and the Pasqualati 
house, on the latter, was in the same row with 


that of Lichnowsky, though a few doors away 
from it. This then was the reason why 
Beethoven was content to live in rooms in the 
fourth storey, looking to the cold north, and 
without a direct ray of the sun. He remained 
there from 1804 to 1807, and then removed into 
rooms provided him by the Countess Erdbdy. 

An outbreak with the Countess led him to 
remove to the other side of the city, where he 
passed the years 1809 and 1810. Meantime, so 
complete a reconciliation had taken place be- 
tween him and both Lichnowsky and the 
Countess Erdody, that in 181 1 he went again 
to Gratz, and on his return once more took his 
old lodging in the Pasqualati house, where he 
remained until the death of Lichnowsky. 1 It 
was during these last years that Schindler re- 
cords the frequent visits of the prince to the 

Edward Maria, son and successor of Prince 
Carl (born Sept. 19, 1789, died Jan. 1, 1845, at 
Munich), distinguished himself as an agricul- 
turist, but more as a man of letters. He stands 
high in Austrian literature as a national anti- 
quarian, especially for his great ' History of 
the House of Habsburg.' 

Lichnowsky, Count Moritz, a younger brother 
of Prince Carl, was one of that small circle of 
most intimate friends of Beethoven, faithful to 
the last. He was probably that Count Lich- 
nowsky who published (1798) 'VII Variations 
for P. F. on Nel cor piu.' After the death 
of his first wife he became deeply attached to 
the opera-singer, Mile. Stummer ; but not until 
after the death of Prince Carl, when their 
daughter had already passed the stage of in- 
fancy, were they able to marry. It is in rela- 
tion to this attachment that Beethoven is said 
to have written the Sonata in E minor, op. 90. 
[See vol. i. p. 206 b.] [A. W. T.] 

LIEBLICH GEDACT (*. e. gedeckt), literally 
'sweet-toned covered or closed' pipe. This 
class of organ stop is a variety of the old quite- 
stopped Diapason or Gedact. It was invented 
by the elder Schulze, of Paulinzelle near Erfurt, 
and was first brought under notice in England 
in his organ in the Great Exhibition of 1851. 
It is made either of 16-feet tone (Lieblich 
Bourdon), 8-feet (Lieblich Gedact), or 4-feet 
(Lieblich Flote). The pipes are made 5 or 6 
sizes narrower than the Gedact, but are more 
copiously winded, and the mouths cut up higher. 
The tone therefore is nearly or quite as strong as 
that of the Gedact, though not so full, yet 

1 llelchardt, under date Not. SO. 180?, writes! 'Beethoven lodges 
with a Hungarian Countess ErdOdy, who occupies the front part of 
the huge house, but he has broken completely with Prince Lichnow- 
sky, who lives in the upper part of the house, and with whom he for 
some years resided. During the ten years 1804-14, then, Beethoven 
moved from the l'asqualatt house once only, but then for three years : 
at the end of that period he departed finally. When therefore hies 
(writing avowedly from hearsay' states 'he removed from it several 
times, and Pasqualati said " The lodging shall not be let, Beethoven, 
will come again," ' he was evidently misinformed, at least In part ; but 
his error has been adopted and made the most of in all biographies and 
biographical sketches of Beethoven since 1838. The new lodging in 1814 
was in the lower storey of the Bartensteln house, on the same bastion. 
He retained It but one year ; for, on the departure of the Erdodys from 
Vienna in 1815, there was no Inducement to remain, acd Btethoveu 
moved away from the Miilker Bastei never to return. 


brighter and sweeter. When the three stops, 
16, S, and 4 feet are grouped together on the 
same manual their effect is very beautiful. The 
late Edmund Schulze combined them in this 
manner in the choir organ at the Temple Church 
in 1 S60, also in his fine organ at Doncaster ( 1 862). 
Lewis adopted the same plan at Ripon Cathedral, 
and it has been still more recently followed by 
Willis at Salisbury Cathedral. [E. J.H.] 

LIED, a Gftman poem intended for singing ; 
by no means identical with the French chanson, 
or the Italian canzone. All three terms are in 
fact untranslateable, from the essentially na- 
tional character of the ideas embodied in each 
form ; the German Lied being perhaps the most 
faithful reflection of the national sentiment. A 
German looking at nature in her infinite variety 
of moods is almost irresistibly impelled to utter 
his thoughts in song. Certain aspects of nature 
appeal with peculiar force to the German mind — 
such, for instance, as the forest, the waste, the 
fall of rain, the murmur of the brook, the raging 
of the tempest ; and connected with these certain 
other objective ideas, such as the hunter in the 
forest, the lonely bird, or the clouds stretching 
over the landscape, the house sheltering from 
wind and rain, the mill-wheels turned by the 
brook, etc. Such are the topics of the secular 
Lied, which have been embodied by Goethe, 
Schiller, Heine, and a hundred smaller poets, 
in imperishable lyrics, perfectly suited for music. 
Those of the sacred Lied are, trust in God, the 
hope of future blessedness and union, and other 
religious sentiments, etc. There are Volkslieder, 1 
that is to say, Lieder whose origin is lost in ob- 
scurity, of both kinds. The development of in- 
strumental music during the earlier half of the 
last century having provided other means of 
expression for such feelings besides song, the 
Volkslied has gradually disappeared, giving place 
to the Kunstlied, of which the accompaniment is 
an important feature. This new form, naturalised 
by Haydn, Mozart, Reichardt, Sehultz, Himmel, 
Beethoven, Conradin Kreutzer, and C. M. von 
Weber, attained in the hands of Franz Schubert to 
that extension and perfection of expression which 
makes it so dear to the German nation. Since his 
time the accompaniment has constantly assumed 
greater prominence, so that the original form has 
nearly disappeared, the musical treatment being 
everything, and the poetry comparatively of less 
moment. Schumann may be considered the 
pioneer in this direction, and after him follow 
Brahms and Robert Franz. With the two last 
composers the accompaniment, as rich in melody 
as it is in harmony and modulation, more than 
divides attention with the words. 

The best works on the subject are Dr. Schnei- 
der's 'Geschichte des Liedes,' 3 vols. (Leipzig, 
18)3-65), full of detail; Lindners 'Geschichte 
des Deutschen Liedes im XVIII Jahrhundert ' 

1 The English have unfortunately no equivalent word for Volkslied. 
We have the thing, though of a very different kind from that of 
Germany, bat have no term to express the whole kind. Mr. Chap- 
p^ll's great work on English Volkslieder Is entitled "The Ballad 
Literature and Topular Music of the Olden Time." 'Popular,' how- 
ever, bas now acquired a distinct meaning of its own. 



(Leipzig. 1871); and Schure's ' Histoire du 
Lied.* [See Song.] [F-G.] 

LIED-FORM. The term Lied-form has un- 
fortunately been used by different writers with 
different significations ; and the vagueness which 
results, conjoined with the fact that the term is 
not happily chosen, renders it doubtful whether 
it had not better be entirely abandoned. 

Some people use it merely to define any slight 
piece which consists mainly of a simple melody 
simply accompanied, in which sense it would 
be perfectly adapted to many of Mendelssohn's 
Lieder ohne Worte, and innumerable other 
pieces of that class of small compositions for the 
pianoforte by various authors, as well as to songs. 
On the other hand, some writers have en- 
deavoured to indicate by the term a form of 
construction, in the same sense as they would 
speak of the forms of the movements of Sonatas. 
For the diffusion of this view Herr Bernhard 
Marx appears to be responsible, and his definition 
will be best given in his own terms. 

In the fourth section of the fifth division of 
his 'Allgemeine Musiklehre' he writes as follows: 
' Under this name of Lied-form we group all such 
pieces of music as have one single main idea, 
which is presented either in one developed section, 
or as a period (with first and second phrase), or 
even as a period divided into first and second 
similar parts, or into first, second, and third 
parts (in which case the last is generally a 
repetition of the first). It is possible in Lied-form 
to have even two such complete forms aggregated 
into one piece ; but then they occur without 
close connection or interweaving with one an- 
other, perhaps with the two parts twice or three 
times repeated ; in which case the second group 
will be called a Trio, and the third the second 
Trio, and be treated as a second independent 
piece. For the sake of contrast, such Trios will 
often be in another key, or in other key relation- 
ship, such as minor corresponding to major, and 
major to minor, of the same key, etc., return 
being afterwards made to the first portion and 
the original key to make the piece complete. 
'In this Lied-form are cast most of the Lieder 
which are intended to be sung, dances, marches, 
many e'tudes, introductions,' etc. 

In the third section of the fourth division of 
his ' Lehre von des Musikalischen Komposition,' 
Marx further gives formulas, or types, of the 
harmonic distribution of this kind of composi- 
tion ; and in the earlier part of the second 
volume (Bk. 3) of the same work he discusses 
the details of the structure at length. 

To this classification there appear to be two 
main objections. The first is the choice of the 
distinctive name ' Lied ' for a form which com- 
prises dances, marches, and other alien forms 
of music. Were there nothing else to say against 
it, it would certainly jar against our sense of 
fitness to have to speak of the funeral march in 
the Eroica Symphony, or the Scherzo of the 9th 
Symphony, or even of far less conspicuously alien 
examples, such as the Waltz in the Freyschiitz, or 
a Minuet of Haydn or Mozart, as in ' Lied-form." 



The other objection to the classification is its 
vagueness when formulated in such an empirical 
way ; but in order to understand fully both this 
objection and the former it will be necessary to 
go somewhat deeper into the matter. 

In every artistic whole there must be balance 
and proportion. In musical works this is chiefly 
obtained by the grouping of harmonies. An 
artistic whole may be obtained in one key by 
throwing stress first upon one harmonic centre, 
passing from that to one which represents an 
opposite phase, and then passing back to the 
original again. In the article Harmony it 
has been pointed out that the harmonies of the 
Tonic and the Dominant represent the most com- 
plete opposition of phase in the diatonic series of 
any key; the most perfect simple balance is 
therefore to be found in their alternation. For 
example, the first fifteen bars of the Trio in the 
Scherzo of Beethoven's Symphony in A form 
a complete artistic whole of themselves. There 
are six bars of Tonic harmony and one of 
Dominant forming the first group, and then 
six of Dominant harmony followed by one of 
Tonic harmony forming the second group. The 
balance is perfect, and the form the simplest in 
all music ; and it might reasonably be called the 
' simple primary form.' It is to be found in the 
most diverse quarters, such as single chants of 
the Anglican Church, sailor's hornpipes, German 
popular waltzes and Landler, and the trivial 
snatches of tunes in a French opera-bouffe. The 
manner of obtaining the balance is however not 
necessarily restricted to the above order ; for it 
is quite equally common to find each of the two 
groups containing a balance in themselves of 
Tonic and Dominant harmony. In that case 

the balance is obtained thus — C G C C G C, 

instead of C G G C as in the former instance ; 
but the principle which underlies them is the 
same, and justifies their being classed together. 
The subsidiary harmonies which are associated 
with these main groups are independent, but 
are most effective when they converge so as 
to direct attention to them. When greater 
extension is required, the balance is found 
between key and key; each key being severally 
distinguished by an alternation of harmonic roots, 
so as to be severally complete when they are to 
be a prominent part of the form. Subsidiary 
transitions occur much as the subsidiary har- 
monies in the preceding class, and must be 
regarded in the same light. The identity of 
principle in these two classes is obvious, since in 
both alike it consists of taking a definite point to 
start from, and marking it clearly ; then passing 
to another point, which will afford the needed 
contrast, and returning to the original to con- 
clude. But as in the latter class the process is 
complicated by the changes of key, it may best 
be distinguished from the former as 'complex 
primary form.' 

It is not necessary to enter into details on the 
subject of the extent, treatment, and distribution 


of the keys ; neither is it possible, since the prin- 
ciple when put upon this broad basis admits of 
very great variety, as indeed it is desirable that 
it should. But to guard against misapprehension, 
it may be as well to point out a few of the broadest 

In the first place, the several sections which 
serve to mark the elements of form need not be 
distinct and independent pieces, though they most 
frequently are so in the older opefa and oratorio 
songs, and in the minuets and trios, or marches 
and trios, of instrumental music. In many ex- 
amples, especially such as are on a small scale, 
there is no marked break in the continuity of the 
whole, the division at most amounting to nothing 
more than a cadence or half-close and a double 
bar, and often to not even so much as that. With 
regard to the distribution of ideas, it may be said 
that the several sections are often characterised 
by totally independent subjects, especially when 
the piece is on a large scale; but there are many 
examples, especially in the form of themes for 
variations, when, notwithstanding a certain free- 
dom of modulation, the predominance of one main 
idea is unbroken. 

Professor Marx has called attention to the fact 
that this form is sometimes amplified by repe- 
tition ; that is to say, when the return to the 
original key has been made to follow the con- 
trasting section or Trio, a fresh departure is made, 
and another contrasting section or Trio is given, 
after which follows the final return to the original 
key and idea. Examples of this occur in the 
Symphonies of Beethoven and Schumann, as well 
as in less important works ; and it is well to take 
note of the fact that in this case the form under 
consideration shows its close relationship to the 
Rondo form ; for that form in the hands of early 
instrumental composers such as Rameau and 
Couperin was little else than the frequent repe- 
tition of a main idea in a principal key, inter- 
spersed with contrasting episodes, which in the 
present case answer to the Trios. 

The occurrence of Codas with this form is very 
common, but for the discussion of that point 
reference must be made to the article under that 
head and to the article Form. 

Finally, it will be well to return shortly to the 
consideration of the distinctive name of ' Lied ' 
which has been given to this form. In the choice 
of it, its author was probably guided by a well- 
grounded opinion of the superior antiquity of song 
to other kinds of music, which led him to in- 
fer that the instrumental forms which he put 
under the same category were imitated from the 
' Lieder.' But this is not by any means inevit- 
able. It will have been seen from the above 
discussion that in this form the simplest means 
of arriving at artistic balance and proportion are 
made use of; and these would have been chosen 
by the instinct of the earliest composers of instru- 
mental music without any necessary knowledge 
that vocal music was cast in the same mould. 
And there is more than this. In songs and other 
vocal music the hearer is so far guided by the 
sense of the words that a total impression of 


completeness may be obtained even with very 
vague structure in the music ; whereas in in- 
strumental music, unless the form is clear and 
appreciably defined, it is impossible for the most 
intelligent hearer to realise the work as a 
whole. So that, in point of fact, vocal music 
can do without a great deal of that which is 
vital to instrumental music ; and therefore the 
Lied is just the member of the group which it is 
least satisfactory to take as the type : but as this 
form has been classified under that head, it has 
been necessary so to review it fully, in order that 
a just estimation may be formed of its nature, 
and the reason for taking exception to the title. 
The form itself is a very important one, but inas- 
much as it admits of great latitude in treatment, 
it appears that the only satisfactory means of 
classifying it, or making it explicable, is by 
putting it on as broad a basis as possible, and giving 
it a distinctive title which shall have reference 
to its intrinsic constitution, and not to one of 
the many kinds of music which may, but need not 
necessarily, come within its scope. [C.H.H.P.] 

LIED OHNE WORTE, i.e. Song without 
words (Fr. Romance sans paroles), Mendelssohn's 
title for the pianoforte pieces which are more 
closely associated with his name than any other 
of his compositions. The title exactly describes 
them. They are just songs. They have no words, 
but the meaning is none the less definite — ' I wish 
I were with you,' says he to his sister Fanny in 
sending her from Munich 1 the earliest of these 
compositions which we possess — ' but as that is 
impossible, I have written a song for you expres- 
sive of my wishes and thoughts ' . . . . and then 
follows a little piece of 16 bars long, which is as 
true a Lied ohne Worte as any in the whole 
collection. We know from a letter of later 2 date 
than the above that he thought music much more 
definite than words, and there is no reason to 
doubt that these 'Lieder,' as he himself con- 
stantly calls them, have as exact and special 
an intention as those which were composed to 
poetry, and that it is almost impossible to draw 
a line between the two. 3 He had two kinds of 
soDgs, one with words, the other without. The 
pieces are not Nocturnes, or Transcripts, or Etudes. 
They contain no bravura ; everything is subordin- 
ated to the ' wish ' or the ' thought ' which filled 
the heart of the composer at the moment. 

The title first appears in a letter of Fanny 
Mendelssohn's, Dec. 8, 1828, which implies that 
Felix had but recently begun to write such 
pieces. But the English equivalent was not 
settled without difficulty. The day after his 
arrival in London, on April 24, 1832, he played 

«the first six to Moscheles, and they are then 
4 spoken of as 'Instrumental Lieder fur Cla- 
vier.' On the autograph of the first book, in 
Mr. Felix Moscheles' possession, they are named 
' Six songs for the Pianoforte alone,' and this again 

1 tetters from Italy and Switzerland, June M, 1930. 

J To Souchajr. Oct 15. 1841. 

1 The Uerbstlie i ^op. 03) was originally a Lied ohne Worte (MS. Cat. 
Nn. 204>. 

* See the Translation of Moscheles - Life. L 207, for this and the fol- 
lowing fact. 



was afterwards changed to ' Original Melodies for 
the Pianoforte,' under which title the first book 
was published (for the author) by Mr. Novello 
(then in Dean Street), on Aug. 20, 1832, and 
registered at Stationers' Hall. No opus-number 
is given on the English copy, though there can be 
no doubt that Mendelssohn arranged it himself in 
every particular. The book appeared concurrently 
in Berlin, at Simrock's, as 'Sechs Lieder ohne 
Worte, etc. 5 Op. 19.' The German name after- 
wards became current in England, and was added 
to the English title-page. 

The last of the six songs contained in the 
1st book — 'In a Gondola,' or ' Venetianisches 
Gondellied ' — is said to be the earliest of the six 
in point of date. In Mendelssohn's MS. catalogue 
it is marked ' Venedig, 16th Oct., 1830, fur Del- 
phine Schauroth ' — a distinguished musician of 
Munich, whom he had left only a few weeks 
before, and to whom he afterwards dedicated his 
first P.F. Concerto. An earlier one still is No. 2 
of Book 2, which was sent from Munich to his 
sister Fanny in a letter dated June 26, 1830. 

Strange as it may seem, the success of the 
Lieder ohne Worte was but slow in England. 
The books of Messrs. Novello & Co., for 1836, 
show that only 114 copies of Book 1 were sold in 
the first four years ! • Six books, each containing 
six songs, were published during Mendelssohn's 
lifetime, numbered as op. 19, 30, 38, 53, 62, and 
67, respectively; and a 7th and 8th (op. 85 and 
102) since his death. A few of them have titles, 
viz. the Gondola song already mentioned ; another 
'Venetianisches Gondellied,' op. 30, no. 6 ; 'Duett,' 
op. 38, no, 6 ; ' Volkslied,' op. 53, no. 5 ; a third 
'Venetianisches Gondellied.'and a 'Fruhlingslied,' 
op. 62, nos. 5 and 6. These titles are his own. 
Names have been given to some of the other songs. 
Thus op. 19, no. 2, is called 'Jagerlied' or 
Hunting song; op. 62, no. 3, 'Trauermarsch' or 
Funeral march ; op. 67, no. 3, ' Spinnerlied' or 
Spinning song : but these, appropriate or not, 
are unauthorised. [GJ] 

LIEDERREIHE. A circle or series of songs, 
relating to the same object and forming one piece 
of music. The first instance of the thing and the 
first use of the word appears to be in Beethoven's 
op. 98, ' An die feme Geliebte. Ein Liedeikreis 
von Al. Jeitteles. 7 Fiir (Jesang und Pianoforte 
. . . von L. van Beethoven.' This consists of six 
songs, was composed April 18 16, and published 
in the following December. The word Lieder- 
kreis appears first on the printed copy. Bee- 
thoven's title on the autograph is ' An die 
enfernte Geliebte, Sechs Lieder von Aloys 
Jeitteles,' etc. It was followed by Schubert's 
' Die schone Mullerin, ein Cyclus von Liedern,' 
20 songs, composed 1823, and published March 
1824. Schubert's two other series, the ' Winter- 

9 There are two opus 19, a set of six songs with words, and a set of 
six without them. 

6 For this fact I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Henry 
Littlf ton, the present head of the firm. 

7 Ot the poet of these charming verses little Information can bo 
gleaned. He was born at Bruun June 20, 1704, so that when he wrote 
the Liederkreis he was barely 21. Like many amateurs of music bo 
practised medicine, and he died at his native place April 1C, 1858. 



reise ' and the ' Schwanen-Gesang,' have not got 
the special title. Schumann has left several 
Liederkreis — by Heine (op. 24) ; by Eichendorff 
(op. 39) ; ' Dichterliebe, Liedercyklus' (op. 48) ; 
Liederreihe von J. Kerner (op. 3=;); ' Frauenliebe 
und Leben' (op. 42). Of all these Beethoven's 
most faithfully answers to the name. The songs 
change their tempo, but there is no break, and the 
motif of the first reappears in the last, and closes 
the circle. Thayer's conjecture (iii. 401) that in 
writing it Beethoven was inspired by Amalie von 
Sebald, whom he had met at Linz in 181 1, is 
not improbably correct. He was then 45 years 
o'.d, an age at which love is apt to be dangerously 
permanent. [G.] 

LIEDERSPIEL, a play with songs introduced 
into it, such songs being either well known and 
favourite airs — Lieder — or, if original, cast in 
that form. It is the German equivalent of the 
French Vaudeville, and of such English pieces as 
the 'Beggar's Opera,' the 'Waterman,' etc. The 
thing and the name are both due to J. F. Reich- 
ardt, whose 'Licb' und Treue' was the first 
Liederspiel. It was an attempt to bring back 
the musical stage of Germany from artifice to 
natural sentiment. Reichardt's interesting ac- 
count of his experiment and the reasons which 
led to it, will be found in the Allg. mus. Zeit- 
ung, 1801 (709-717). Strange and anomalous 
as such a thrusting of music into the midst 
of declamation may seem, the attempt was suc- 
cessful in Germany, as it had been in England fifty 
years before. The tunes could be recognised and 
enjoyed without effort, and the Liederspiel had 
a long popularity. After Reichardt, Himmel, 
Lortzing, Eberwein, and a number of other 
second-class writers composed Liederspiel which 
were very popular, and they even still are to be 
heard. — Mendelssohn often speaks of his ' Heim- 
kehr' (' Son and Stranger') as a Liederspiel, but 
that can only be by an extension of the phrase 
beyond its original meaning. [G.] 

LIEDERTAFEL, originally a society of men, 
who met together on fixed evenings for the prac- 
tice of vocal music in four parts, drinking forming 
part of the entertainment. They arose during 
the political depression caused by Napoleon's 
rule in Germany; and the first, consisting of 24 
members only, was founded by Zelter in Berlin, 
Dec. 28, 1808. Others soon followed at Frankfort 
and Leipzig, gradually relaxing the rules as to 
numbers. Bernhard Klein founded the ' Jiingeren 
Berliner Liedertafel,' which aimed at a higher 
standard of art. These societies gave an im- 
mense impetus to men's part-singing throughout 
Germany. Since the establishment of the Manner- 
gesangvereine proper (male singing societies), 
the word Liedertafel has come to mean a social 
gathering of the ' Verein,' t. e. a gathering of in- 
vited ladies and gentlemen, at which the mem- 
bers perform pieces previously learned. They 
are in fact informal concerts, where the guests 
move about, eat, drink, and talk as they please, 
provided they keep silence during the singing. 
The Liedertafeln of the large male singing so- 
cieties of Vienna, Munich, and Cologne, are 


pleasant and refined entertainments, not without 
a musical significance of their own. [F. G.] 

LIGATOSTIL (Ttal. Stile ligato), also called 
gebundener Stil, is the German term for what is 
called the strict style, as distinguished from the 
free style of musical composition. Its chief 
characteristic lies not so much in the fact that 
the notes are seldom or never detached, as that 
all dissonances are strictly prepared by means of 
tied notes. [F. T.] 

LIGATURE (Lat. Ligatura ; Ital. Legatura ; 
Fr. Liaison). A passage of two or more notes, 
sung to a single syllable. [See Notation.] 

In antient music-books, Ligatures are not in- 
dicated, as now, by slurs : but the form of the 
notes themselves is changed — sometimes, in a 
very puzzling manner. 

Three kinds of Ligatures are used in Plain 
Chaunt. In the first, and simplest, the notes are 
merely placed very close to each other, so as 
almost to touch, thus — 

Ex. 1. Written. 


F~j mmm r*= a 1 . V'i 

Ky - - - ri - e Ky --------- ri-e. 

In the second, used only for two notes, ascend- 
ing, they are 'bonded' — that is to say, written 
one over the other ; the lowest being always 
sung first — 
Ex.2. Written. 

g S 8 8 I 


In the third, used for two notes descending, 
they are joined together, so as to form an oblique 
figure, descending towards the right ; the upper 
end resting on the line or space denoting the first 
and highest of the two notes, and the lower, on 
that denoting the second, and lowest, thus — 

Ex.3. Written. 


In early times, the notes of Plain Chaunt were 
all of equal length. When, after the invention 
of Measured Music {Cantus mensurahilis), the 
Large, Long, Breve, and Semibreve, were 
brought into general use, a considerable modi- 
fication of the form and scope of the Ligature 
became necessary. Hence, we find Franco of 
Cologne, in the nth century, calling Ligatures 
beginning with a Breve, Ligatura cum proprie- 
tate ; those beginning with a Long, sine pro- 
prietate ; those beginning with a Semibreve, 
cum opposita proprietaie ; those in which the 
last note is a Long, Ligatura perfectm ; those in 
which the last note is a Breve, imperfecta:. 

In the Polyphonic Music of the 15th and 16th 
centuries, the form of the Ligatures varies 
greatly; and is, necessarily, very complex, since 
it concerns the relative duration of the notes, 
as well as their difference in pitch. A cata- 
logue of the strange figures found in antient 
MSS. would be interesting only to the anti- 
quary: but, as an intimate acquaintance with 
the more usual forms is absolutely indispensable 


to all who would learn how to score the great 
compositions of the 1 6th century from the ori- 
ginal Part-books, we subjoin a few examples of 
those which the student is likely to find most 
generally useful. 

Two square white notes, in ligature, without 
tails, are generally sung as Breves : the rule 
holding good, whether the notes are separately 
formed, or joined together in an oblique figure ; 
thus — 


Kx.4. Written. 



-fefci rf [ b i W - 


Sometimes, however, (but not always,) if the 
passage be a descending one, the notes are to be 
sung as Longs ; or, the first may be a Long, and 
the second, a Breve. But, this exception is a 
rare one ; and it is safer to assume that the strict 
rule is in force, unless the fitting together of the 
parts should prove the contrary. 

Kx. 5. Written. 


Sung (in a few rare eases). 


= =: 


Two square white notes, in ligature, with a 
tail descending on the right side, are Longs, 
whether they ascend, or descend, and whether 
they are separately formed, or joined into a 
single oblique figure. 

Kx. 6. Written. 



Two similar notes, with a tail descending on 
the left side, are Breves. 
Kx. 7. Written. Sung. 



Two such notes, with a tail ascending on the 
left side, are Semibreves. 

Ex. 8. Written. 


Ligatures of two notes, with a tail ascending 
on the left side, and another descending on the 
right, are to be sung — by a combination of Ex. 6 
and 8 — as a Semibreve, followed by a Long (Ex. 9). 

1a. 9. Written. Sung. Ex. 10. Written. Sung. 

yy— Brt-' < & 1 nyP-P^T — l ■^— C __I 

In Ligatures of more than two notes, all ex- 
cept the first two are most frequently treated as 
if they were not in ligature. Thus, in Pales- 
trina's Hymn, Ave Maris Stella, we find a Liga- 
ture of three square white notes, with a tail 
ascending on the left, sung as two Semibreves, 
and a Breve : that is to say, the first two notes are 
treated as in Ex. 8, while the third note retains 
its true length (Ex. 10). 

On this point, however, some early authorities 
di Her considerably. For instance, Ornithoparcus, 


writing in 1517, tells us that (1) Every middle 
note, however shaped, or placed, is a Breve; 
(2) A Long may begin, or end, a Ligature, but 
can never be used in the middle of it ; (3) A 
Breve may be used either in the beginning, 
middle, or end of a Ligature ; (4) A Semibreve 
may also be used in the beginning, middle, or 
end of a Ligature, if it have a tail ascending on 
the left. [See Micrologds, II.] 

Black square and lozenge-shaped notes, with- 
out tails, lose, when intermixed with white notes, 
one fourth of their value, whether they occur in 
ligature, or not. Thus, a black Semibreve is equal 
to three Crotchets only, or a dotted Minim — in 
which case it is always followed by a Crotchet ; 
as in Ex. 1 1 — 
Ex.11. Written. Sung. Ex.12. Written. Sung. 





But, a black Semibreve, following a black Breve, 
is shortened into a Minim, though the strict rule 
holds good with regard to the Breve (Ex. 1 2). 

There is often, indeed, a little uncertainty with 
regard to the degree in which a black note is to 
be shortened ; more especially, when the same 
Ligature contains both black and white notes — 
as in the following examples from Palestrina. 

Ex. 13. 






A very little experience will enable the student 
to discover the intention of such forms as these, 
at a glance. Though the three we have selected 
seem, at first sight, to offer unexpected complica- 
tions, it will be found, on closer examination, that 
the laws laid down with regard to Ex. 8, 10, 11, 
and 1 2, leave no doubt as to the correct solution 
of any one of them. Even when an oblique note is 
half white, and half black, it is only necessary to 
remember that each colour is subject to its own 
peculiar laws. 
Ex.14. Written. Sung. 

Cases, however, frequently occur, in which 
black notes are to be treated precisely as white 
ones. It is true, these passages are more often 
found in single notes, than in Ligatures ; but it 
is difficult, sometimes, to understand why they 
should have been introduced at all. 

Sometimes, a Ligature is accompanied by one 
or more Points of Augmentation, the position of 
which clearly indicates the notes to which they 
are to be applied. 










In some old printed books, the last note of a 
Ligature is placed obliquely, in which case it is 
always to be sung as a Breve. 

The student will meet with innumerable other 
forms, more or less difficult to decypher : but, 
those we have illustrated will be sufficient to 
guide him on his way, in all ordinary cases : and, in 
exceptional ones, he will find that long experience 
alone will be of service to him. [W.S.R.] 

torio in two parts ; the words compiled from the 
Scriptures, the music by Arthur S. Sullivan. 
Written for the Birmingham Festival, and first 
performed there Aug. 27, 1873. [G.] 

LILLIBURLERO. ' The following rhymes,' 
says Dr. Percy, ' slight and insignificant as they 
may now seem, had once a more powerful effect 
than either the Philippics of Demosthenes or 
Cicero ; and contributed not a little towards the 
great revolution of 1688.' Bishop Burnet says: 
' A foolish ballad was made at that time, treat- 
ing the papists, and chiefly the Irish, in a very 
ridiculous manner, which had a burden said to 
be Irish words, 'Lero, lero, liliburlero,' that 
made an impression on the [king's] army, that 
cannot be imagined by those that saw it not. 
The whole army, and at last the people both in 
city and country, were singing it perpetually. 
And perhaps never had so slight a thing so 
great an effect.' 

Henry Purcell, the composer of the tune, 
here receives no share of the credit, of which 
nine tenths, at least, belong to him. The song 
was first taken up by the army, because the tune 
was already familiar as a quick step to which 
the soldiers had been in the habit of marching. 
Then the catching air was repeated by others, 
and it has retained its popularity down to the 
present time. As the march and quick step 
have not been reprinted since 1686, although by 
Henry Purcell, it is well that, at last, they should 
reappear. The only extant copy of both is in 
The Delightful Companion : or, Choice New 
Lessons for the Becorder or Flute, 2nd edition, 
1686, oblong quarto. As this little book is 
engraved upon plates, and not set up in types, 
as then more usual, and this march and quick 
step are on sheet F, in the middle of the book, 
we may reasonably assume that they were in- 
cluded in the first edition also, which cannot be 
less than a year or two earlier in date. 

IQuick Step.] 

frr-tri-nt^tr \ r f ^4] 

* JL 





fff^ : , r 

f f 1- fr r r~r e 

nftrprr rp FfNl 

The words are the merest doggrel. They refer 
to King James's having nominated to the lieu- 
tenancy of Ireland, in 1686, General Talbot, 
newly created Earl of Tyrconnel, who had recom- 
mended himself to his bigoted master by his 
arbitrary treatment of the Protestants in the pre- 
ceding year, when he was only lieutenant-general. 
One stanza as sung to the tune may suffice. After 
that, the two lines of new words only are given. 

Ho ! broder Teague, dost hear de decree ? 

Litliburbro bulleu a la. 
Dat we shall have a new deputie. 
Lilliburlero bullen a la. 
Lero lero, UUi bnrlero, lero lero, bulleu a la, 
Lero lero, lilli burlero, lero lero, bullen a it. 
Ho ! by shaint Tyburn, it is de Talbote, 
And he will cut all de English troate. 
Dough by my shoul de English do praat, 
De law's on dare side, and Creish knows what. 
But if dispence do come from de pope, 
We'll hang Magna Charta, and dem in a rope : 
For de good Talbot is made a lord, 
And with brave lads is coming aboard : 
Who all in France have taken a sware 
Dat dey will have no protestant heir. 

Ara ! but why does he stay behind ? 

Ho ! by my shoul 'tis a protestant wind. 

But see, de Tyrconnel is now come ashore, 

And we shall have commissions gillore. 

And he dat will not go to mass 

Shall be turn out, and look like an ass. 

But now de hereticks all go down, 

By Creish and shaint Patrick, de nation's our own. 

Dare was an old prophesy found in a bog, 

'Ireland shall be rul'd by an ass, and a dog.' 

And now dis prophesy is come to pass, 

For Talbot's de dog, and Ja . . s is de ass. 

Such stuff as this would not have been toler- 
able without a good tune to carry it down. 
And yet Lord Wharton has had the entire 
credit : ' A late viceroy, who has so often boasted 
himself upon his talent for mischief, invention, 
lying, and for making a certain Lilliburlero 
song ; with which, if you will believe himself, he 
sung a deluded prince out of three kingdoms.' l 

From this political beginning Lilliburlero 

• A true relation of the several Facts and Circumstances of the 
Intended Riot and Tumult on Queen Elizabeth's Birthday. 3rd 
edit. 1712. 


became a party tune in Ireland, especially after 
' Dublin's Deliverance ; or the Surrender of 
Drogheda,' beginning 

Protestant boys, good tidings I bring, 
and ' Undaunted Londonderry,' commencing 

Protestant boys, both valiant and stout, 
had been written to it. 

It has long ago lost any party signification in 
England, but it was discontinued as a march in 
the second half of the last century, in order to 
avoid offence to our Irish soldiers of the Roman 
Catholic faith. 

The tune has been often referred to by drama- 
tists and by other writers, as by Shadwell and 
Vanbrugh in plays, and by Sterne in Tristram 
ShawJy. Purcell claims it as 'A new Irish 
tune ' by ' Mr. Purcell ' in the second part of 
Music 8 Handmaid, 1689, and in 1691 he used 
it as a ground-bass to the fifth piece in The 
Gordian Knot untyd. The first strain has been 
commonly sung as a chorus in convivial parties : 

A very good song, and very well sting, 
Jolly companions every one. 

And it is the tune to the nursery rhyme : 

There was an old woman toss'd np on a blanket 
Ninety -nine times as high as the moon. 

A large number of other songs have been written 
to the air at various times. [W.C.] 

LILT (Verb and Noun), to sing, pipe, or play 
cheerfully, or, according to one authority, even 
sadly ; also, a gay tune. The term, which is of 
Scottish origin, but is used in Ireland, would 
seem to be derived from the bagpipe, one variety 
of which is described in the ' Houlate ' (an an- 
cient allegorical Scottish poem dating 1450), as 
the ' Liltpype.' Whenever, in the absence of a 
musical instrument to play for dancing, the Irish 
peasant girls sing lively airs to the customary 
syllables la-la-la, it is called ' lilting.' The classi- 
cal occurrence of the word is in the Scottish song, 
' The Flowers of the Forest,' a lament for the 
disastrous field of Flodden, where it is contrasted 
with a mournful tone : — 

I 've heard them liltin' at the ewe milkm', 

Lasses a liltin' before dawn of day ; 
Now there's a moanin' on ilka green loanin', 

The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 

The Skene MS., ascribed (though not 'con- 
clusively) to the reign of James VI. of Scotland, 
contains six Lilts : ' Ladie Rothemayeis ' (the air 
to the ballad of the Burning of Castle Frin- 
draught), ' Lady Laudians ' (Lothian's), ' Ladie 
Cassilles ' (the air of the ballad of Johnny Faa), 
Lesleis, Aderneis, and Gilcreich's Lilts. We 
quote 'Ladie Cassilles' : — 
, Slotc. 




tiff Vtjr.rr rff^ 

' See Mr.Cliupj.ell's criticisms, ■ lopular Music,' p. 614. 

Mr. Dauney, editor of the Skene MS., supposes 
the Liltpipe to have been a shepherd's pipe, not 
a bagpipe, and the Lilts to have sprung from the 
pastoral districts of the Lowlands. [R.P.S.] 

LILY OF KILLARNEY. A grand opera in 
3 acts, founded on Boucicault's ' Colleen Bawn' ; 
the words by John Oxenford, the music by Jule* 
Benedict. Produced at the Royal English Opera r 
Covent Garden, Feb. 8, 1862. [G.] 

LIMPUS, Richard, organist, born Sept. 10, 
1824, was a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music,, 
and organist successively of Brentford ; of St. 
Andrew's, Undershaft ; and St. Michael's, Corn- 
hill. He composed a good deal of minor music, 
but his claim to remembrance is as founder of 
the College of Organists, which owing to his zeal 
and devotion was established in 1 864. He was 
secretary to the College till his death, March 15, 
1875. [See Obganists, College of.] [G.] 

LINCKE, 2 Joseph, eminent cellist and com- 
poser, born June 8, 1783, at Trachenberg in 
Prussian Silesia ; learnt the violin from his- 
father, a violinist in the chapel of Prince Hatz- 
feld, and the cello from Oswald. A mismanaged 
sprain of the right ancle left him lame for life. 3 
At 10 he lost his parents, and was obliged to 
support himself by copying music, until in 1800 
he- procured a place as violinist in the Domi- 
nican convent at Breslau. There he studied the 
organ and harmony under Hanisch, and also 
pursued the cello under Lose, after whose depar- 
ture he became first cellist at the theatre, of 
which C. M. von Weber was then Capellmeister. 
In 1808 he went to Vienna, and was engaged by 
Prince Rasoumowsky* for his private quartet- 
party, at the suggestion of Schuppanzigh. In 
that house, where Beethoven was supreme, he- 
had the opportunity of playing the great com- 
poser's works under his own supervision. 6 Bee- 
thoven was much attached to Lincke, and 
continually calls him ' Zunftmeister violoncello,' 
or some other droll name, in his letters. The 
Imperial library at Berlin 6 contains a comic 
canon in Beethoven's writing on the names 
Brauchle and Lincke. 

ga j^jji/jj^ iHcc pe 

Brauchle + 

nek?, Lincke. 


g c g g 1 \ : jg 1 1 |g \ \ 1 

Brauchle -f- -f 

Ll - - ncke, Lincke. 

The two Sonatas for P. F. and Cello (op. 102) 
were composed by Beethoven while he and 
Lincke were together at the Erdodys in 1815. 7 

Lincke played in Schuppanzigh's public quar- 
tets, and Schuppanzigh in turn assisted Lincke 
at his farewell concert, when the programme 
consisted entirely of Beethoven's music, and the 

2 Be always wrote his name thus, though It Is usually spelled Linke. 

* It Is perhaps in allusion to this that Bernard writes. ' Lincke has 
only one fault— that he Is crooked ' (krumm). 

* Weiss played the viola, and the Prince the second violin. 
8 Compare Thayer's Beethoven, ill. 49. 

« See Nohl's Beethoven's Brtefe, 1867, p. 92. note. 
' £ee'lhayer. iii. S43. 



great composer himself was present. His play- 
ing appears to have been remarkable for its 
humour, and he is said to have been peculiarly 
happy in expressing Beethoven's characteristic 
style, whence no doubt the master's fondness 
for him. 1 He then went to Gratz, and from 
thence to Pancovecz near Agram, the residence 
of Countess Erdody, as her chamber-virtuoso, 
where he remained a year and a half. In 
1818 he was engaged by Freiherr von Braun 
as first cellist in the theatre ' an der Wien,' and 
in 1 83 1 played with Merk, the distinguished 
cellist, in the orchestra of the court-opera. He 
died on March 26, 1837. His compositions 
consist of concertos, variations, capriccios, etc., 
his first 3 works only (variations) having been 
published. [C.F.P.] 

stood nearly in the centre of the south side of 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, the principal entrance being 
in Portugal Street. It was erected by Christo- 
pher Rich, and opened (after his death) in 17 14 
by his son, John Rich, with Farquhar's comedy, 
' The Recruiting Officer.' Here Rich first in- 
troduced his pantomimes, a curious mixture of 
masque and harlequinade, in which he himself, 
under the name of Lun, performed the part of 
Harlequin. Galliard was his composer, and 
Pepusch his music director. [Gallia kd ; Pe- 
pusch.] Here 'The Beggar's Opera' was first 
produced in 1727. [Beggar's Opera.] Rich 
removing in 1732 to the new theatre in Covent 
Garden, the house in Lincoln's Inn Fields was 
let for a variety of purposes. Here in 1734 
Italian operas were given, in opposition to Han- 
del's at the King's Theatre, with Porpora as 
composer and Senesino as principal singer ; and 
here, when Handel was compelled to quit the 
King's Theatre, he, in his turn, gave Italian 
operas, and also, occasionally, oratorio perform- 
ances. His ' Dryden's Ode on St. Cecilia's day ' 
was first performed here in 1739, and in 1740 
his 'L' Allegro, II Pensieroso, ed II Moderate, ' 
his serenata ' Parnasso in Festa,' and his oper- 
etta 'Hymen.' Plays were occasionally per- 
formed here until 1756, when the building was 
converted into a barrack. It was afterwards 
occupied as Spode and Copeland's ' Salopian 
China Warehouse,' until it was taken down in 
1848 for the enlargement of the College of Sur- 
geons. This theatre must not be confounded 
with two others which previously stood near the 
same spot, viz. the Duke's Theatre, erected by 
Sir William Davenant in 1662, and occupied 
until 167X1 when the company removed to 
Dorset Garden Theatre, and the Theatre in 
Little Lincoln's Inn Fields, built upon the same 
site and opened in 1695 with Congreve's 'Love 
for Love,' and occupied until the company re- 
moved to the Queen's Theatre in 1 705, when it 
was abandoned. [King's Theatre.] [W.H.H]. 

LIND, Jenny, was born at-Stockholm Oct. 6, 
1820 (not, as Fe'tis says, on Feb. 8). Count 
Puke, director of the Court Theatre, admitted 

» Sec the ' Xeue Zeitschrift far Muslk,' 1837, No. 32. 


her to the school of singing which is attached to 
that establishment, and she received there her 
first lessons from a master named Berg. She 
made her debut at the Opera in her native city, 
in March 1838, as Agatha in Weber's ' Frei- 
schiitz,' and played afterwards the principal rule 
in 'Euryantne,' Alice in ' Robert !e Diable,' and 
finally 'La Vestale,' all with brilliant success. 
In fact, 'she upheld the Royal Theatre until 
June 1 841, when she went to Paris in hope of 
improving her style of singing.' There Manuel 
Garcia gave her lessons, during a period of nine 
months, but 'she herself mainly contributed to 
the development of her naturally harsh and un- 
bending voice, by ever holding before herself the 
ideal which she had formed from a very early 
age. She had been wont to sing to her mother's 
friends from her third year ; and, even at that 
period, the intense feeling of melancholy, almost 
natural to all Swedes, which filled her young 
soul, gave to her voice an expression which drew 
tears from the listeners.' Meyerbeer, who hap- 
pened to be at Paris at the time, heard her, was 
delighted, and foretold a brilliant future for the 
young singer. She obtained a hearing at the 
Opera in 1842, but no engagement followed. 
Naturally hurt at this, she is said to have deter- 
mined never to accept an engagement in Paris ; 
and, whether this be true or not, it is certain 
that, as late as March 1847, she declined an 
engagement at the Academic Royale, for no other 
reason than that of ' affaires pensonelles ; ' nor did 
she ever appear in Paris again. 

Jenny Lind now went to Berlin, in August 1 844, 
and for a time studied German. In September 
she returned to Stockholm, and took part in the 
fetes at the crowning of King Oscar; but re- 
turned to Berlin in October, and obtained an 
engagement at the Opera through the influence 
of Meyerbeer, who had written for her the 
principal rdle in his 'Feldlager in Schlesien,' 
afterwards remodelled as ' L'Etoile du Nord.' 
She appeared first, December 15, as Norma, and 
was welcomed with enthusiasm ; and afterwards 
played, with equal success, her part in Meyerbeer's 
new opera. In the following April she sang at 
Hamburg, Cologne, and Coblentz. After this tour 
she returned again to Stockholm by way of Copen- 
hagen, and once more enjoyed a triumphant suc- 
cess. At the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, she made her 
first appearance Dec. 6, 1 845 . Engaged soon after 
for Vienna, she appeared there April 18, 1846. 

On May 4, 1847, Jenny Lind made her first 
appearance in London, at Her Majesty's Theatre, 
in ' Robert.' Moscheles had already met her in 
Berlin, and wrote thus (Jan. 10, 1845) of her 
performance in ' The Camp of Silesia,' — ' Jenny 
Lind has fairly enchanted me ; she is unique in 
her way, and her song with two concertante 
flutes is perhaps the most incredible feat in the 
way of bravura singing that can possibly be 
heard ... How lucky I was to find her at 
home ! What a glorious singer she is, and so 
unpretentious withal ! ' This character, though 
true to life, was, however, shamefully belied by 
the management of the London Theatre, both 


before and after her arrival. It is curious now 
to look back upon the artifices employed, the 
stories of broken contracts (this not without 
some foundation), of long diplomatic^OMrparZers, 
special messengers, persuasion, hesitation, and 
vacillations, kept up during many months, — all 
in order to excite the interest of the operatic 
public. Not a stone was left unturned, not a 
trait of the young singer's character, public or 
private, unexploite, by which sympathy, admira- 
tion, or even curiosity, might be aroused (see 
Lumley's ' Reminiscences,' 1847). After appear- 
ing as the heroine of a novel (' The Home,' by 
Miss Bremer), and the darling of the Opera at 
Stockholm, she was next described as entrancing 
the opera-goers of Berlin, — where indeed she was 
doubtless a welcome contrast to their ordinary 
prime donne ; and her praises had been sung by 
the two great German composers, and had not 
lost by translation. But, not content with 
fulsome praise founded on these circumstances, 
the para«jraphists, inspired of course by those for 
whose interest the paragraphs were manufactured, 
and assuredly without her knowledge or sanction, 
did not hesitate to speak in the most open way, — 
and as if in commendation of her as a singer, and 
above other singers, — of Mile. Lind's private 
virtues, and even of her charities. Singers have 
ever been charitable, generous, open-handed and 
open-hearted ; to their credit be it recorded : 
the exceptions have been few. With their private 
virtues critics have nought to do ; these should 
be supposed to exist, unless the contrary be 
glaringly apparent. The public was, however, 
persistently fed with these advertisements and 
harassed with further rumours of doubts and 
even disappointment in the early part of 1847, it 
being actually stated that the negotiations had 
broken down, — all after the engagement had 
been signed and sealed ! 

The interest and excitement of the public at 
her first appearance was, therefore, extraordinary; 
and no wonder that it was so. Yet her great sing- 
ing in the part of 'Alice' disappointed none but 
a very few, and those were silenced by a tumul- 
tuous majority of idolators. She certainly sang 
the music splendidly, and acted the part irre- 
proachably. The scene at the cross in the second 
act was in itself a complete study, so strongly 
contrasted were the emotions she portrayed, — 
first terror, then childlike faith and confidence, — 
while she preserved, throughout, the innocent 
manner of the peasant girl. ' From that first 
moment till the end of that season, nothing else 
was thought about, nothing else talked about, 
but the new Alice — the new Sonnambula — the 
new Maria in Donizetti's charming comic opera, 
— his best. Pages could be filled by describing 
the excesses of the public. Since the days when 
the world fought for hours at the pit-door to see 
the seventh farewell of Siddons, nothing had been 
seen in the least approaching the scenes at the 
entrance of the theatre when Mile. Lind sang. 
Prices rose to a fabulous height. In short, the 
town, sacred and profane, went mad about " the 
Swedish nightingale" ' (Chorley). Ladies con- 



stantly sat on the stairs at the Opera, unable to 
penetrate further into the house. Her voice, 
which then at its very best showed some signs of 
early wear, was a soprano of bright, thrilling, 
and remarkably sympathetic quality, from D to 
D, with another note or two occasionally avail- 
able above the high D. The upper part of her 
register was rich and brilliant, and superior 
both in strength and purity to the lower. 
These two portions she managed, however, 
to unite in the most skilful way, moderating 
the power of her upper notes so as not to out- 
shine the lower. She had also a wonderfully, 
developed 'length of breath,' which enabled her 
to perform long and difficult passages with ease, 
and to fine down her tones to the softest pianis- 
simo, while still maintaining the quality un- 
varied. Her execution was very great, her shake 
true and brilliant, her taste in ornament altogether 
original, and she usually invented her own ca- 
denze. In a song from ' Beatrice di Tenda,' she 
had a chromatic cadence ascending to E in alt, 
and descending to the note whence it had risen, 
which could scarcely be equalled for difficulty 
and perfection of execution. The following, sung 
by her at the end of ' Ah ! non giunge,' was given 
to the present writer by an ear-witness : — 




In this comparatively simple cadenza, the high 
D, C, E, though rapidly struck, were not given 
in the manner of a shake, but were positively 
marteUes, and produced an extraordinary effect. 
Another cadence, which, according to Moscheles, 
' electrified' them at the Gewandhaus, occurred 
three times in one of Chopin's Mazurkas ; — 








' What shall I say of Jenny Lind ?' he writes 
again (1847) : ' I can find no words adequate to 
give you any real idea of the impression she ha3 
made. . . . This is no short-lived fit of public 
enthusiasm. I wanted to know her off the stage 
as well as on ; but, as she lives some distance 
from me, I asked her in a letter to fix upon 
an hour for me to call. Simple and uncere- 
monious as she is, she came the next day herself, 
bringing her answer verbally. So much modesty 
and so much greatness united are seldom if ever 
to be met with ; and, although her intimate 
friend Mendelssohn had given me an insight 
into the noble qualities of her character,! waa 
surprised to find them so apparent.' Again and 
again he speaks in the warmest terms of her, and 
subsequently of her and her husband together. . 
Meanwhile Mile. Lind maintained the mark 
which she had made in ' Robert,' by her imper- 



sonation of the Sonnnmbula, a most effective 
character, — ' Lucia,' Aditia, in ' L'Elisir,' ' La 
Figlia del Regiinento,' and, perhaps, altogether 
her best part, Giulia in Spontini's ' Vestale.' 
In 1848 she returned to Her Majesty's Theatre, 
and added to these 'Lucia di Lammermoor' and 
'L'Elisir d'Amore.' In 1849 she announced 
her intention not to appear again on the stage, 
but so far modified this resolution as to sing at 
Her Majesty's Theatre in Mozart's 'Flauto 
Magico' arranged as a concert, without acting 
(April 15); and still further by re-appearing in 
' La Sonnambula' (April 26) and 3 other operas. 
Her last appearance 'on any stage' took place 
in 'Roberto,' May 18, 1849. Henceforward she 
betook herself to the more congenial platform of 
the concert-room. How she sang there, many of 
the present generation can still remember, — ' the 
wild, queer, northern tunes brought here by 
her — her careful expression of some of Mozart's 
great airs — her mastery over such a piece of 
execution as the Bird song in Haydn's Crea- 
tion — and lastly, the grandeur of inspiration 
with which the "Sanctus" of angels in Mendels- 
sohn's " Elijah " was led by her (the culminating 
point in that Oratorio). These are the triumphs 
which will stamp her name in the Golden Book 
of singers' (Chorley). On the other hand, the 
wondrous effect with which she sang a simple 
ballad, in the simplest possible manner, can never 
be forgotten by those who ever heard it. After 
another season in London, and a visit to Ireland 
in 1848, Mile. Lind was engaged by Barnum, 
the American speculator, to make a tour of the 
United States. She arrived there in 1850, and 
remained for nearly two years, during part of 
the time unfettered by an engagement with any 
impresario, but accompanied by Mr., now Sir 
Julius, Benedict. The Americans, with their 
genius for appreciation and hospitality, welcomed 
her everywhere with frantic enthusiasm, and she 
made £20,000 in this progress. Here it was, in 
Boston, on Feb. 5, 1852, that she married Mr. 
Otto Goldschmidt. [Goldschmidt.] 

Returned to Europe, Mme. Goldschmidt now 
travelled through Holland, and again visited 
Germany. In 1856 she came once more to 
England, and, until recent years, appeared fre- 
quently in oratorios and concerts. 

It must be recorded that the whole of her 
American earnings was devoted to founding and 
endowing art-scholarships and other charities in 
her native Sweden ; while, in England, the 
country of her adoption, among other charities, 
she has given a whole hospital to .Liverpool and 
a wing of another to London. The scholarship 
founded in memory of her friend Felix Mendels- 
sohn also benefited largely by her help and 
countenance ; and it may be said with truth that 
her generosity and her sympathy are never ap- 
pealed to in vain by those who have any just claims 
upon them. [Mendelssohn Scholarship.] 

Madame Lind-Goldschmidt now lives in Lon- 
don, respected and admired by all who know 
her, the mother of a family, mixing in society, 
but in no degree losing her vivid interest in 


music. The Bach Choir, conducted by Mr. 
Goldschmidt, which has lately given the Eng- 
lish public the first opportunity of hearing in 
its entirety the B minor Mass of that composer, 
has profited in no small degree by the careful 
training bestowed on the female portion of the 
chorus by this great singer, and the enthusiasm 
inspired by her presence among them. [J.M.] 
LINDA DI CHAMOUNI. Opera in 3 acts; 
words by Rossi, music by Donizetti. Produced 
at the Karnthnerthor theatre, Vienna, May 19, 
1842; in Paris, Nov. 17, 1842; in London, at 
Her Majesty's, June 1 843. [G.'J 

LINDBLAD, Adolf Fredrick, born near 
Stockholm in 1804. This Swedish composer 
passed several years of his early life in Berlin, 
and studied music there under Zelter. In 1 835 
he returned to Stockholm and there resided, 
giving singing lessons and composing until hi3 
death in August 1878. 

Lindblad has composed but little instrumental 
music ; a symphony in C which was given under 
Mendelssohn's direction at one of the Gewand- 
haus Concerts at Leipzig in November 1839, and 
a duo for pianoforte and violin (op. 9) are con- 
sidered the best, but they aim so little at effect 
and are so full of the peculiar personality of their 
author that they can never be popular, and even 
his own countrymen are not familiar with them. 
It is his vocal compositions which have made 
him famous. He is eminently a national com- 
poser. He has published a large collection of 
songs for voice and piano to Swedish words, 
which are full of melody, grace, and originality. 
Written for the most part in the minor key, they 
are tinged with the melancholy which is charac- 
teristic of Swedish music. In such short songs 
as 'The Song of the Dalecarlian maiden,' 
' Lament/ ' The wood by the Aaren lake,' etc., 
whose extreme simplicity is of the very essence 
of their charm, his success has been most con- 
spicuous. In longer and more elaborate songs, 
where the simplicity at which he aimed in his 
accompaniment has limited the variety of har- 
mony and figures, the effect is often marred by 
repetition and consequent monotony. Yet even 
in this class of work there are many beautiful 
exceptions, and 'A day in Spring,' 'A Summer's 
day,' and 'Autumn evening,' are specially worthy 
of mention. 

Jenny Lind, who was Lindblad's pupil, intro- 
duced his songs into Germany, and their rapidly 
acquired popularity earned for the author the 
title of 'the Schubert of the North.' His only 
opera, 'Frondororne,' is scarcely known anywhere, 
but several of his vocal duets, trios, and quartets 
have a considerable reputation in Sweden. 

An analysis of Lindblad's Symphony will be 
found in the Allg. Mus. Zeitung for Oct. 23, 1839 
(comp. col. 937 of the same volume). There is a 
pleasant reference to him, honourable to both 
parties alike, in Mendelssohn's letter of Dec. 28, 
1833. [A.H.W.] 

LINDLEY, Robert, born at Rotherham 
March 4, 1776, showed bo early a predilection 


for music that when he was ahout 5 years of 
age, his father, an amateur performer, commenced 
teaching him the violin, and at 9 years of age, 
the violoncello also. He continued to practise 
the latter until he was 16, when Cervetto, hear- 
ing him play, encouraged him and undertook his 
gratuitous instruction. He quitted Yorkshire 
and obtained an engagement at the Brighton 
theatre. In 1794 he succeeded Sperati as prin- 
cipal violoncello at the Opera and all the princi- 
pal concerts, and retained undisputed possession 
of that position until his retirement in 1851. 
Lindley's tone was remarkable for its purity, 
richness, mellowness and volume, and in this 
respect he has probably never been equalled. 
His technique, for that date, was remarkable, 
and his accompaniment of recitative was perfec- 
tion. He composed several concertos and other 
works for his instrument, but his composition was 
by no means equal to his execution. He died 
June 13, 1855. His daughter married John 
Barnett the composer. 

His son, William, born 1802, was also a 
violoncellist. He was a pupil of his father and 
first appeared in public in 1817 and soon took a 
position in all the best orchestras. He gave 
great promise of future excellence, but was un- 
able to achieve any prominence owing to extreme 
nervousness. He died at Manchester, Aug. 12, 
1869. [W.H.H.] 

LINDPAINTNER, Peter Joseph von, born 
at Coblenz Dec. 8, 1 791, studied the violin, piano, 
and counterpoint at Augsburg, and subsequently 
appears to have received some instruction at 
Munich from Winter. In 18 12 he accepted the 
po^t of Musik-director at the Isarthor theatre in 
Munich, and whilst so engaged completed his 
musical studies under Jos. Griitz, an excellent 
contrapuntist. In 1 819 he was appointed Kapell- 
meister to the Royal Band at Stuttgart, and held 
that post until his death, which took place Aug. 
■2!, 1856, during a summer holiday at Nonnen- 
horn, on the Lake of Constance. He was buried 
at Wasserburg. He died full of honours, a 
member of almost every musical institution of 
the Continent, and the recipient of gifts from 
many crowned heads — amongst others a medal 
from Queen Victoria, in 1 848, for the dedication 
of his oratorio of Abraham. 

By quiet and persistent labour he raised his 
baud to the level of the best in Germany, and 
acquired a very high reputation. ' Lindpaintner,' 
Uyi Mendelssohn, describing a visit to Stuttgart 
in 1831, 'is in my belief the best conductor in 
Germany ; it is as if he played the whole orches- 
tra with his baton alone ; and he ia very indus- 
trious.' Of the many professional engagements 
offered him in other towns and foreign countries, 
he accepted but one, and that, in 1853, three 
years before his death, was to conduct the New 
Philharmonic Concerts in London, at which his 
cantata The Widow of Nain, his overtures to 
Faust and the Vampyre, and others of his com- 
positions were given with success, including the 
song of The Standard-bearer, at that time so 
popular, sung by Pischek. He wrote 28 operas, 



3 ballets, 5 melodramas and oratorios, several 
cantatas, 6 masses, a Stabat Mater, and above 50 
songs with pianoforte accompaniment. To these 
were added symphonies, overtures, concertos, fan- 
tasias, trios and quartets for different instruments. 
He rescored Judas Maccabteus, no doubt cleverly, 
and at the time it was said, well. Some of his 
symphonies, his operas 'DerVampyr' and 'Lich- 
tenstein,' his ballet ' Joko,' the overture to which 
is still heard at concerts, his music to Goethe's 
' Faust ' and Schiller's ' Song of the Bell,' have been 
pronounced to be among the best of his works. 
And two of his songs, 'The Standard-bearer' and 
'Roland,' created at the time a veritable furore. 

Though wanting in depth and originality Lind- 
paintner's compositions please by their clearness 
and brilliancy, melody and well-developed form ; 
and the hand of a clever and practised musician 
is everywhere visible in them. [A. H.W.I 

LINLEY, Francis, born 1774 at Doncaster, 
blind from his birth, studied music under Dr. 
Miller, and became an able organist. He was 
chosen organist of St. James's Chapel, Penton- 
ville, and soon afterwards married a blind lady 
of considerable fortune. He purchased the 
business of Bland, the musicseller in Holborn, 
but his affairs becoming embarrassed, his wife 
parted from him and he went to America, where 
his playing and compositions were much admired. 
He returned to England in 1 799 and died in Oct. 
1800. His works consist of songs, pianoforte 
and organ pieces, flute solos and duets, and an 
' Organ Tutor.' His greatest amusement was to 
explore churchyards and read the inscriptions on 
the tombstones by the sense of touch. [W.H.H.] 

LINLEY, Thomas, born about 1725 at Wells, 
Somerset, commenced the study of music under 
Thomas Chilcot, organist of Bath Abbey church, 
and completed his education under Paradies. He 
established himself as a singing master at Bath, 
and for many years carried on the concerts there 
with great success. On the retirement of John 
Christopher Smith in 1774 Linley joined Stanley 
in the management of the oratorios at Drury 
Lane, and on the death of Stanley in 1 786 con- 
tinued them in partnership with Dr. Arnold. In 
1775, in conjunction with his eldest son, Thomas, 
he composed and compiled the music for 'The 
Duenna,' by his son-in-law, Sheridan, which had 
the then unparalleled run of 75 nights in its first 
season. In 1776 he purchased part of Garrick's 
share in Drury Lane, removed to London and un- 
dertook the management of the music of the 
theatre, for which he composed several pieces of 
merit. Linley died at his house in Southampton 
Street, Covent Garden, Nov. 19, 1795, and was 
buried in Wells Cathedral. His dramatic pieces 
were 'The Duenna,' 1775; 'Selima and Azor' 
(chiefly from G retry, but containing the charming 
original melody, 'No flower that blows'), 1776 ; 
'The Camp,' 1778; 'The Carnival of Venice,* 
'The Gentle Shepherd,' and ' Robinson Crusoe,' 
1 781; 'The Triumph of Mirth,' 1782; 'The 
Spanish Rivals,' 1784 ; "The Strangers at home,' 
and 'Richard Cceur de Lion' (fromGretry), 1786 ; 
and 'Love in the East,' 1788; besides the song 



in "The School for Scandal,' 1777, and accom- 
paniments to the songs in ' The Beggar's Opera.' 
He also set such portions of Sheridan's Monody 
on the Death of Garrick, 1 779, as were intended to 
be sung. ' Six Elegies ' for 3 voices, composed at 
Bath (much commended by Bumey), and 'Twelve 
Ballads' were published in his lifetime. The 
posthumous works of himself and his son, Thomas, 
which appeared a few years after his death, in 2 
vols., consist of songs, cantatas, madrigals, and 
elegies, including the lovely 5-part madrigal by 
him, 'Let me, careless,' one of the most graceful 
productions of its kind. As an English composer 
Linley takes high rank. 

Eliza Ann, his eldest daughter, ' The Maid of 
Bath,' born 1754, received her musical education 
from her father, and appeared at an early age at 
the Bath concerts as a soprano singer with great 
success. In 1770 she sang at the oratorios in 
London and at Worcester Festival, and rose high 
in public favour. In 1771 she sang at Hereford 
Festival, and in 1772 at Gloucester. In March, 
1773, she became, under somewhat romantic cir- 
cumstances, the wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 
and, after fulfilling engagements at Worcester 
Festival and at Oxford, contracted before her 
marriage, she retired at the zenith of her popu- 
larity. Her voice was of extensive compass, and 
she sang with equal excellence in both the sus- 
tained and florid styles. She died of consumption 
at Bristol in 1792. 

Mary, his second daughter and pupil, also a 
favourite singer, sang with her sister at the 
oratorios, festivals, etc., and for a few years after- 
wards, until her marriage with Richard Tickell, 
commissioner of stamps. She died in July 1 787. 

Maria, his third daughter, was also a concert 
and oratorio singer. Shedied at Bath Sept. 5, 1 784, 
at an early age. Shortly before her death she 
raised herself in bed, and with momentary anima- 
tion sang part of Handel's air ' I know that my 
Redeemer liveth,' and then, exhausted with the 
effort, sank down and soon afterwards expired. 

Thomas, his eldest son, born at Bath in 1756, 
displayed at an early age extraordinary skill on 
the violin, and at 8 years old performed a con- 
certo in public. After studying with his father 
he was placed under Dr. Boyce. He then went 
to Florence and took lessons on the violin from 
Nardini, and whilst there became acquainted 
with Mozart, then about his own age, and a 
warm attachment sprang up between them ; when 
they parted they were each bathed in tears, and 
Mozart often afterwards spoke of Linley with the 
greatest affection. On returning to England he 
became leader and solo-player at his father's 
concerts at Bath, and subsequently at the oratorios 
etc. at Drury Lane. In 1773 he composed an 
anthem with orchestra (' Let God arise' ) for 
Worcester Festival. In 1775 he assisted his 
father in ' The Duenna,' by writing the overture, 
three or four airs, a duet and a trio. He subse- 
quently composed a chorus and two songs for in- 
troduction into 'The Tempest.' In 1776 he pro- 
duced 'An Ode on the Witches and Fairies of 
Shakspere.' He also composed a short oratorio, 


'The Song of Moses,' performed at Drury Lane, 
and added accompaniments for wind instruments 
to the music in ' Macbeth.' He was unfortunately 
drowned, through the upsetting of a boat, whilst 
on a visit at the Duke of Ancaster's, Grimsthorpe, 
Lincolnshire, Aug. 7, 1778. The greater part of 
his miscellaneous compositions are contained in 
the 2 vols, of posthumous works above mentioned. 

Another son, Ozias Thurston, born 1765, was 
also instructed in music by the father. He en- 
tered the Church and obtained a living, which 
he resigned on being appointed, May 5, 18 16, 
a junior fellow and organist of Dulwich College, 
where he died March, 1831. 

William, his youngest son, born about 1767 
and educated at St. Paul's and Harrow, learned 
music from his father and Abel. Mr. Fox pro- 
cured for him a writership at Madras, and he 
was subsequently paymaster at Vellore and sub- 
treasurer at Fort St. George. He returned from 
India with a competence, and devoted his atten- 
tion to literature and music, composed many 
glees, published a set of songs, two sets of canzo- 
nets, and many detached pieces, edited 'Shak- 
spere's Dramatic Songs,' 2 vols. fol. 1815-16, and 
wrote two comic operas, two novels, and several 
pieces of poetry. He died in 1835. [W.H.H.] 

LIPINSKI, Karl Joseph, eminent violinist 
of the modern school, born Oct. 30 (or ac- 
cording to a family tradition Nov. 4), 1790, at 
Radzyn in Poland, son of a land agent and 
amateur violinist, who taught him the elements 
of fingering. Having outgrown this instruction 
he for a time took up the cello, on which he ad- 
vanced sufficiently to play Romberg's concertos. 
He soon however returned to the violin, and 
in 1 8 10 became first Concertmeister, and then 
Capellmeister, of the theatre at Lemberg. Not 
being able to play the piano, he used to lead the 
rehearsals with his violin, and thus acquired 
that skill in part playing which was one of his 
great characteristics as a virtuoso. In 18 14 he 
resigned his post, and gave himself up to private 
study. In 18 17 he went to Italy, chiefly in the 
hope of hearing Paganini. They met in Milan, and 
Paganini took a great fancy to him, played with him 
daily, and even performed in public with him at 
two concerts (April 17 and 30, 181 8), a circum- 
stance which greatly increased Lipinski's reputa- 
tion. Towards the close of the year Lipinski re- 
turned to Germany, but soon went back to Italy, 
attracted by the fame of an aged pupil of Tartini's, 
Dr. Mazzurana. Dissatisfied with Lipinski's 
rendering of one of Tartini's sonatas, but unable 
on account of his great age (90) to correct him 
by playing it himself, Mazzurana gave him a 
poem, which he had written to explain the 
master's intentions. With this aid Lipinski ' 
mastered the sonata, and in consequence endea- 
voured for the future to embody some poetical 
idea in his playing — the secret of his own suc- 
cess, and of that of many others who imitated 
him in this respect. In 1829 Paganini and Li- 
pinski met again in Warsaw, but unfortunately 
a rivalry was excited between them which de- 
stroyed the old friendship. In 1835 and 36, in 


the course of a lengthened musical tourn&e, he 
visited Leipsic, then becoming the scene of much 
musical activity owing to Mendelssohn's settle- 
ment there ; and there he made the acquaint- 
ance of Schumann, which resulted in the dedi- 
cation to him of the 'Carneval* (op. 9) which 
was composed in 1834. In 1836 he visited 
England and played his military concerto at the 
Philharmonic Concert of April 25. In 1 8 39 Lipin- 
ski became Concertmeister at Dresden, where he 
entirely reorganised the royal chapel, thus doing 
very much the same service to Dresden that 
Hellmesberger subsequently did to Vienna. He 
retired with a pension in 186 1, and died on 
December 16, of sudden paralysis of the lungs, 
at Urlow, his country house near Lemberg. 

His compositions (now forgotten) are numerous, 
and his concertos, fantasias, and variations, are 
valuable contributions to violin music. One of the 
best known was the ' Military Concerto, ' which for 
years was much played and was the object of the 
ambition of many a student of the violin. It is 
even now occasionally heard in public. In con- 
junction with Zalewski, the Polish poet, he edited 
an interesting collection of Galician ' Volkslieder' 
with pianoforte accompaniments. [F. G.] 

The most prominent qualities of Lipinski's 
playing were a remarkably broad and powerful 
tone, which he ascribed to his early studies on 
the cello; perfect intonation in double stops, 
octaves, etc.; and a warm enthusiastic indivi- 
duality. But the action of his right arm and 
wrist were somewhat heavy. He was an enthu- 
siastic musician, and especially in his later years 
played Beethoven's great quartets and Bach's 
solos in preference to everything else. [P.D.] 
LISBETH. The title of the French version 
of Mendelssohn's ' Heimkehr aus der Fremde ' ; 
translated by J. Barbier, and produced at the 
Theatre Lyrique June 9, 1865. [G.] 

in 1 act ; words by Paul Dubois, music by Offen- 
bach. Produced at Ems ; and reproduced at the 
Bouffes-Parisiens, Paris, Jan. 5, 1864 ; in London 
(French), at St. James's, June 2, 1868. [G.] 
LISLEY, John, contributed a six-part mad- 
rigal — 'Faire Citharea presents hir doves' — to 
'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, but no other 
composition by him has survived, nor is anything 
known of his biography. [W. H. H.] 

LISZT, Franz, is one of the favourites of 
fortune, and his success is perhaps unequalled, 
certainly unsurpassed in the history of Art. At 
his first public appearance at Vienna, Jan. 1, 
1823, his genius was acknowledged with an 
enthusiasm in which the whole musical republic, 
from Beethoven down to the obscurest dilettante, 
joined unanimously. His concert tours were so 
many triumphal progresses through a country 
which extended from Madrid to St. Petersburg, 
and in which he was acknowledged as the king 
of pianists ; and the same success accompanied all 
he undertook in life. When, tired of the shallow 
fame of the virtuoso, he devoted himself to com- 
position, he had, it is true, at first to encounter 
VOL. 11. 



the usual obstacles of popular indifference and 
professional ill-will. But these were soon over- 
come by his energy, and Liszt is at present 
living to see his works admired by many and 
ignored by none. As an orchestral conductor 
also he added laurels to his wreath. 

Franz Liszt was born Oct. 22, 181 1, at 
Raiding, in Hungary, the son of Adam Liszt, an 
official in the imperial service, and a musical 
amateur of sufficient attainment to instruct his 
son in the rudiments of pianoforte-playing. At 
the age of 9 young Liszt made his first appear- 
ance in public at Oedenburg with such success 
that several Hungarian noblemen guaranteed 
him sufficient means to continue his studies for 
six years. For that purpose he went to Vienna, 
and took lessons from Czerny on the pianoforte 
and from Salieri and Randhartinger in com- 
position. The latter introduced the lad to his 
friend Franz Schubert. His first appearance in 

print was probably in a variation (the 24th) on 
a waltz of Diabelli's, one of 50 contributed by 
the most eminent artists of the day, for which 
Beethoven, when asked for a single variation, 
wrote thirty-three (op. 120). The collection, 
entitled Vaterlandische Kunstler-Verein, was 
published in June 1823. In the same year he 
proceeded to Paris, where it was hoped that 
his rapidly growing reputation would gain him 
admission at the Conservatoire in spite of his 
foreign origin. But Cherubini refused to make 
an exception in his favour, and he continued his 
studies under Reicha and Paer. Shortly after- 
wards he also made his first serious attempt at 
composition, and an operetta in one act, called 
'Don S»nche,' was produced at the Academie 
Royale, Oct. 17, 1825, and well received. Artistic 
tours to Switzerland and England, accompanied 
by brilliant success, occupy the period till the 
year 1827, when Liszt lost his father and was 



thrown on his own resources to provide for him- 
self and his mother. During his stay in Paris, 
where he settled for some years, he became ac- 
quainted with the leaders of French literature, 
Victor Hugo, Lamartine and George Sand, the 
influence of whose works may be discovered in 
his' compositions. For a time also he became 
an adherent of Saint-Simon, but soon reverted 
to the Catholic religion, to which, as an artist 
and as a man, he has since adhered devoutly. 
In 1834 he became acquainted with the Countess 
D'Agoult, better known by her literary name 
of Daniel Stern, who for a long time remained 
attached to him and by whom he had three chil- 
dren. Two of these, a son and a daughter, the 
wife of M. Ollivier the French statesman, are 
dead. The third, Cosima, is the wife of Richard 
Wagner. The public concerts which Liszt gave 
during the latter part of his stay in Paris placed 
his claim to the first rank amongst pianists on 
a firm basis, and at last he was induced, much 
against his will, to adopt the career of a virtuoso 
proper. The interval from 1839 to 1847 Liszt 
spent in travelling almost incessantly from one 
country to another, being everywhere received 
with an enthusiasm unequalled in the annals of 
Art. In England he played at the Philharmonic 
Concerts of May 21, 1827 (Concerto, Hummel), 
May 11, 1840 (Concertstuck, Weber), June 8, 40 
(Kreutzer sonata), June 14, 41 (Hummel's 7tet). 
His reception seems to have been less warm than 
was expected, and Liszt, with his usual generosity, 
at once undertook to bear the loss that might have 
fallen on his agent. Of this generosity numerous 
instances might be cited. The charitable pur- 
poses to which Liszt's genius has been made 
subservient are legion, and in this respect as 
well as in that of technical perfection he is 
unrivalled amongst virtuosi. The disaster 
caused at Pesth by the inundation of the 
Danube (1837) was considerably alleviated by 
the princely sum — the result of several concerts 
— contributed by this artist; and when two 
years later a considerable sum had been col- 
lected for a statue to be erected to him at Pesth, 
he insisted upon the money being given to a 
struggling young sculptor, whom he moreover 
assisted from his private means. The poor of 
Raiding also had cause to remember the visit 
paid by LL=zt to his native village about the 
same time. It is well known that Beethoven's 
monument at Bonn owed its existence, or at 
least its speedy completion, to Liszt's liberality. 
When the subscriptions for the purpose began 
to fail, Liszt offered to pay the balance required 
from his own pocket, provided only that the 
choice of the sculptor should be left to him. 
From the beginning of the forties dates Liszt's 
more intimate connection with Weimar, where 
in 1849 he settled for the space of 12 years. 
This stay was to be fruitful in more than one 
sense. When he closed his career as a»virtuoso, 
and accepted a permanent engagement as con- 
ductor of the Court Theatre at Weimar, he did 
so with the distinct purpose of becoming the 
advocate of the rising musical generation, by 


the performance of such works as were written 
regardless of immediate success, and therefore 
had little chance of seeing the light of the stage. 
At short intervals eleven operas of living com- 
posers were either performed for the first time 
or revived on the Weimar stage. Amongst 
these may be counted such works as Lohengrin, 
Tannhauser, and The Flying Dutchman of Wag- 
ner, Benvenuto Cellini by Berlioz, Schumann's 
Genoveva, and music to Byron's • Manfred.' 
Schubert's Alfonso and Estrella was also res- 
cued from oblivion by Liszt's exertions. For 
a time it seemed as if this small provincial 
city were once more to be the artistic centre 
of Germany, as it had been in the days of 
Goethe, Schiller and Herder. From all sides 
musicians and amateurs flocked to Weimar, to 
witness the astonishing feats to which a small 
but excellent community of singers and instru- 
mentalists were inspired by the genius of their 
leader. In this way was formed the nucleus of 
a group of young and enthusiastic musicians, 
who, whatever may be thought of their aims and 
achievements, were and are at any rate inspired 
by perfect devotion to music and its poetical 
aims. It was, indeed, at these Weimar gather- 
ings that the musicians who now form the so- 
called School of the Future, till then unknown 
to each other and divided locally and mentally, 
came first to a clear understanding of their 
powers and aspirations. How much the personal 
fascination of Liszt contributed to this desired 
effect need not be said. Amongst the numerous 
pupils on the pianoforte, to whom he at the same 
period opened the invaluable treasure of his 
technical experience, may be mentioned Hans 
von Bulow, the worthy disciple of such a master. 
But, in a still higher sense, the soil of 
Weimar, with its great traditions, was to prove 
a field of richest harvest. When, as early as 
1842, Liszt undertook the direction of a certain 
number of concerts every year at Weimar, his 
friend Duverger wrote 'Cette place, qui oblige 
Liszt a sojourner trois mois de l'anne'e a Weimar, 
doit marquer peut-Stre pour lui la transition de 
sa carriere de a celle de compositeur.' 
This presage has been verified by a number of 
compositions which, whatever may be the final 
verdict on their merits, have at any rate done 
much to elucidate some of the most important 
questions in Art. From these works of his 
mature years his early compositions, mostly for 
the pianoforte, ought to be distinguished In 
the latter Liszt the virtuoso predominates over 
Liszt the composer. Not, for instance, that his 
'transcriptions' of operatic music are without 
superior merits. Every one of them shows the 
refined musician, and for the development of 
pianoforte technique, especially in rendering or- 
chestral effects, they are of the greatest import- 
ance. They also tend to prove Liszt's catholicity 
of taste ; for all schools are equally represented in 
the list, and a selection from Wagner's ' Lohen- 
grin ' is found side by side with the Dead March 
from Donizetti's ' Don Sebastian. ' To point out 
even the most important among these selections 


and arrangements would far exceed the limits of 
this notice. More important are the original 
pieces for the pianoforte also belonging to this 
earlier epoch and collected under such names as 
'Consolations' and 'Annees de pelerinage,' but 
even in these, charming and interesting in many 
respects as they are, it would be difficult to 
discover the germs of Liszt's later productiveness. 
The stage of preparation and imitation through 
which all young composers have to go, Liszt 
passed at the piano and not at the desk. This 
is well pointed out in Wagner's pamphlet on the 
Symphonic Poems : — 

'He who has had frequent opportunities,' 
writes Wagner, ' particularly in a friendly circle, 
of hearing Liszt play — for instance, Beethoven — 
must have understood that this- was not mere 
reproduction, but real production. The actual 
point of division between these two things is not 
so easily determined as most people believe, but 
so much I have ascertained beyond a doubt, 
that, in order to reproduce Beethoven, one must 
be able to produce with him. It would be im- 
possible to make this understood by those who 
have, in all their life, heard nothing but the 
ordinary performances and renderings by vir- 
tuosi of Beethoven's works. Into the growth 
and essence of such renderings I have, in the 
course of time, gained so sad an insight, that I 
prefer not to offend anybody by expressing 
myself more clearly. I ask, on the other hand, 
all who have heard, for instance, Beethoven's 
op. 1 06 or op. in (the two great sonatas in 
Bb and C) played by Liszt in a friendly circle, 
what they previously knew of those creations, 
and what they learned of them on those occa- 
sions? If this was reproduction, then surely it 
was worth a great deal more than all the sonatas 
reproducing Beethoven which are " produced " by 
our pianoforte composers in imitation of those 
imperfectly comprehended works. It was simply 
the peculiar mode of Liszt's development to do 
at the piano what others achieve with pen and 
ink ; and who can deny that even the greatest 
and most original master, in his first period, does 
nothing but reproduce] It ought to be added 
that during this reproductive epoch, the work 
even of the greatest genius never has the value 
and importance of the master works which it 
reproduces, its own value and importance being 
attained only by the manifestation of distinct 
originality. It follows that Liszt's activity during 
his first and reproductive period surpasses every- 
thing done by others under parallel circumstances. 
For he placed the value and importance of the 
works of his predecessors in the fullest light, and 
thus raised himself almost to the same height 
with the composers he reproduced.' 

These remarks at the same time will to a 
large extent account for the unique place which 
Liszt holds amongst modern representatives of 
his instrument, and it will be unnecessary to say 
anything of the phenomenal technique which 
enabled him to concentrate his whole mind on 
the intentions of the composer. 

The works of Liszt's mature period may be 



most conveniently classed under four headings. 
First : works for the pianoforte with and without 
orchestral accompaniments. The two Concertos 
in Eb and A, and the fifteen Hungarian Rhapso- 
dies are the most important works of this group, 
the latter especially illustrating the strongly 
pronounced national element in Liszt. The repre- 
sentative works of the second or orchestral section 
of Liszt's works are the Faust Symphony in 
three tableaux, the Dante Symphony, and the 
twelve ' Symphonic Poems.' Of the latter a full 
list is given on p. 149 b. It is in these Symphonic 
Poems that Liszt's mastery over the orchestra as 
well as his claims to originality are chiefly shown. 
It is true that the idea of 'Programme-Music,' 
such as we find it illustrated here, had been anti- 
cipated by Berlioz. Another important feature, 
the so-called ' leading-motive' (i. e. a theme repre- 
sentative of a character or idea, and therefore 
recurring whenever that character or that idea 
comes into prominent action), Liszt has adopted 
from Wagner. [Leit-motif.] At the same time 
these ideas appear in his music in a consider- 
ably modified form. Speaking, for instance, of 
Programme-Music, it is at once apparent that 
the significance of that term is understood in a 
very different sense by Berlioz and by Liszt. 
Berlioz, like a true Frenchman, is thinking of a 
distinct story or dramatic situation, of which he 
takes care to inform the reader by means of a 
commentary ; Liszt, on the contrary, emphasizes 
chiefly the pictorial and symbolic bearings of 
his theme, and in the first-named respect espe- 
cially is perhaps unsurpassed by modern sym- 
phonists. Even where an event has become the 
motive of his symphonic poem, it is always from 
a single feature of a more or less musically realis- 
able nature that he takes his suggestion, and 
from this he proceeds to the deeper significance 
of his subject, without much regard for the inci- 
dents of the story. It is for this reason that, for 
example, in his Mazeppa he has chosen Victor 
Hugo's somewhat pompous production as the 
groundwork of his music, in preference to Byron's 
more celebrated and more beautiful poem. Byron 
simply tells the story of Mazeppa's danger and 
rescue. In Victor Hugo the Polish youth, 
tied to 

• A Tartar of the Ukraine breed 
Who looked as though the speed of thought 
Was in his limbs,' 

has become the representative of man ' lid vivant 
sur tacroupefatale, Genie, ardent coursier.' This 
symbolic meaning, far-fetched though it may ap- 
pear in the poem, is of incalculable advantage to the 
musician. It gives aesthetic dignity to the wild, 
rattling triplets which imitate the horse's gallop, 
and imparts a higher significance to the triumphal 
march which closes the piece. For as Mazeppa 
became Hetman of the Cossacks, even so is 
man gifted with genius destined for ultimate 
triumph : 

' Chaque pas que tu fais semble creuser sa tombe. 
Enfm le temps arrive . . . il court, il tombe, 
Et se releve roi.' 

A more elevated subject than the struggle and 




final victory of genius an artist cannot well desire, 
and no fault can be found with Liszt, provided 
always that the introduction of pictorial and 
poetic elements into music is thought to be per- 
missible. Neither can the melodic means em- 
ployed by him in rendering this subject be 
objected to. In the opening allegro agitato 
descriptive of Mazeppa's ride, strong accents and 
rapid rhythms naturally prevail ; but, together 
with this merely external matter, there occurs an 
impressive theme (first announced by the basses 
and trombones), evidently representative of the 
hero himself, and for that reason repeated again 
and again throughout the piece. The second 
section, andante, which brings welcome rest after 
the breathless hurry of the allegro, is in its turn 
relieved by a brilliant inarch, with an original 
Cossack tune by way of trio, the abstract idea of 
triumphant genius being thus ingeniously iden- 
tified with Mazeppa's success among 'les tribus 
de V Ukraine.' From these remarks Liszt's method, 
applied with slight modification in all his sym- 
phonic poems, is sufficiently clear ; but the difficult 
problem remains to be solved, How can these 
philosophic and pictorial ideas become the nucleus 
of a new musical form to supply the place of the 
old symphonic movement? Wagner asks the 
question ' whether it is not more noble and more 
liberating for music to adopt its form from the 
conception of the Orpheus or Prometheus motive 
than from the dance or march ?' but he forgets 
that dance and march have a distinct and tangible 
relation to musical form, which neither Prome- 
theus and Orpheus, nor indeed any other character 
or abstract idea, possess. The solution of this 
problem must be left to a future time, when it 
will also be possible to determine the permanent 
position of Liszt's symphonic works in the history 
of Art. 

The legend of St. Elizabeth, a kind of oratorio, 
full of great beauty, but sadly weighed down by 
a tedious libretto, leads the way to the third 
section — the Sacred compositions. Here the Gran 
Mass, the Missa Choralis, the Mass for small 
voices, and the oratorio Christus are the chief 
works. The 13th Psalm, for tenor, chorus, and 
orchestra, 1 may also be mentioned. The accent- 
uation of the subjective or personal element, 
combined as far as possible with a deep reverence 
for the old forms of church music, is the key- 
note of Liszt's sacred compositions. 

We finally come to a fourth division not 
hitherto sufficiently appreciated by Liszt's critics 
— his Songs. It is here perhaps that his in- 
tensity of feeling, embodied in melody pure and 
simple, finds its most perfect expression. Such 
settings as those of Heine's 'Du bist wie eine 
Blume,' or Redwitz's ' Es muss ein wunderbares 
sein' are conceived in the true spirit of the 
Volkslied. At other times a greater liberty in 
the rhythmical phrasing of the music is warranted 
by the metre of the poem itself, as, for instance, 
in Goethe's wonderful night-song, 'Ueber alien 
Gipfeln ist Ruh',' the heavenly calm of which 
Liszt has rendered by Ids wonderful harmonies 

' Performed at Mr. Baches annual concert in 1873. 


in a manner which alone would secure him a 
place amongst the great masters of German song. 
Particularly, the modulation from G major back 
into the original E major at the close of the 
piece is of surprising beauty. Less happy is the 
dramatic way in which such ballads as Heine's 
'Loreley' and Goethe's 'Konig in Thule' are 
treated. Here the melody is sacrificed to the 
declamatory element, and that declamation, espe- 
cially in the last-named song, is not always 
faultless. Victor Hugo's ' Comment disaient-ils ' 
is one of the most graceful songs amongst Liszt's 
works, and in musical literature generally. 

The remaining facts of Liszt's life may be 
summed up in a few words. In 1859 he left his 
official position at the Opera in Weimar owing 
to the captious*>pposition made to the production 
of Cornelius's ' Barber of Bagdad,' at the Weimar 
theatre. Since that time he has been living at 
intervals at Rome, Pesth, and Weimar, always 
surrounded by a circle of pupils and admirers, 
and always working for music and musicians in 
the unselfish and truly catholic spirit character- 
istic of his whole life. How much Liszt can be 
to a man and an artist is shown by what per- 
haps is the most important episode even in his 
interesting career — his friendship with Wagner. 
The latter's eloquent words will give a better 
idea of Liszt's personal character than any less 
intimate friend could attempt to do. 

'I met Liszt,' writes Wagner, 'for the first 
time during my earliest stay in Paris, at a 
period when I had renounced the hope, nay, 
even the wish, of a Paris reputation, and, in- 
deed, was in a state of internal revolt against 
the artistic life which I found there. At our 
meeting he struck me as the most perfect contrast 
to my own being and situation. In this world, 
into which it had been my desire to fly from my 
narrow circumstances, Liszt had grown up, from 
his earliest age, so as to be the object of general 
love and admiration, at a time when I was 
repulsed by general coldness and want of sym- 
pathy. ... In consequence I looked upon him with 
suspicion. I had no opportunity of disclosing 
my being and working to him, and, therefore, the 
reception I met with on his part was altogether 
of a superficial kind, as was indeed natural 
in a man to whom every day the most divergent 
impressions claimed access. But I was not in 
a mood to look with unprejudiced eyes for the 
natural cause of his behaviour, which, though 
friendly and obliging in itself, could not but 
wound me in the then state of my mind. I never 
repeated my first call on Liszt, and without 
knowing or even wishing to know him, I was 
prone to look upon him as strange and adverse 
to my nature. My repeated expression of this 
feeling was afterwards told to him, just at the 
time when my • Rienzi ' at Dresden attracted 
general attention. He was surprised to find 
himself misunderstood with such violence by 
a man whom he had scarcely known, and whose 
acquaintance now seemed not without value to 
him. I am still moved when I remember the 
repeated and eager attempts he made to change 


my opinion of him, even before he knew any 
of my works. He acted not from any artistic 
sympathy, but led by the purely human wish of 
discontinuing a casual disharmony between him- 
self and another being ; perhaps he also felt an 
infinitely tender misgiving of having really hurt 
me unconsciously. He who knows the selfish- 
ness and terrible insensibility of our social life, 
and especially of the relations of modern 
artists to each other, cannot but be struck 
with wonder, nay, delight, by the treatment I 
experienced from this extraordinary man. . . . At 
Weimar I saw him for the last time, when I was 
resting for a few days in Thuringia, uncertain 
whether the threatening prosecution would com- 
pel me to continue my flight from Germany. 
The very day when my personal danger became 
a certainty, I saw Liszt conducting a rehearsal 
of my ' Tannhauser,' and was astonished at 
recognising my second self in his achievement. 
What I had felt in inventing this music he felt 
in performing it : what I wanted to express in 
writing it down, he expressed in making it sound. 
Strange to say, through the love of this rarest 
friend, I gained, at the moment of becoming 
homeless, a real home for my art, which I had 
hitherto longed for and sought for always in the 
wrong place. ... At the end of my last stay at 
Paris, when ill, miserable, and despairing, I sat 
brooding over my fate, my eye fell on the score of 
my " Lohengrin," which I had totally forgotten. 
Suddenly I felt something like compassion that 
this music should never sound from off the death- 
pale paper. Two words I wrote to Liszt : his 
answer was, the news that preparations for the 
performance were being made on the largest scale 
that the limited means of Weimar would permit. 
Everything that men and circumstances could do, 
was done, in order to make the work understood. 
. . . Errors and misconceptions impeded the de- 
sired success. What was to be done to supply 
what was wanted, so as to further the true un- 
derstanding on all sides, and with it the ultimate 
success of the work ? Liszt saw it at once, and 
did it. He gave to the public his own im- 
pression of the work in a manner the convincing 
eloquence and overpowering efficacy of which 
remain unequalled. Success was his reward, and 
with this success he now approaches me, saying : 
" Behold we have come so far, now create us a 
new work, that we may go still further." ' 

In addition to the commentaries on Wagner's 
works just referred to, Liszt has also written 
numerous detached articles and pamphlets, those 
on Robert Franz, Chopin, and the music of the 
Gipsies, being the most important. It ought to 
be added that the appreciation of Liszt's music 
in this country is almost entirely due to the un- 
ceasing efforts of his pupil, Mr. Walter Bache, 
at whose annual concerts many of his most 
important works have been produced. Others, 
such as 'Mazeppa' and the 'Battle of the 
Huns,' were first heard in England at the Crystal 

The following is a catalogue of Liszt's works, 
as complete as it has been possible to make it. 



It is compiled from the recent edition of the 
thematic catalogue (Breitkopf & Hartel, No. 
14,373), published lists, and other available 

1. Original. 1 10. ' Gaudeamus Igitur ' ; Humo- 

1. Symphonie zu Dante's Divina 

Commedia, orch. and female 
chorus : ded. to Wagner. 1. In- 
ferno ; 2. Furgatorio ; 3. Magni- 
ficat. Score and parts. B. 4 H. 1 
Arr. for 2 P.Fs. 

2. Elne Faust-Symphonie In drel 
Charakterbildern (nach Goethe), 
orch. and male chorus : ded. to 
Berlioz. 1. Faust ; 2. Gretchen 
(also for P. F. 2 hands) ; 3. Me- 
phistopheles. Score and parts ; 
also for 2 P. Fs. Schuberth. 

3. Zwel Kpisoden aus Lenau's 
Faust. 1. Der nSchtliche Zug. 
2. Der Tanz in der Dorfschenke 
(Mephisto-Walzer). Score and 
parts; also for P. F. 2 and 4 
hands. Schuberth. 

4. Symphonische Dichtungen. 1. 
Ce qu'on entend sur la mon- 
tagne ; 2. Tasso. Lamento e 
Trionfo; 3. Les Preludes ; 4. 
Orpheus (also for organ) ; 5. Pro- 
metheus ; 6. Mazeppa ; 7. Fest- 
klSnge; 8. Herolde funebre; 9. 
Ilungaria ; 10. Hamlet ; 11. Hun- 
nenschlacht ; 12. Die Ideale. 
Score and parts, also for 2 P. Fs. 
and P. F. 4 hands. B. 4 H. 

5. Fest-Vorspiel, for Schiller and 
Goethe Festival, Weimar 1857. 
Score, Hallberger. 

6. Fest-Marsch, for Goethe's birth- 
day. Score and parts, also for 
1'. F. 2 and 4 hands. Schuberth. 

7. IIuldigungs-Marsch. for acces- 
sion of Duke Carl of Saxe- 
Weimar 1853. Score; and for 
P. F. 2 hands. B. 4 H. 

8. ' Vom-Fels zum Meer ': Patrio- 
tic march. Score and parts ; 
also Tor P.F. 2 hands. Schle- 

9. Kttnstler Fest-Zug ; for Schiller 
Festival 1859. Score; and for 
P. F. 2 and 4 hands. Kahnt. 

reske for orch. soli, and chorus. 
Score and parts ; also for P.F. 2 
and. 4 hands. Schuberth. 
2. Arrangements. 

11. Schuberts' Marches. 1. op. 40 
No. 3 ; 2. Trauer-; 3. Reiter-; 4. 
Ungarischer-Marsch. Score and 
parts. Fttrstner. 

12. Schubert's Songs for voice and 
small orch. 1. Die j unge Nonne ; 
2. Gretchen am Splimrade ; 8. 
Lied der Mignon ; 4. ErlkOnig. 
Score and parts. Forberg. 

13. 'Die Allmacht,' by Schubert, 
for tenor, men's chorus, and 
orchestra. Score and parts ; and 
vocal score. Schuberth. 

14. H. v. BQlow's Mazurka-Fan- 
tasie (op. 13). Score and parts. 

15. Festmarch on themes by E. H. 
zu S. Score ; also for P.F. 2 and 
4 hands. Schuberth. 

16. Ungarische Bhapsodien, an. 
by Liszt and F. Doppler; 1. in 
F ; 2. in D ; 3. in D ; 4. In D 
minor and G major ; 5. in E ; 
6. Pe«ter Carneval.— Score and 
parts; and for P.F. 4 hands. 

17. Ungarlscher Marsch, for Coro- 
nation at Buda-Pesth, 1867. 
Score; also for P.F. 2 and 4 
hands. Schuberth. 

18. Rakoczy-Marsch ; symphonisch 
bearbeltet. Score and parts ; 
also for P. F. 2, 4, and 8 hands. 

19. Uiigarischer Sturm - Marsch. 
New arr. 1876. Score and parts ; 
also for P.F. 2 and 4 hands. 

20. 'Szdzat' und 'Hymnus' by 
Benl and Erkel. Score and 
parts ; also for P. F. Rdzsa- 
vOlgyl, Testh. 


1. Original. 

21. Concerto No. 1, In E flat. Score 
and parts ; also for 2 P. Fs. 

22. Concerto No. 2, In A. Score 
and parts; also for 2 P. Fs. 

23. ' Todten-Tanz.' Paraphrase on 
'Dies Irse.' Score; also for 1 
and 2 P. Fs. Siegel. 

2. Arrangements, P. F. pbin- 

24. Fantasia on themes from Bee- 

thoven's 'Ruins of Athens.' 
Score ; also for P. F. 2 and 4 
hands, and 2 P. Fs. Siegel. 
25.Fantasie Uber ungarische Volks- 
melodlen. Score and parts. 

26. Schubert's Fantasia In C (op. 
15), symphonisch bearbeltet. 
Score and parts ; also for 2 P. Fs. 

27. Weber's Polonaise (op. 72). 
Score and parts. Schleslnger. 


1. Original. 

28. Etudes d'executlon transcen- 
dante. 1. Preludio; 2, 3. Pay- 
sage ; 4. Mazeppa ; 5. Feux Fol- 
lets; 6. Vision; 7. Eroica; 8. 
Wilde Jagd; 9. Rlcordanza; 
10, 11. Harmonies du soir; 12. 
Chasse-nelge. B. 4 H. 

29. Trols Grandes Etudes de Con- 
cert. 1. Caprlcclo ; 2. Caprlccio, 
3. Allegro affetuoso. Kistner. 

30. Ab-Irato. Etude de perfec- 
fection. Schleslnger. 

31. Zwel Concertetuden, for Le- 
bert and 8tark's Klavierschule. 
1. Waldesrauschen ; 2. Guomen- 
relgen. Trautwein. 

32. Ave Maria for ditto. Traut- 

S3. Harmonies po<!tlques et rell- 
gieuses. 1. Invocation ; 2. Ave 

Maria; 3. Benediction de DIeu 
dans la solitude ; 4. Pensee des 
Morts ; 6. Pater Noster ; 6. 
Hymne de l'enfant a son revell ; 
7. Funirallles; 8. Miserere 
d'apres Palestrina ; 9. Andante 
lagriraoso ; 10. Cantique d'A- 
mour. Kahnt. 
34. Annees de Pelerlnage. Pre- 
miere Anne>, Suisse. 1. Chapelle 
de Qulllaume Tell ; 2. Au lac de 
Wallenstadt; 3. rastorale; 4. 
Au bord d'une source ; 5. Orape ; 

6. Vallce d'Obermann ; 7. Eg- 
logue ; 8. Le Mai du Pays ; 9. 
Les Cloches de Geneve (Noc- 
turne). Seconde Annee, Italic. 
1. H Sposallzlo ; 2. II Penseroso ; 
3. Canzonetta dl Balvator Rosa ; 
4-6. Tre Sonettl del Petrarca; 

7. A 1 1 res une lecture de Dante. 

> B. 4 H.= Breitkopf 4 IlarteL 




VenexiaeXapoli. 1. Gondollera; 

2. Canzone; 3. Tarantelle. Schott. 
85. Apparitions, S Nos. Schle- 
singer, Paris. 

36. Two Ballades. Kistner. 

37. Grand Concert-Solo : also for 2 
F. Fs. (Concerto pathetique). 
B. AH. 

S3. Consolations, 6 Nos. B. A H. 

39. Berceuse. Heinze. 

40. Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Za- 
gen : Praludium nach J. & Bach. 

41. Variations on theme from 
Bach's B minor Mass ; also for 
Organ. Schlesinger. 

42. Fantasle und Fuge, theme 
B. A. C. H. Siegel. Also for Or- 
gan. Schuberth. 

43. Scherzo und Marsch. LitolfT. 

44. Sonata in B minor. Dedicated 
to Schumann. B. A H. 

45. 2 Polonaises. Senff. 

46. Mazurka brillante. Senff. 

47. Rhapsodle Espagnole, Folies 
d'Espagne, and Jota Aragonesa. 

48. Trots Caprice- Valses. 1. Valse 
de braroure ; 2. V. melancol ique ; 

3. V. de Concert. Schlesinger. 

49. Feuilles d'Album. Schott. 

50. Deux Feuilles d'Album. Schu- 

51. Grand Galop chromatique. 
Also for 4 hands. Hofmeister. 

52. Valse Impromptu. Schuberth. 

53. 'Mosonyi's Grab-Geleit,' Ta- 
borszky A Parsch, Pesth. 

54. Elegie. Also for P. F., Cello, 
Harp, and Harmonium. Kahnt. 

55. 2nd Elegie. Also for P. F_ V., 
and Cello. Kahnt. 

56. Legendes. 1. St. Francois 
d' Assise r 2. St. Francois de Paul. 

57. L' II ymne du Pape ; also for 4 
hands. Bote A Bock. 

58. Via Crucls. 

59. Impromptu— Themes de Ros- 
sini et Spontlni, In E. ' Op. 3.' 

60. Capricclo it la Turca sur des 
motifs de Beethoven's Buines 
d'Athenes. Mechetti. 

61. Liebestraume— 3 Notturnos. 

62. L'Idee fixe— Andante amoroso 
d'apres une Melodie de Berlioz. 

63. Impromptu, In F sharp. B. AH. 

64. Variation on a Waltz by l>ia- 
belll. No. 24 in VateriSndischer 
Kunstlerverelu. Diabelli (1823). 

65. ' The Pianoforte '— Erstes Jahr- 
gang ; Parts I-XII— 34 pieces by 
modern composers. Out of print. 

2. Arrangements. 

66. Grande* Etudes de Faganlnl. 
6 Nos. (No. 3, La Campanella). 
B. AH. 

67. Sechs (organ) PrSludien und 
Fugen Ton J. S. Bach, 2 parts. 

68. Bach's Orgelfantasle and Fuge 
in G minor : for Lebert A Stark's 
Klavierschule. Trautwein. 

69. Divertissement a la hongrolse 
d'apres F. Schubert, 3 parti; 
also Easier ed. Schrelber. 

70. MSrsche von F. Schubert. 1. 
Trauer- Marsch ; 2, 3. Reiter- 
Marsch. Schrelber. 

71. Soirees de Vlenne. Valses-ca-j 
prices d'apres Schubert. 9 parts. 

72. Bunte Reihe Ton Ferd. David. 
1. Scherzo ; 2. Erinnerung ; 8. 
Mazurka; 4. Tanz; 5. Kinder- 
lied ; 6. Capricclo ; 7. Bolero ; I 
8. Elegie; 9. Marsch; 10. Toc- 
cata ; 11. Gondellied ; 12. Im 
8turm. ; 13. Romanze ; 14. Alle- 
gro ; 15. Menuett ; 16. Etude ; 
17. Intermezzo ; 18. Serenade ; 
19. Ungarlsch (2) ; 20. Tarentelle ; 
21. Impromptu ; 22. In russlcher 
Welse; 23. Lied; 24. Capriccio. 
Kistner. I 

73. Elegie d'apres Sorrlano. Trou- 

74. Russischer Galopp von Bulha- 
kow. Schlesinger. 

75. Zigeuner-Polka de Conradi. 

76. La Romanesca. Schlesinger. 

77. Leler und Schwert (Weber). 

78. Elegie, Themes by Prince Louis 
of Prussia. Schlesinger. 

79. God Save the Queen. Concert- 
paraphrase. Schuberth. 

80. Hussiten-Lied. Hofmeister. 

81. La Marseillaise. Schuberth. 

3. Paraphrases, Transcrip- 
tions, etc., from Operas. 

82. La Fiancee (Auber) ; Masani- 
ello ; La Juive ; Sonnambula ; 
Norma ; Puritan! (3) ; Benvenuto 
Cellini ; Dom Sebastian; Lucta 
di Lammermoor (2); Lucrezia 
Borgia (2); Faust (Gounod); 
Reine de Saba; Romeo et Ju- 
liette; Robert le Diable; Les 
Huguenots; Le Prophete (3); 
L'Africaine (2); Szep Jlonka 
(Mosonyt) ; Don Giovanni ; Kiiuig 
Alfred (Raff) (2) ; I. Lombard! ; 
Trovatore ; Ernani ; Rigoletto ; 
Don Carlos ; Rienzi ; Der flie- 
gende Hollander (2); Tannhfiu- 
ser (3); Lohengrin (4); Tristan 
und Isolde ; Meistersinger ; Ring 
des Niebelungen. 

8S. Fantaisie de Bravoure sur la 
Clochette de Faganini. Schrel- 

84. Trois Morceaux de Salon. 1. 
Fantaisie romantlque sur deux 
melodies suisses; 2. Rondeau 
fantastique sur un theme Espag- 
nol ; 3. Divertissement sur une 
cavatlne de Pacini, also for 4 
hands. Schlesinger. 

85. Paraphrase de la Marche de 
Donizetti (Abdul Medjid Khan); 
also Easier ed. Schlesinger. 

86. 'Jagdchor und Steyrer,' from 
'Tony' (Duke Ernest of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha). Kistner. 

87. Tscherkessen - Marsch from 
Glinka's ' Russian und Lud- 
mil la.' Also for 4 hands. Schu- 

88. ' Hochzelt-Marsch und Elfen- 
reigen ' from Mendelssohn's Mid- 
summer Night's Dream. B. A H. 

89. Fest-Marsch for Schiller cen- 
tenary (Meyerbeer). Schlesinger. 

90. Fantaisies (2) sur des motifs 
des Soirees musicales de Rossini. 

91. Trois Morceaux Suisses. 1. 
Ranz de Vaches ; 2. Un Soir dans 
la Montagne ; 3. Ranz de Chev- 
res. Kahnt. 

4. Rhapsodies, etc. 

92. Rhapsodies Hongrolses. 1 In 
E ; 2 in F sharp (also for 4 hands, 
and easier ed.) ; 3 In B flat ; 4 in 
E flat; 5 In E minor; 6 in D 
flat ; 7 In D minor ; 8 Capricclo ; 
9 in E flat ; 10 Preludlo ; 11 in A 
minor ; 12 in C sharp minor (also 
for P.F. and violin by Liszt and 
Joachim) ; 13 In A minor ; 14 In 
F minor; 15 R&koczy March. 
Senff and Schlesinger. 

93. Marche de R&koczy. Edition 
populaire. Kistner. 

94. Do. Symphonisch. Schuberth. 

95. Heroischer- Marsch in unga- 
rlschen Styl. Schlesinger. 

96. Un gar i sen er Gcsch w in d marsch. 
Schlndler. Pressburg. 

97. Etnleitung und Cngarlscher 
Marsch Ton Graf E. Szechenyi. 

5. Partitions di Piano. 

98. Beethoven's Septet. Schuberth. 

99. Nine Symphonies. B. A H. 

100. Hummers Septet. Schubert. 

101. Berlioz's ' Symphonie Fantas- 
tique.' Leuekart. Marche des 
Pelerins, from ' Harold In Italy." 
Rieter-Biedermann. ' Danse des 
Syl plies,' from 'La Damnation 

de Faust.' Ibid. Overtures to 
'LesFrancs-Juges.' Schott. 'Le 
Boi Lear.' 

102. Rossini's Overture to Guil- 
laume Tell. 

103. Weber's Jubelouverture and 
Overtures to Der Freischiitzand 
Oberon. Schlesinger. 

104. Wagner's Overture to Tann- 
bauser. Meser. 

6. Transcriptions or Vocal 

105. Rossini's 'Cujus Aniraam' 
and ' La Chart te .' Schott. 

106. Beethoven's Lleder, 6 ; Gelst- 
liche Lieder, 6; Adelaide; Lie- 
derkreis. B. A H. 

107. Von Billow's 'Tanto gentile.' 

108. Chopin's ' Six Chants Polo- 
nais,' op. 74. Schlesinger. 

109. Lieder. Dessauer, S ; Franz, 
13 ; Lassen, 2 ; Mendelssohn, 9 ; 
Schubert, 57; Schumann, B. and 
Clara, 14; Weber, Schlummer- 
lied, and ' Einsam bin icli .' 

110. Meyerbeer's ' Le Moine.' 

111. Wlelhorsky's ' Autrefois.' 

112. Alleluja et Ave Maria d'Arca- 
delt ; No. 2 also for organ. 

113. A la Chapelle Sixtine. Mise- 
rere d'AUegrl et Ave v erum da 
Mozart ; also for 4 hands and for 
organ. Peters. 

114. Zwei Transcriptionem, 'Con- 
futatls et Lacrymosa' aus Mo- 
zart's Requiem. Siegel. 

115. Soirees Italiennes, sur des 
motifs de Mercadante 6 Nos. 

116. Nuits d't'te a Pausilippe, sur 
des motifs de l'Album de Doni- 
zetti, 3 Nos. Schott. 

117. Canzone Napolitana. Meser. 

118. Faribolo Pastour, and Chan- 
son du Beam. Schott. 

119. Glanes de Woronlnce. 3 Nos. 

120. Deux Melodies Busses. Ara- 
besques. Cranz. 

121. Ungarlsche Volkslleder, 5 Nos. 
Taborszky A Parsch. 

122. Soirees musicales de Rossini, 
12 Nos.; also for 4 hands and 
for 2 P.F J. Schott. 

123. Variations de Concert on 124. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. 
March in 1 Furitani (Hexame- Schott. 
Ton). Schuberth. 

125. Epithalam.; also for P.F., 2 123. Grand duo concertant sur 
hands. Taborszky A Parsch. I ' Le Marin.' Schott. 


127. Andante religioso. Schuberth. 

128. Etnleitung, Fuge und Mag- 
nificat, from Symphony ' Zu 
Dante's Divlna Commedia. ' 

129. Ora pro nobis. Litanei. KOrner. 

130. Fantasle und Fuge on the 
chorale In ' Le Prophete.' B. A H. 

131. Orlando dl Lasso's Begina 
coeli. Schuberth. 


132. Bach's Einleitung und Fuge, 
from motet 'Ich hatte viel 
Bekummernlss.' Schuberth. 

133. Chopin's Praeludien, op. 28, 
Nos. 4 and 9. Schuberth. 

134. Kirchltche Fest - Ouverture 
on 'EIn' festeBurg.' Hofmeis- 

135. ' Der Guade Hell ' (TannhaO- 
ser). Meser. 


1. Masses, Psalms, and other 
Sacred Music. 

136. MIssasolennis(Graner). Fesl- 
messe In D. Score and parts; 
also vocal score, and for P. F. 4 
hands. Schuberth. 

137. Ungarische KrOnungs - Messe 
In E flat. Score and parts, and 
vocal score ; Offertorium and 
Benedictus, for P.F. 2 and 4 
hands, P.F. and violin, organ, 
organ and violin. Schuberth. 

138. Mass in minor, with organ. 
B. AH. 

139. Missa Choralts in A minor, 
with organ. Kahnt. 

140. Requiem, men's voices and 
organ. Kahnt. 

141. Neun Kirchen-Chor-Gesfinge, 
with organ. 1. Pater Noster ; 2. 
Ave Maria (also for P. F.) ; 3. O 
Salutarts; 4. Tantum ergo; 5. 
Ave Verum ; 6. Mini autera ; 7. 
Ave Marls Stella, also for P. F. ; 
8. O Salutaris; 9. Libera me. 

142. Die Seligkeiten. Kahnt. 

143. Pater noster, for mixed chorus 
and organ. Kahnt. 

144. Pater Noster et Ave Maria, & 
4 and organ. B. A H. 

145. Psalms. 13th, 18th (E.V.19th). 
23rd, and 137th. Kahnt. 

146. Christus 1st geboren; chorus 
and organ. Arr. for P. F. Bote 
A Bock. 

147. An den helllgen Franziskus, 
men's voices, organ, trumpets 
and drums. Taborszky A Parsch. 

148. Hymne de l'Enfant a son 
reveil, female choruj, organ and 
harp. Taborszky A Parsch. 

2. Oratorios. 

149. Christus. Score, vocal score, 
and parts. Schuberth. 'Pasto- 

rale,' No. 4, and 'Marsch der 
heiligen drel KOnlge,' No. 5, for 
instruments only ; also for P. F. 
2 and 4 hands. ' Tu es Petrus,* 
No. 8, for organ and for P.F. 
2 and 4 hands, as ' Hymne du 

150. Die Legende von der heiligen 
Elisabeth. Score, vocal score, 
and parts. Kahnt. 'Einleitung'; 
'Marsch der Kreuzritter' and 
'Interludium,' for P.F. 2 and 4 
hands ; ' Der Sturm," for P. F. 4 

3. Cantatas and other 
Choral Music. 

151. ZurSScular-Feler Beethovens, 
for chorus, soli, and orch. Score, 
Tocal score, and parts. Kahnt. 

152. Choruses (8) to Herder's ' Ent- 
fesseltem Prometheus.' Score, 
Tocal score, and parts. Kahnt. 
Pastorale (Schnitterchor) for 
P.F. 2 and 4 hands. 

153. Fest-Album for Goethe cen- 
tenary 0849). Fest-Marsch; 1. 
Llcht! mehrLlcht; 2. Weimar's 
Todten ; 3. Ueber alien Gipfela 
1st Ruh; 4. Chor der Engel. 
Vocal score and parts. Schu- 

154. Wart burg- Lieder. Einleit- 
ung and 6 Lieder. Vocal score. 

155. Die Glocken des Strassburger. 
Milnsters. Baritone solo, chorus 
and orch. Score, vocal score, 
and parts. Schuberth. ' Excel- 
sior' (Prelude) for Organ, and 
P. F. 2 and 4 hands. 

156. Die heillge CScilla. Mezzo- 
soprano, chorus, and orch., or 
P. F., harp, and harmonium. 
Score, vocal score, and parts. 





157. 1. Vereinslied ; 2. StSndchen ; 
8. Wlr slnd nicht Mumlen ; 4-6. 
Geharnischte Lieder (also for 
P. F.) ; 7. Soldatenlied ; 8. Die 
at ten Sagen ; 9. Saatengriin ; 10. 
Her Gang urn Mitternacht ; 11. 
Festlied ; 12. Gottes ist der Ori- 
ent. Kahnt. 

158. Das dQstre Meer. Unter alien 
Wipfeln. Eck. 

159. Vleratimmige MSnnergesSnge. 
1. Rheinwei tilled ; 2. Studenten- 
lied; 3. Belterlled ; 4. Ditto. 

160. An die Kiinstler. With orch. 

161. Fest-Chor (Herder-Memorial, 
1850). Weber. 

162. Festgesang. Kiihn. 

163. Da.« Lied der Begeisterung. 
Taborszky & Farsch. 

164. Was ist des Deutscben Vater- 
land ': Schlesinger. 

165. Weimar's Volkslied. Also for 
Organ and F.F., 2 and 4 bands. 

5. Fob Single Voice and P.F. 

166. Gesammelte Lieder. Kahnt. 

I. Mignon's Lied (also with orch. 
accomp. and for F. F.) ; 2. Es 
war ein Konlg (also for P. F.) ; 
3. Der du vom Himmel bist 
(also for P. F.); 4. Freudvoll 
und Leldvoll ; 5. Wer nie sein 
Brod ; 6. TJeber alien Gipfeln ist 
Buh' ; 7. Der Fischerknabe (also 
with orch.) ; 8. Der Hirt (also 
with orch.) ; 9. Der AlpenjSger 
(also with orch.) ; 10. Die Loreley 
(also with orch. and for P.F.). 

II. Am Rhein (also for P. F.)| 

12. Vergiftet slnd mein Lieder ; 

13. Du bist wie elne Blame; 14. 

Anfangs wollf ich ; 15. Mor- ] 
gens steh' ich auf ; 16. Ein Fich- 
tenbaum (2); 17. Comment di- 
saient-ils? 18. Oh! quand je | 
dors ; 19. S'il est un charmant , 
gazon ; 20. Enfant si J'etais Roi ; | 
21. Es rauschen die Winde; 22. 
Wo weilt er? 23. Nimm' einen 
Strahl; 24. Schwebe, blaues | 
Auge ; 25. Die Vatergruft i 26. j 
Angiolin dal biondo crin (also 
for P. F.); 27. Kllng leise ; ! 
28. Es muss ein Wunderbares 
sein ; 29. Mutter Gottes Strattss- 
lein (1); 30. Ditto (2); 31. Lasst 
mich ruhen ; 32. Wie slngt die ' 
Lerche: 33. In Liebeslust; 34. I 
Ich mScbte hingehn ; 35. Non- j 
nenwerth (also for P.F.); 36. 
Jugendglttck ; 37. Wieder mOchf I 
ich dir begegnen ; 38. Blume und | 
Duft ; 39. Ich liebe dicta ; 40. Die 
stille Wasserrose; 41. Wer nie 
sein Brod ; 42. Ich scheide ; 43. 
Die drei Zlgeuner (also with 
orch.) ; 44. Lebe wohl ; 45. Was 
Liebe sei ; 46. Die todte Nachti- 
gall ; 47. Bist du ; 48. Gebet J 
49. Ernst ; 50. An Edlitam; 
51. Dnd sprich ; 52. DleFischers- 
tochter ; 53. Bet still ; 54. Der 
GlQckliche ; 55. Ihr Glocken von 
Marling. Kahnt. 
167. II maimait tant (also for P J.) 

168. Drel Lieder. l.fiohe Liebe; 
2. Gestorben war ich ; 3. O lieb' ; 
also for P. F. as ' Liebestrfiume.' 

169. Tre Sonetti di Petrarca. 

170.DieMachtderMusIk. Kistner. 

171. Jeanne d'Arc au bucher, Mez- 
zo-soprano and Orch., or P. F. 

172. Are Maris Stella. Kahnt. 


173. Burger's Leonore, Kahnt ; i 
Lenau's Der traurige Munch,! 
Kahnt ; Jokai's Des todten 
Dichters Liebe, Taborszky A 

Parsch ; Strachwitrs Ilelge's 
Treue, Schuberth ; Tolstoy's Der 
bllnde Sanger, Bessel, Peters- 


174. BeethOTen. i. * ii. Sonatas 
complete, iii. Variations for F J. 
solo. IV. Various P. F. compo- 
sitions for 2 and 4 hands. V. 
Duets for P. F. and violin. VI. 
Duets for F.F. and cello, or horn. 
VII. Trios for P.F., violin, and 
cello. X. Masses, vocal score. 
XIV. String quartets. XV. Trios 
for strings, wind and strings, 
and wind only. Holle. 

175. Field. 18 Nocturnes, anno- 
| tated. Schuberth. 
1 176. Hummel's Septet ; also as 

quintet for F.F. and strings. 


177. Schubert's P.F. Sonatas and 
Solos (selected) ; 2 vols. Cotta. 

178. Weber's P.F. Sonatas and 
Solos ; 2 vols. Cotta. 

1 179. Viole's Gartenlaube; 100 
1 Etudes In 10 parts. Kahnt. 


180. De la Fondation-Goethe a 185. Ueber Field's Nocturnes ; 
Weimar. Brockhaus, 1851. I French and German. Schuberth, 

181. Lohengrin et Tannhftuser de 1859. 

Richard Wagner. Brockhaus, 186. Robert Franz. Leuckart, 1872. 

187. Verschledene Aufsfitze In der 
'Gazette muslcale'de Paris, und 
in der Neuen Zeitschrift fur Mu- 
sik. Kahnt. 

188. Schumann's Musikalische 
Haus- und Lebens-regeln ; trans- 
lated Into French. Schuberth, 


182. R. Wagner's Lohengrin und 
TannhSuser; with musical il- 
lustrations. Eyssen. 

183. Fred. Chopin. B. * H. 1852. 

184. Die Zigeuner und ihre Muslk 
in Ungarn. In German and 
Hungarian ; the former revised 
by Cornelius. Heckenast, Press- 1 p-ri ,, 
burg, 1861. I L* • -"-J 

reto). A solemn Litany, sung in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

It is no longer possible to ascertain when, 
where, or by whom, this Litany was originally 
written : but, if we may trust the very generally 
received tradition that it was first chaunted at 
Loreto, and carried thence, by Pilgrims, to all 
parts of the world, it cannot be of earlier date 
than the closing years of the 13th century. It 

has, undoubtedly, been chaunted there, every 
evening, from time immemorial. In other places, 
it is most frequently sung, either in solemn 
Processions, or, during the Exposition of the 
Blessed Sacrament at Benediction : but its use 
— especially on the Continent — is by no means 
restricted to those particular occasions. In Borne, 
for instance, it is constantly sung, at almost every 
popular Service, to a simple Plain Chaunt melody, 
familiar to all Italians, and printed, in its purest 
form, in the new Batisbon edition of the ' Direc- 
torium Chori.' This is, probably, the oldest music 
to which the words were ever adapted. Its date, 
like theirs, is uncertain : but it is at least old 
enough to have attracted the attention of the 
great Polyphonic Composers of the 16th century, 
Borne of whom have treated it in their best, and 
most devout style, and, when adopting it as a 
Canto fermo, have carefully abstained from de- 
stroying the simplicity of its character by the 
introduction of vain and irrelevant conceits. 

Palestrina was especially devoted to the Litany ; 
and, in 1593, published a volume, containing, in 
two books, ten different settings, of exquisite 
beauty, composed for the use of the 'Confraternity 
of the Holy Bosary.' One of the most beau- 
tiful divisions of the work is reprinted in the 
fourth volume of Proske's 'Musica Divina' : but 
a great number of the Composer's finest Litanies 
still remain in MS. 

Another volume of Litanies, by various authors, 
was published at Munich, in 1596, by Georgius 
Victorinus, under the title of ' Thesaurus Litani- 
arum.' We here find, among other interesting 
works, a charming Litany, by Orlando di Lasso, 
founded entirely upon the Plain Chaunt Canto 
fermo, and so simple in construction that the most 
modest Choir need feel no hesitation in attempting 
it. This Litany is also reprinted, entire, in the 
fourth volume of ' Musica Divina,' together with 
some others from the same rare work, which, for- 
tunately, is not the only collection that has been 
preserved to us from the 1 6th century. Under 
the title of Litanice Catholicce ad Christum, 
Beatam Virginem, et Sanctos, a highly interest- 
ing work was printed by Wolfgang Eder, at 
Ingolstadt, in 1589. Another, called Sacra 
Litania varies, was published at Antwerp, in 
1595. A precious volume, believed to be unique, 
wanting the title and first nine pages — and, there- 
fore, without date — is preserved in the Library 
bequeathed byDr.Proske to the cathedral of Batis- 
bon. And many other printed collections are still 
extant, containing quite a little treasury of Art. 

At Notre Dame de Paris, the Litany is an- 
nually sung, in grand Procession, on the after- 
noon of the Feast of the Assumption, to a form 
of the First Tone, which, set with the melody 
in the Tenor, produces an indescribably solemn 
effect. [W.S.R.] 

LITANY (Old Eng. Letanie ; Lat. Litania ; 
Gr. Xiravda, a Supplication). A solemn form of 
prayer ; sung, by Priests and Choir, in alternate 
Invocations and Besponses ; and found in most 
Office -Books, both of the Eastern and Western 
Church. [See Litanle, etc.] 



The origin of the Litany may be traced back 
to a period of very remote antiquity. Its use 
was, probably, first instituted in the East : but it 
was certainly sung, at Vienne, in France, as early 
as the year 450, if not very much earlier. The 
English translation — of which alone we propose to 
treat in the present article — was first published, 
without musical notes, on the Twenty-seventh 
of May, 1544 — five years before the appearance 
of King Edward the Sixth's ' First Prayer-Book.' 
Three weeks later — on the Sixteenth of June — 
another copy, with the Plain Chaunt annexed, 
was printed, in London, by Grafton ; the Priest's 
part in black notes, and that for the Choir, in red. 
It would seem, however, that the congregations of 
that day were not quite satisfied with unisonous 
Plain Chaunt: for, before the end of the year, 
Grafton produced a third copy, set for five voices, 
'according to thenotes usedinthe KyngesChapel.' 

This early translation was, in all probability, 
the work of Archbishop Cranmer, who refers to 
it in a letter preserved in the State Paper Office. 
And, as he recommends the notes (or similar 
ones) to be sung in a certain new Procession 
which he had prepared by the King's command, 
there is little doubt that it was he who first 
adapted the English words to the ancient Plain 
Chaunt. If this surmise be correct, it supplies a 
sufficient reason for the otherwise unaccountable 
omission of the Litany in Marbecke's ' Booke of 
Common Praier Noted.' 

In the year 1560 — and, again, in 1565 — John 
Day printed, under the title of ' Certaine notes 
set forth in foure and three partes, to be song at 
the Morning Communion, and Evening Prayer,' 
a volume of Church Music, containing a Litany, 
for four voices, by Robert Stone, a then gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal. According to the 
custom of the time, the Canto fermo is here 
placed in the Tenor, and enriched with simple, 
but exceedingly pure and euphonious harmonies, 
as may be seen in the following example, which 
will give a fair idea of the whole. 

The Rev. J. Jebb has carefully reproduced this 
interesting composition, in his 'Choral Responses 
and Litanies ' ; together with another Litany by 
Byrd, (given on the authority of a MS. preserved 
in the Library of Ely Cathedral,) and several 
others of scarcely inferior merit. The only parts 
of Byrd's Litany now remaining are, the Cantus, 
and Bassus : in the following example, therefore, 


the Altus, and Tenor, (containing the Tlain 
Chaunt,) are restored, in accordance with the 
obvious intention of the passage, in small notes. 


1 — 1 = 

O God the Fa - ther, of Heaven, have mer - cy up - 

, J J_j , J a . _ „■ „■ J ]_ 


-<S>— S> — tS> — ig» ' • — <Si <&—<& •— • 

I I 



hie sin - tiers, 



All these Litanies, however, and many others 
of which only a few fragments now remain to us, 
were destined soon to give place to the still finer 
setting by Thomas Tallis. Without entering into 
the controversy to which this work has given rise, 
we may assume it as proved, beyond all possibility 
of doubt, that the words were originally set, by 
Tallis, in four parts, with the Plain Chaunt in 
the Tenor. In this form, both the Litany, and 
Preces, are still extant, in the ' Clifford MS.' 
(dated 1570), on the authority of which they are 
inserted in the valuable collection of ' Choral 
Responses' to which allusion has already been 
made : and, however much we may be puzzled 
by the consecutive fifths in the Response, ' And 
mercifully hear us when we call upon Thee,' and 
the chord of the £ in ' We beseech Thee to hear 
us, Good Lord,' we cannot but believe that the 
venerable transcription is, on the whole, trust- 
worthy. Tallis's first Invocation, which we sub- 
join from the ' Clifford MS.,' is, alone, sufficient to 
show the grandeur of the Composer's conception. 


O God the Fa-ther, of Heaven, have n:er-cy up - en 

A J.J.J A T~-,\ -J J -U 






ser - a - ble sin 

"J ri 





More than one modern writer has condemned 
the celebrated five-part Litany printed by Dr. 
Boyce as an impudent corruption of this four-part 
text. Dean Aldrich goes so far as to assure 
Dr. Fell, in a letter still extant, that ' Barnard 
was the first who despoilt it.' The assertion is a 
rash one. It is too late, now, to ascertain, with 
any approach to probability, the source whence 
Barnard's version, printed in 1641, was, in the 


first instance, derived. There are, in truth, grave 
difficulties in the way of forming any decided 
opinion upon the subject. Were the weakness 
of an unpractised hand anywhere discernible in 
the counterpoint of the later composition, one 
might well reject it as an 'arrangement': but it 
would be absurd to suppose that any Musician 
capable of deducing the five-part Response, ' Good 
Lord, deliver us,' from that in four parts, would 
have condescended to build his work upon an- 
other man's foundation. 
From the 4-part Litany. From the 5-part Litany. 

\~TtTT rrrv 

Good Lord, de - II - ver us. Good Lord, de - li - ver 


+^ + 







The next Response, ' We beseech Thee to hear 
us, Good Lord,' presents a still more serious crux. 
The Canto fermo of this differs so widely from 
any known version of the Plain Chaunt melody 
that we are compelled to regard the entire 
Response as an original composition. Now, so 
far as the Cantus, and Bassus, are concerned, the 
two Litanies correspond, at this point, exactly : 
but, setting all prejudices aside, and admitting 
the third chord in the 'Clifford MS.' to be a 
manifest lapsus calami, we have no choice but to 
confess, that, with respect to the mean voices, the 
advantage lies entirely on the side of the five-part 
harmony. Surely, the writer of this could — and 
would — have composed a Treble and Bass for 
himself ! 

From the ' Clifford MS.* 

The difficulties we have pointed out with re- 
gard to these two Responses apply, with scarcely 
diminished force, to all the rest : and, the more 
closely we investigate the internal evidence 
afforded by the double text, the more certainly 
shall we be driven to the only conclusion de- 
ducible from it ; namely, that Tallis has left us 
two Litanies, one for four voices, and the other 
for five, both founded on the same Plain Chaunt, 
and both harmonised on the same Basses, though 
developed, in other respects, in accordance with 
the promptings of two totally distinct ideas. 


The four-part Litany has never, we believe, 
been published in a separate form. The best 
edition of that in five parts is, undoubtedly, 
Dr. Boyce's ; though Messrs. Oliphant, and John 
Bishop, have done good service, in their respective 
reprints, by adapting, to the music of the Preces, 
those 'latter Suffrages,' which, having no place 
in the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI, 
were not set by any of the old Composers. Some 
later editions, in which an attempt has been 
made at 'restoration,' have, it is to be feared, 
only resulted in depraving the original text to a 
degree previously unknown. [W. S. R.] 

LITOLFF, Henkt Charles, was born in Lon- 
don Feb. 6, 1818. His father, a French Alsatian 
soldier taken prisoner by the English in the 
Peninsular War, had settled in London as a 
violinist after the declaration of peace, and had 
married an Englishwoman. In the beginning of 
the year 1831 Henry Litolff was brought by his 
father to Moscheles, who on hearing the boy play 
was so much struck by his unusual talent, that 
he offered to take him gratis as a pupil ; and 
under his generous care Litolff studied for several 
years. He made his first appearance (or one of 
his first) at Covent Garden Theatre July 24, 
1832, as 'a pupil of Moscheles, 12 years of age.' 
In his 1 7th year a marriage of which the parents 
disapproved obliged him to leave England and 
settle for a time in France. For several years 
after this event Litolff led a wandering life, and 
during this period he visited Paris, Brussels, 
Leipzig, Prague, Dresden, Berlin.and Amsterdam, 
giving in these towns a series of very successful 
concerts. In 1851 he went to Brunswick, and 
undertook there the business of the late music- 
publisher Meyer. In i860 he transferred this 
business to his adopted son, Theodor Litolff, and 
he, in 1861, started the well-known 'Collection 
Litolff,' as a cheap and accurate edition of clas- 
sical music, which was among the earliest of the 
many series of similar size and aim now existing. 
It opened with the sonatas of Beethoven, Mozart, 
and Haydn (vols. 1-4). Henry Litolff himself 
went to Paris, where he has since resided. 

As a pianist Litolff 's rank is high ; fire, passion, 
and brilliancy of execution were combined with 
thought and taste in his playing. Had it been 
also correct, it would have reached the highest 
excellence. In his works, however, there is great 
inequality ; beautiful and poetic ideas are often 
marred by repetition and a want of order, and 
knowing what the author's true capacity is, the 
result is a feeling of •disappointment. About 115 
of his works, including several operas, have been 
published. Among the best of them may be 
reckoned some of his pianoforte pieces, such as 
the well-known ' Spinnlied,' a few of his overtures 
and his symphony-concertos, especially nos. 3, 1 4, 
and 5 ; the latter are remarkable for their wealth 
of original ideas in harmony, melody, and rhythm, 
and for their beautiful instrumentation. [A.H.W.] 

These have not taken place with regularity. The 

> Hayed at the Crystal Talace. by Mr. Oscar Beringcr, March 28. 1871. 



first was held in 1784, the next in 1790, and the 
next in 1799. They were then suspended till 
1823, 1830, and 1836 (Oct. 4-7, Sir G. Smart 
conductor), when Mendelssohn's 'St. Paul' was 
performed for the second time, and for the first 
time in England. Up to this date the concerts 
had been held in churches, but the next Festival 
took place at the Philharmonic Hall in 1874 
(Sept. 29-Oct. 1) — conductor Sir Julius Benedict. 
The St. George's Hall, containing rooms avail- 
able for music, was opened in September 1854. 

Liverpool has a Philharmonic Society, which 
was founded Jan. 10, 1840, and opened its hall 
Aug. 27, 49. There are twelve concerts every 
year, six before and six after Christmas. Sir 
Julius Benedict succeeded Mr. Alfred Mellon as 
conductor April 9, 67, and has been conductor 
ever since. — The Liverpool Musical Society, 
which formerly gave oratorio concerts in St. 
George's Hall, has been extinct since 1877. — The 
St. George's Hall has a very fine organ by 
Willis, on which performances are given by Mr. 
W. T. Best on Thursday evenings and Saturday 
afternoons and evenings. — Orchestral concerts 
are given by Mr. Charles Halle during the 
winter season in the Philharmonic Hall. [G.] 

LLOYD, Edwaed — son of Richard Lloyd, 
chorister, and afterwards assistant lay vicar of 
Westminster Abbey, and assistant vicar choral of 
St. Paul's (born March 12, 1813, died June 28, 
1853), and Louisa, sister of Dr. John Larkin 
Hopkins — was born March 7, 1 845, and received 
his early musical education in the choir of West- 
minster Abbey under James Turle. In 1 866 he 
obtained the appointment of tenor singer in the 
chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, which he 
resigned in 1867 on being appointed a Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, a post which he held about 
two years. He has since devoted himself en- 
tirely to concert singing. He made his first great 
success at Gloucester Festival, in 1871, in Bach's 
St. Matthew Passion -music, and in 1874 won 
universal admiration by his singing of ' Love in 
her eyes sits playing ' at the Handel Festival at the 
Crystal Palace. He has since gained increased 
reputation as an oratorio and concert singer. 
His voice is a pure tenor of excellent quality, and 
his style musician-like and finished. [W.H.H.] 

LOBE, Johann Christian, musician, and 
writer on music of some eminence, was born May 
30, 1797, at Weimar, and owed his musical in- 
struction to the Grand Duchess Maria Paulowna. 
The flute was his instrument, and after perform- 
ing a solo at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, in 1 8 1 1 , he 
settled at his native place as second flute in the 
Duke's band. He has written five operas, be- 
sides overtures for the orchestra, P.F. quartets, 
and other compositions. But it is as a littera- 
teur that he is most interesting to us. He 
resigned his place at Weimar in 1842, and in 
46 undertook the editing of the Allgem. mus. 
Zeitung of Leipzig, which he retained until the 
termination of that periodical in 48. In 1853 he 
began a publication called ' Fliegende Blatter fur 
Musik, of which about 20 numbers were pub- 
lished ; he then edited the musical department of 

the Leipzig Illustrirter Zeitung, and made end- 
less contributions to other periodicals. His prin- 
cipal books, some of which have appeared first in 
the periodicals, are ' Musikalische Briefe . . . von 
einer Wohlbekannten,' 2 vols, Leipzig, 1852 ; 
' Aus dem Leben eines Musiker' (lb. 59) ; a 
Catechism of Composition, and another of Music 
( both have been translated 1 ) ; ' Consonanzen und 
Dissonanzen' (lb. 1870); Lehrbuch der musik- 
alischen Composition (4 vols. lb. 1851 to 67). 
To the amateur student these works are all 
valuable, because they treat of the science of 
music in a plain and untechnical way, and are 
full of intelligence and good sense. The Musik- 
alische Briefe, a series of short sketches of the 
progress of music and of the characteristics of 
musicians, will be read with interest by many. 
Some conversations with Mendelssohn appear 
to be faithfully reported, and bring out some of 
his traits in a very amusing manner. [G.] 

LOBGESANG, eine Symphonie-Cantate. A 
well-known work of Mendelssohn's (op. 52), 
composed for the Gutenberg festival, and first 
performed at the church of S. Thomas, Leipzig, 
in the afternoon of June 25, 1840. The form of 
the work is no doubt due to Beethoven's 9th 
Symphony, and in Germany it is taken as the 
third of his published symphonies. It was 
performed the second time at Birmingham, 
Sept. 23, 1840 (Mendelssohn conducting) ; and 
after this performance was considerably altered 
throughout — including the addition of the 
entire scene of the Watchman — and published 
by Breitkopfs early in 1841. First performances, 
as published — Leipzig, Dec. 3, 1840 ; London, 
Sacred Harmonic Society, March 10, 1843. The 
selection of the words was doubtless in great 
measure Mendelssohn's own, though the title 
'Symphonie-Cantate' was Klingemann's. l The 
English adaptation was made with his concur- 
rence by Mr. J. A. Novello, to whom more of 
the English texts of Mendelssohn's works are 
due than is generally known. The phrase (a 
favourite one with Mendelssohn) with which the 
symphony opens, and which forms the coda to 
the entire work, is the Intonation to the 2nd 
Tone for the Magnificat. [G.] 

LOBKOWITZ. A noble and distinguished 
Austrian family, founded early in the 15th 
century, by Nicholas Chuzy von Ujezd, and 
deriving its name from a place in Bohemia. The 
country seat of the family is at Raudnitz, near 
Theresienstadt, and its town residence is the well- 
known palace on the Lobkowitz-Platz, Vienna. 
Two princes of this race have been closely and 
honourably connected with music. I. Ferdinand 
Philip was born at Prague April 17, 1724. By 
the death of his father and two elder brothers he 
became the head of the house before he was 15. 
Gluck was in his service, and was much aided 
in his early success by the assistance of the 
Prince. The two were present together at the 
coronation of Francis I. (Sept. 28, 1745) ; after 
which they went to London in company with the 

1 See Ueadeluohn's Letter, Nov. 18, 1840. 


Duke of Newcastle, who had represented the 
English Court at the coronation. There • Lobko- 
witz is said to have lived in a house of the 
Duke's for two years, and it was during this time 
that Gluck produced his operas at the King's 
Theatre, and appeared in public in the strange 
character of a performer on the musical glasses. 
[See Gluck, vol. i. 601 o; Harmonica, 662 a.] 
A story is told by Burney of his having com- 
posed a symphony bar by bar alternately 
with Emanuel Bach. The feat was an absurd 
one, but it at least shows that he had con- 
siderable practical knowledge of music. He 
died at Vienna, Jan. 11, 1784, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Josef Franz Maximilian, 
born Dec. 7, 1772. This is the prince whose 
name is so familiar to us in connection with 
Beethoven. He seems, notwithstanding the 
temptations of his immense early wealth, to have 
been an exemplary character, with no vices, and 
with no fault but an inconsiderate generosity 
rising to prodigality, which ultimately proved 
his ruin. He married Princess Marie Caroline 
Schwarzenberg, Aug. 2, 1792. His taste for 
music was an absorbing passion. He played 
both violin and cello, and had a splendid bass 
voice, which he cultivated thoroughly and with 
success. He maintained a complete establish- 
ment of orchestra, solo and chorus singers, with 
Wranitzky and Cartellieri at their head, for the 
performances of masses, oratorios, operas, sym- 
phonies, etc. When Beethoven arrived at Vienna 
in Nov. 1792, Lobkowitz was twenty, and the 
two young men soon became extremely intimate. 
True, beyond the frequent mention of his name 
in Ries's Recollections, there is not much 
definite proof of this 2 ; but it is conclusively 
shown by the works dedicated to him by Bee- 
thoven ; for we must remember that the dedication 
of a work by this most independent of composers, 
was, in nineteen cases out of twenty, a proof of 
esteem and affection. The works are these — and 
excepting those inscribed with the name of the 
Archduke Rudolph they form the longest and 
most splendid list of all his dedications : — 6 
Quartets, op. 18 (1801); Sinfonia Eroica, op. 55 
(1806) ; Triple Concerto, op. 56 (1807) 5 tne 
5th and 6th Symphonies — in C minor and Pas- 
torale (1809) — shared by Lobkowitz with 
Rasumowsky ; Quartet in Eb.op. 74 (18 10) ; and 
the Liederkreis, op. 98 (1 816). We must not sup- 
pose that the course of such a friendship as this be- 
tokens was always smooth ; the anecdote told on 
p. 167 of vol. i. of this work, shows that Prince 
Lobkowitz, like all the intimates of Beethoven, 
and other men of genius, had occasionally a good 
deal to put up with. No doubt the Prince was a 
kind and generous friend to the composer. It 
was he who advised him to apply for the position 
of composer to the opera, and promoted two pro- 
fitable concerts for him in his own palace and 
with his own band in 1807. Two years later 
he joined Kinsky and the Archduke in subscrib- 

1 Comp. Burner, Hist. iv. 452. 

* Beethoven nicknames him 'Prince Fltzll PutzlT— but then he 
nicknames every one. 



ing to Beethoven's annuity, contributing 700 
florins (paper) per annum. On Jan. 1, 1807, an 
association of noblemen, with Lobkowitz at its 
head, took charge of the Court theatres, and 
during 1810, 11, and 12, the Prince had the sole 
direction of the opera. The anecdotes by eye- 
witnesses of his tact and generosity in this posi- 
tion are many, but we have no room for them 
here. Nor are others wanting to testify to his 
enlightened zeal in reference to other musicians 
beside Beethoven. He was one of the promoters 
and founders of the great ' Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde ' in Vienna, and sang the bass 
solos at the second performance of Alexander's 
Feast, Dec. 3, 1812 [See Vol. i. p. 591]. He 
had Haydn's ' Creation ' translated into Bohe- 
mian, and performed it at Raudnitz. In addi- 
tion to his great expenditure on music, he, like 
Kinsky, raised, equipped, and maintained a body 
of riflemen during the campaign of 1809. At 
length came the depreciation in the Austrian 
currency, the bankruptcy of the Government, and 
the Finance-patent of 181 1. Lobkowitz was 
unable to change his habits or reduce his ex- 
penditure, and in 1813 his affairs were put into 
the hands of trustees, and he left Vienna for the 
smaller spheres of Prague and Raudnitz. By 
the Finance-patent Beethoven's 700 florins were 
reduced to 280 flor. 26 kr. in Einlosungsscheine 
— all that the trustees had power to pay. Bee- 
thoven was clamorous, and his letters are full 
of complaints against the Prince — most unjust as 
it turned out, for early in 181 5, through the 
Prince's own exertions the original amount was 
restored with arrears. Beethoven acknowledged 
this by the dedication of the Liederkreis. On 
Jan. 24, 1816, the Princess Lobkowitz died, and 
in less than a year, on Dec. 16, i8i6» was followed 
by her husband. 3 [A. W. T.] 

LOCATELLI, Pietro, a celebrated violinist, 
was born — like Lolli and Piatti — at Bergamo 
in 1693, and was still very young when he 
became a pupil of Corelli at Rome. Very little 
is known of his life, but he appears to have 
travelled a good deal, and finally to have settled 
at Amsterdam, where he established regular 
public concerts, and died in 1 764. 

There can be no doubt that Locatelli was a 
great and original virtuoso. As a composer we 
must distinguish between a number of caprices 
and e'tudes — which he evidently wrote merely 
for practice, to suit his exceptional powers of 
execution, and which have no musical value — and 
the sonatas and concertos, which contain very 
graceful and pathetic movements, and certainly 
prove him to have been an excellent musician. 
In these serious works he certainly shows him- 
self as a worthy disciple of his great master. 
All the more striking is the contrast when we 
look at his caprices and etudes. Here his sole 
aim appears to have been to endeavour to 
enlarge the powers of execution on the violin at 
any price, and no doubt in this respect he has 
succeeded only too well; for, not content with 

■ For fuller details of the Lobkowitz family the reader Is referred to a 
paper by Mr. Thayer in the Musical World of May 17, 24. 31, 1879. 



legitimately developing the natural resources of 
the instrument, he oversteps all reasonable limits, 
and aims at effects which, being adverse to the 
very nature of the violin, are neither beautiful 
nor musical, but ludicrous and absurd. A 
striking example of this tendency of his is to 
be found in a caprice entitled, • Le Labyrinth,' 
where the following arpeggio passages occur : — 












Op. 1. Twelve concert! grossi. Am- 
sterdam, 1721. 

2. Sonatas for flute. Amster- 

dam, 1732. 

3. L'arte del violino, contain- 

ing 12 concert! grossi and 
24 caprices. 173S. 

4. Six concertos. 1735. 

5. Six sonatas en trio. 1737. 

~P etc] 

This savours strongly of charlatanism, and it 
is astonishing to find a direct pupil of Corelli 
one of the first to introduce such senseless feats 
of execution into the art of violin-playing. 
Wasielewsky not unjustly speaks of him as the 
great-grandfather of our modern ' Finger-heroes ' 

Locatelli published ten different 'works:— 

Op. 6. Six sonatas for violin solo. 

7. Six concert! a quattro. 1741. 

8. Trios. 2 violins and bass. 

9. L'arte di nuova modulazi- 
one. Caprices enigma- 

10. Contrasto armonico: con- 
certos a quattro. 

Modern editions of some of his Sonatas and 
Caprices have been issued by Witting, Alard, and 
David. His Sonata di Camera in G minor has 
lately been played at the Monday Popular Con- 
certs by Mme. Norman Neruda. [P. D.] 

LOCHABER NO MORE, an air claimed both 
for Scotland and Ireland, of which some two or 
three versions are extant. The source of these 
is in Ssottish minstrelsy called ' Lord Ronald 
(or, according to Sir W. Scott, Eandal) mj T son.' 
The air in Ireland is known as ' Limerick's 
lamentation,' from a tradition associating its 
plaintive melody with the events that followed 
the second capitulation of Limerick, in 1690, when 
at the embarkation of the Irish soldiery at Cork 
for France, their wives and children were forc- 
ibly separated from them under circumstances 
of unusual barbarity. The Scottish and Irish 
airs are here compared. 

' Lord Ronald my son ' (one strain only). 

EfcGEH ^ B " I ' * » ^ I k . 

1 From I?<!tis, ' Biogr. Universelle.' 


' Limerick's Lamentation.' 


; Lodiaber.' 

iTaTJ. l , r i | J..r. ri li 1 jJ3 | JJj3 



1— t-f 


i^3P=S5? i=£f fff?^RI 

The verses 'Farewell to Lochaber,' ending 
'And then I'll leave thee and Lochaber no 
more,' were written by Allan Ramsay. Burns 
recovered in Ayrshire two verses of the old 
ballad ' Lord Ronald,' in conjunction with this 
tune : he is recorded to have exclaimed, on 
hearing Lochaber played on the harpsichord, 
' Oh, that '8 a fine tune for a broken heart ! ' 

The Irish air lies in the fourth and last of the 
scales given in the article on Irish Music [vol. 
ii. p. 20 a], having its semitones between 3 and 4, 
6 and 7 ; it is also marked by traces of the 
narrative form characteristic of ancient Irish 
melody. In the Leyden MS., a Scottish relic of 
1690 or thereabouts, in tablature for the Lyra- 
Viol, a tune closely allied to the above airs 
is given as 'King James' March to JrlamV 
James is known to have landed at Kinsale, 
March 12, 1689. On comparison of the ver- 
sions, in bar 6 of the 1st and bar 3 of the 2nd 
strain the Irish air appears to most advantage : 
the skip of a major ninth in Lochaber is most 
likely a corruption : it is certainly characteristic 
of neither Irish nor Scottish melody : Mr. Moore 
(who is supported both by Bunting and Holden 
in claiming for Ireland this beautiful air) is in 
his prefaces to the Irish Melodies rather severe 
upon the Scots for stealing not only Irish airs, 
but Irish saints. 

An interesting example of the effect of 
' Lochaber no more ' is given by Robert Nicholl. 
■ During the expedition to Buenos Ayres, a High- 
land soldier while a prisoner in the hands of the 


Spaniards, having formed an attachment to 
a woman of the country, and charmed by the 
easy life which the tropical fertility of the soil 
enabled them to lead, had resolved to remain 
and settle in South America. When he im- 
parted this resolution to his comrade, the latter 
did not argue with him, but, leading him to his 
tent, he placed him by his side, and sang him 
" Lochaber no more." The spell was on him, the 
tears came into his eyes, and wrapping his plaid 
around him, he murmured "Lochaber nae mair — 

I maun gang back — Na ! " The songs of his 
childhood were ringing in his ears, and he left 
that land of ease and plenty for the naked rocks 
and sterile valleys of Badenoch, where, at the 
close of a life of toil and hardship, he might lay 
his head in his mother's grave.' [R.P.S.] 

LOCK, Matthew, born at Exeter, was a 
chorister of the cathedral there under Edward 
Gibbons, and afterwards studied under Wake. 
He and Christopher Gibbons composed the music 
for Shirley's masque, ' Cupid and Death,' ' repre- 
sented at the Military Ground in Leicester Fields' 
before the Portuguese Ambassador, March 26, 
1653. In 1656 he published his 'Little Consort 
of Three Parts ' for viols or violins, composed, as 
he tells us, at the request of his old master and 
friend, William Wake, for his scholars. He 
composed the music, ' for y e king's sagbutts and 
cornets,' performed during the progress of Charles 

II from the Tower through the city to Whitehall 
on April 22, 1661, the day before his coronation, 
for which he received the appointment of Com- 
poser in Ordinary to the King. He composed 
several anthems for the Chapel Royal, and on 
April 1, 1666, produced there a Kyrie and Credo, 
in which he departed from the ordinary usage 
by composing different music to each response. 
This occasioned some opposition on the part of 
the choir, in consequence of which he published 
his composition, with an angry preface, on a 
folio sheet, under the title of ' Modern Church 
Music ; Pre-Accused, Censur'd, and Obstructed 
in its Performance before His Majesty, April 1, 
1666, Vindicated by the Author, Matt. Lock, 
Composer in Ordinary to His Majesty.' (Of this 
publication, now excessively rare, there is a copy 
in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society). 
To this period may probably be assigned the pro- 
duction of 13 anthems for 3 and 4 voices, all 
contained in the same autograph MS., which 
Roger North describes as ' Psalmes to musick in 
parts for the use of some vertuoso ladyes in the 
city.' Soon afterwards, having, it is supposed, 
become a convert to the Romish faith, he was 
appointed organist to the queen. He had in 
1664 composed 'the instrumental, vocal, and 
recitative music' for Sir Robert Stapylton's tragi- 
comedy, 'The Stepmother,' and in 1670 renewed 
his connection with the theatre by furnishing the 
instrumental music for Dryden and Davenant's 
alteration of 'The Tempest,' the vocal music 
being supplied by Humfrey and Banister. In 
1672 Davenant's alteration of 'Macbeth,' with 
the songs and choruses from MiddlttonV Witch' 
introduced, was produced at the theatre in Dorset 



Garden ; and Downes, the prompter, in his ' Ros- 
cius Anglicanus,' 1706, expressly states that the 
vocal music was composed by Lock. The very 
remarkable music then performed remained un- 
published until about the middle of the last 
century, when it appeared under the editorial 
care of Dr. Boyce, with Lock's name as composer, 
and as his it was long undisputedly accepted. 
But Downes's proved inaccuracy in some other 
things at length occasioned doubts of the correct- 
ness of his statement as to the authorship of the 
Macbeth music, and eventually Lock's right to it 
was denied and its composition claimed by some 
for Purcell, by others for Eccles, and by others 
again for Leveridge. No positive proof however 
has been adduced in support of any one of these 
claims, and until such is forthcoming it would 
be premature to set aside the long standing tra- 
ditional attribution of the music to Lock. [See 
Macbeth Music] In 1673 Lock composed 
the music (with the exception of the act tunes, 
by Draghi) for Shad well's 'Psyche,' which he 
published in 1675, under the title of 'The Eng- 
lish Opera,' together with his 'Tempest' music, 
prefaced by some observations, written with his 
usual asperity, but curious as an exposition of 
his views of the proper form for opera. The 
work itself is constructed upon the model of 
Lully's operas. In 1672 an extraordinary con- 
troversy commenced between Lock and Thomas 
Salmon, who had published 'An Essay to the 
Advancement of Musick by casting away the 
perplexity of different cliffs and writing all sorts 
of musick in one universal character.' Lock at- 
tacked the work in 'Observations upon a late 
book entitled An Essay etc.,' written in a most 
acrimonious and abusive tone, to which Salmon 
replied in ' A Vindication ' of his essay, bristling 
with scurrility, and Lock in 1673 retorted in 
'The Present Practice of Music vindicated &c. 
To which is added Duellum Musicum, by John 
Phillips [Milton's nephew]. Together with % 
Letter from John Playford to Mr. T. Salmon in 
confutation of his Essay,' which closed the dis- 
pute. Of its merits it is sufficient to observe 
that the old practice has continued in use to this 
day, whilst Salmon's proposed innovation was 
never accepted, and probably, but for the notice 
taken of it by Lock, would have long ago passed 
into oblivion. In 1673 Lock published a small 
treatise entitled ' Melothesia, or Certain General 
Rules for playing upon a Continued Bass, with a 
choice Collection of Lessons for the Harpsichord or 
Organ of all sorts,' said to be the first of the kind 
published in England. 1 His compositions were 
numerous and various. His anthem, 'Lord, let 
me know mine end,' was printed by Boyce, and 
several other anthems exist in MS. in the Tudway 
collection, the Fitzwilliam Museum, at West- 
minster Abbey, Ely, and elsewhere. Some an- 
thems and Latin hymns are in 'Cantica Sacra, 
2nd set,' 1674 ; some hymns in ' Harmonia Sacra,' 
1688 and 1714; songs in 'The Treasury of 

' William Penny's ' Art of Composition, or. Directions to play a 
Thorow Bass ' is mentioned in Clarel's ' Catalogue of Books printed In 
England since the Dreadful Fire,' 1670, and In a catalogue of Henry 
l'la} ford's, but no copy has been found. 




Musick,' 1669 ; 'Choice Ayres, Songs and Dia- 
logues,' 1676-84; and 'The Theater of Music,' 
1687 ; and eight three-part vocal compositions 
by liini (including ' Ne'er trouble thyself at the 
times or their turning,' reprinted in some modern 
collections) in 'The Musical Companion,' 1667. 
Instrumental compositions by him are printed in 
'Courtly Masquing Ayres,' 1662; 'Musick's 
Delight on the Cithern,' 1666; 'Apollo's Ban- 
quet,' 1669; 'Musick's Handmaid,' 1678 (re- 
printed in J. S. Smith's 'Musica Antiqua'); 
and Greeting's 'Pleasant Companion,' 1680. In 
several of these is 'A Dance in the Play of 
Macbeth,' evidently written for an earlier version 
than Davenant's. 1 The library of the Sacred 
Harmonic Society contains the autograph MS. of 
a ' Consort of fFoure Parts ' for viols, containing 
six suites, each consisting of a fant